Manila City Council

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Manila City Council
Sangguniang Panlungsod ng Maynila
10th Manila City Council
Term limits
3 terms (9 years)
Presiding Officer
Ma. Sheilah "Honey" Lacuna-Pangan
Seats 38 councilors
1 ex officio presiding officer
Length of term
3 years
Authority Manila City Charter
Local Government Code of the Philippines
Plurality-at-large voting (36 seats)
Indirect elections (2 seats)
Last election
May 9, 2016
Next election
May 13, 2019
Meeting place
10th Manila City Council
Manila City Hall

The Manila City Council (Filipino: Sangguniang Panlungsod ng Maynila) or the city's legislature is composed of 38 councilors, with 36 councilors elected from Manila's six councilor districts (coextensive with the Legislative districts of Manila) and two councilors elected from the ranks of barangay (neighborhood) chairmen and the Sangguniang Kabataan (SK; youth councils). The presiding officer of the council is the Vice Mayor, who is elected citywide.

The council is responsible for creating laws and ordinances under Manila's jurisdiction. The mayor can veto proposed bills, but the council can override it with a two-thirds supermajority.


After the Spanish incorporated Manila as a city in 1571, membership to the council was originally restricted to them. In June 24, 1571 (which would later be declared as Manila Day), the municipal government, or the Cabildo was established, consisting of two mayors, twelve councilors and a secretary. The mayor was chosen by lottery, with councilors nominating four candidates, with two candidates being drawn to serve as mayors.[1]

In 1689, the council ordered the expulsion on non-Christian Chinese in the city, leading to a decline in Chinese population by 1700.[2]

This would be the setup until 1901, after the Americans took control of the islands. In that year, the new American insular government instituted a municipal board consisting of a Filipino mayor, a Filipino member, and three American members all nominated by the Americans. An advisory board was included, with all eleven members being Filipinos, representing each of Manila's 11 wards. In 1916, the advisory board was abolished, and the municipal board was increased to ten members, all of them elected by Filipinos, although the mayor was still appointed. In 1949, the Revised City Charter modified the board's composition: now, the five members of the House of Representatives of the Philippines from the city are its members, with the vice mayor becoming its presiding officer. After the declaration of martial law in 1972, President Ferdinand Marcos abolished the board in 1975.[1]

After the People Power Revolution, the municipal board was revived, which gradually evolved into the present-day city council. The 1987 constitution finalized today's setup when it divided the city into six districts, with each district electing six councilors, plus two more councilors from the barangay captains and SK president. Elections to the new city council was in 1988.[1]

After actress Claire Danes stated in an interview with Premiere that Manila "smelled of cockroaches, with rats all over and that there is no sewerage system and the people do not have anything, no arms, no legs, no eyes," Councilor Kim Atienza sponsored a resolution banning all of Danes' films in the city. While Atienza said that Danes' earlier interview with Vogue where she said that "ghastly and weird city" were forgivable, her statements in Premiere were "irresponsible sweeping statements." After the council approved the measure on a 23–3 vote on 1998, Councilor Julio Logarta, one of the dissenters, said that ban curtailed freedom of expression, and questioned the council's authority to ban film screenings.[3]

In 2006, the council banned the screening of the film The Da Vinci Code in the city.[4] In a unanimous resolution allowing Mayor Lito Atienza to prohibit screenings, the resolution cited the constitution's freedom of exercise of religion, and the Revised Penal Code of the Philippines which states that it is a crime to exhibit films which offend a religion. Councilor Benjamin Asilo also cited an earlier ordinance which "prohibits the showing of obscene and immoral movies, including those that are contrary to morals, good customs, religious beliefs, principles or doctrines."[4]

In July 2012, the city is on track on following neighboring cities in Metro Manila by passing an ordinance on second reading banning the use of plastics and polystyrene. The proposed ordinance aims to prevent perennial flooding in the city, and to reduce debris flowing to the Pasig River.[5]

In the ongoing controversy on the status of the Pandacan Oil Depot, the council on September 2012 overrode Mayor Alfredo Lim's veto. This meant the oil depots would have to ((be)) transferred by 2016.[6]


The council sits at the Manila City Hall. Starting in 2012, its session hall is powered via solar panels, which were made in Taiwan. In its inauguration, Vice Mayor Isko Moreno remarked that "The City of Manila will be the first to use this kind of technology here in the Philippines."[7]

The Spanish-era cabildo met at the Ayuntamiento de Manila, also known as the Casas Consistoriales, in Intramuros.


Each of Manila's six councilor districts elects six councilors to the council. In plurality-at-large voting, a voter may vote up to six candidates, with the candidates having the six highest number of votes being elected. In addition, the barangay chairmen and the SK chairmen throughout the city elect amongst themselves their representatives to the council. Hence, there are 38 councilors.

City council elections are synchronized with other elections in the country. Elections are held every first Monday of May every third year since 1992.

Current members[edit]

Presiding Officer, Vice Mayor Dra. Ma. Sheilah "Honey" Lacuna-Pangan

Presiding Officer Pro-Tempore: Antonio Archimedes Matias G. Capistrano

Majority Leader: Atty. Casimiro Sison

Minority Leader: Rodolfo Lacsamana

Majority Whip: Anna Katrina Puzon-Yupangco

Minority Whip: Laris Borromeo

1st Assistant Majority: Leader Ernesto G. Dionisio, Sr.

2nd Assistant Majority: Leader Edward M. Tan

1st Assistant Minority: Leader Atty. Eduardo Quintos XVI

2nd Assistant Minority: Leader Joey Hizon III

Secretary to the City Council: Atty. Luch R. Gempis, Jr.

Assistant Secretary to the City Council: Joshue R. Santiago

Name District Term Vote an Position Block
Niño dela Cruz 1 2010-JUNE-30-2019-JUNE-30 50,831 Councilor Majority
Ruben Buenaventura 2 1998-JUNE-30-2007-JUNE-30; 2010-JUNE-30-2019-JUNE-30 49,450 Councilor Majority
Ramon Robles 2 2010-JUNE-30-2019-JUNE-30 49,218 Councilor Majority
Rodolfo Lacsamana 2 2010-JUNE-30-2019-JUNE-30 47,524 Councilor Majority
Rolando Valeriano 2 2004-JUNE-30-2010-JUNE-30; 2013-JUNE-30-2019-JUNE-30 53,986 Councilor Minority
Maria Asuncion Fugoso 3 1998-JUNE-30-2007-JUNE-30; 2010-JUNE-30-2019-JUNE-30 67,663 Councilor Minority
Bernardito Ang 3 1988-February-3-1995-JUNE-30; 1998-JUNE-30-2007-JUNE-30; 2010-JUNE-30-2019-JUNE-30 54,269 Councilor Minority
Manuel Zarcal 3 1992-JUNE-30-1998-JUNE-30; 2001-JUNE-30-2010-JUNE-30; 2013-JUNE-30-2019-JUNE-30 51,252 Councilor Minority
Krystle Marie C. Bacani 4 2015-MARCH-17-2019-JUNE-30 62,793 Councilor Majority
Antonio Archimedes Matias G. Capistrano 4 2013-JUNE-30-2019-JUNE-30 47,559 Councilor Majority
Roberto Ortega, Jr. 5 1998-JUNE-30-2007-JUNE-30; 2010-JUNE-30-2019-JUNE-30 63,904 Councilor Majority
Joey Hizon III 5 2013-JUNE-30-2019-JUNE-30 61,537 Councilor Majority
Atty. Casimiro Sison 6 1992-JUNE-30-1995-JUNE-30; 1998-JUNE-30-2007-JUNE-30; 2010-JUNE-30-2019-JUNE-30 57,656 Councilor Majority
Elizabeth Rivera 6 1998-JUNE-30-2007-JUNE-30; 2010-JUNE-30-2019-JUNE-30 59,840 Councilor Majority
Atty. Priscilla Marie Abante-Barquia 6 2013-JUNE-30-2019-JUNE-30 61,007 Councilor Minority
Christian Paul Uy 6 2013-JUNE-30-2019-JUNE-30 61,914 Councilor Majority
Joel Par 6 2013-JUNE-30-2019-JUNE-30 56,418 Councilor Majority
Salvador Lacuna None 2007-NOVEMBER-30-Present 799 President Liga ng Mga Barangay Manila Chapter Minority
Jesus Taga M. Fajardo, Sr. 1 2008-DECEMBER-1-2010-JUNE-30; 2016-JUNE-30-2019-JUNE-30 59,472 Councilor Majority
Ernesto G. Dionisio, Sr. 1 1988-February-3-1992-JUNE-30; 1995-JUNE-30-1998-JUNE-30; 2004-JUNE-30-2007-JUNE-30; 2016-JUNE-30-2019-JUNE-30 87,218 Councilor Majority
Moises T. Lim 1 2007-JUNE-30-2013-JUNE-30; 2016-JUNE-30-2019-JUNE-30 68,448 Councilor Majority
Martin V. Isidro, Jr. 1 1998-JUNE-30-2007-JUNE-30; 2016-JUNE-30-2019-JUNE-30 62,704 Councilor Minority
Edward M. Tan 2 1998-JUNE-30-2007-JUNE-30; 2010-JUNE-30-2013-JUNE-30; 2016-JUNE-30-2019-JUNE-30 47,156 Councilor Majority
Atty. Eduardo Quintos XIV 4 1998-JUNE-30-2007-JUNE-30; 2016-JUNE-30-2019-JUNE-30 45,356 Councilor Minority
Dr. Luisito Chua 4 2004-JUNE-30-2013-JUNE-30; 2016-JUNE-30-2019-JUNE-30 65,107 Councilor Minority
Atty. Eduardo Quintos XVI 4 2010-JUNE-30-2013-JUNE-30; 2016-JUNE-30-2019-JUNE-30 46,829 Councilor Majority
Peter Ong 1 2016-JUNE-30-2019-JUNE-30 50,480 Councilor Majority
Macario "Macky" Lacson 2 2016-JUNE-30-2019-JUNE-30 38,570 Councilor Minority
Atty. Grace Chua 3 2016-JUNE-30-2019-JUNE-30 46,183 Councilor Minority
Maile Atienza 3 2016-JUNE-30-2019-JUNE-30 50,279 Councilor Majority
Terrence Alibarbar 3 2016-JUNE-30-2019-JUNE-30 38,993 Councilor Minority
Joel T. Villanueva 4 2016-JUNE-30-2019-JUNE-30 45,329 Councilor Minority
William Irwin Tieng 5 2016-JUNE-30-2019-JUNE-30 67,702 Councilor Majority
Anna Katrina Puzon-Yupangco 5 2016-JUNE-30-2019-JUNE-30 49,085 Councilor Majority
Laris Borromeo 5 2016-JUNE-30-2019-JUNE-30 62,216 Councilor Majority
Ricardo Isip, Jr. 5 2016-JUNE-30-2019-JUNE-30 49,830 Councilor Majority
Carlos "Caloy" Castañeda 6 2016-JUNE-30-2019-JUNE-30 56,979 Councilor Majority

Prominent councilors[edit]

Former Manila City Council Members[edit]

Name District Term
Leilani Marie Lacuna 6 2013-JUNE-30-2016-JUNE-30
Arnold "Ali" Atienza 5 2013-JUNE-30-2016-JUNE-30
Science Reyes 4 2013-JUNE-30-2016-JUNE-30
Roberto Asilo 1 2013-JUNE-30-2016-JUNE-30
Don Juan "DJ" Bagatsing 4 2010-JUNE-30-2016-JUNE-30
Erick Ian Nieva 1 2007-JUNE-30-2016-JUNE-30
Dennis Alcoreza 1 2007-JUNE-30-2016-JUNE-30
Ernesto M. Dionisio, Jr. 1 2007-JUNE-30-2016-JUNE-30
Numero Lim 2 2007-JUNE-30-2016-JUNE-30
Atty. Joel Chua 3 2007-JUNE-30-2016-JUNE-30
Atty. Ernesto Isip, Jr. 3 2007-JUNE-30-2016-JUNE-30
Yul Servo Nieto 3 2007-JUNE-30-2016-JUNE-30
Jocelyn Quintos 4 2007-JUNE-30-2016-JUNE-30
Cristina A. Isip 5 2007-JUNE-30-2016-JUNE-30
Josefina Siscar 5 2007-JUNE-30-2016-JUNE-30
Raymundo Yupangco 5 2007-JUNE-30-2016-JUNE-30
Irma Alfonso 1 1998-JUNE-30-2007-JUNE-30; 2010-JUNE-30-2016-JUNE-30
Atty. Marlon Lacson 2 1995-JUNE-30-2004-JUNE-30; 2007-JUNE-30-2016-JUNE-30
Atty. Edward VP. Maceda 4 1995-JUNE-30-2004-JUNE-30; 2007-JUNE-30-2016-JUNE-30
Arlene Chua 4 2013-JUNE-30-2016-JUNE-30 (term cut short citizenship issues 2015-MARCH-16)
Rafael P. Borromeo 5 2007-JUNE-30-2013-JUNE-30
Ramon Morales 3 2006-FEBRUARY-15-2013-JUNE-30
Ma. Sheilah H. Lacuna-Pangan 4 2004-JUNE-30-2013-JUNE-30
Danilo H. Lacuna, Jr. 6 2004-JUNE-30-2013-JUNE-30
Luis C. Uy 6 2004-JUNE-30-2013-JUNE-30
Richard C. Ibay 5 1998-JUNE-30-2007-JUNE-30; 2010-JUNE-30-2013-JUNE-30
Jocelyn Dawis-Asuncion 6 1995-JUNE-30-2004-JUNE-30; 2007-JUNE-30-2013-JUNE-30
Lou Veloso 6 1995-JUNE-30-2004-JUNE-30; 2007-JUNE-30-2013-JUNE-30
Corazon C. Gernale 5 2007-JUNE-30-2010-JUNE-30
Roderick Valbuena 5 2007-JUNE-30-2010-JUNE-30
Roberto B. Oca III 3 2009-JULY-24-2010-JUNE-30
Arlene W. Koa 1 2001-JUNE-30-2010-JUNE-30
Amalia Tolentino 4 2001-JUNE-30-2010-JUNE-30
Ivy A. Varona 2 2007-JUNE-30-2010-JUNE-30
Carlo V. Lopez 2 2007-JUNE-30-2010-JUNE-30
Abelardo C. Viceo 2 1995-JUNE-30-2001-JUNE-30; 2004-JUNE-30-2010-JUNE-30
Ma. Lourdes Isip-Garcia 6 1992-JUNE-30-1998-JUNE-30; 2004-JUNE-30-2010-JUNE-30
Victoriano A. Melendez 4 1988-February-3-1998-JUNE-30; 2001-JUNE-30-2010-JUNE-30
Atty. Ernesto F. Rivera 6 1988-February-3-1998-JUNE-30; 2007-JUNE-30-2010-JUNE-30
Monina U. Silva 3 2004-JUNE-30-2010-JUNE-30 (Died-2009-July-23)
Rolando Y. Sy 1 2007-JUNE-30-2008-NOVEMBER-30
Greco Belgica 6 2004-JUNE-30-2007-JUNE-30
Benjamin D. Asilo 1 2001-JUNE-30-2007-JUNE-30
Nelissa F. Beltran 2 2001-JUNE-30-2007-JUNE-30
Atty. Juan Miguel T. Cuna 5 2001-JUNE-30-2007-JUNE-30
Isko Moreno 1 1998-JUNE-30-2007-JUNE-30
Pacifico Laxa 2 1998-JUNE-30-2007-JUNE-30
Atty. Ma. Theresa B. Bonoan-David 4 1998-JUNE-30-2007-JUNE-30
Ricardo S. Isip, Sr. 5 1998-JUNE-30-2007-JUNE-30
Cita P. Astals 5 1998-JUNE-30-2007-JUNE-30
Roger G. Gernale 5 1995-JUNE-30-2001-JUNE-30; 2004-JUNE-30-2007-JUNE-30
Alex C. Co 3 1988-February-3-1992-JUNE-30; 1995-JUNE-30-2001-JUNE-30; 2004-JUNE-30-2007-JUNE-30
Atty. Jhosep Y. Lopez (CA Justice) 3 1992-JUNE-30-1998-JUNE-30; 2001-JUNE-30-2007-JUNE-30 (City Prosecutor of Manila 2006-February-14)
Danilo Varona 2 1998-JUNE-30-2004-JUNE-30
Don Ramon A. Bagatsing 4 1998-JUNE-30-2004-JUNE-30
Patrick S. Ocampo 6 1998-JUNE-30-2004-JUNE-30
Larry Silva 3 1995-JUNE-30-2004-JUNE-30
Miles M. Roces 3 1995-JUNE-30-2004-JUNE-30
Kim Atienza 5 1995-JUNE-30-2004-JUNE-30
Abraham Cabochan 1 1988-February-3-1992-JUNE-30; 1995-JUNE-30-2004-JUNE-30
Julio E. Logarta, Jr. 6 1988-February-3-1992-JUNE-30; 1995-JUNE-30-2004-JUNE-30
Nicolas R. Monzon 1 1998-JUNE-30-1999-DECEMBER-31
Ernesto P. Logarta, Jr. 3 1998-JUNE-30-2001-JUNE-30
Gonzalo Gonzales 1 1992-JUNE-30-2001-JUNE-30
Ma. Paz E. Herrera 4 1992-JUNE-30-2001-JUNE-30
Gerino A. Tolentino, Jr. 4 1992-JUNE-30-2001-JUNE-30
Atty. Alberto A. Domingo 1 1988-February-3-1995-JUNE-30; 2000-JANUARY-1-2001-JUNE-30
Rodolfo C. Bacani 4 1995-JUNE-30-1998-JUNE-30
Pablo Dario G. Ocampo IV 5 1995-JUNE-30-1998-JUNE-30
Grepor B. Belgica 6 1995-JUNE-30-1998-JUNE-30
Roberto C. Ocampo, Sr. 1 1992-JUNE-30-1998-JUNE-30
Avelino S. Cailian 1 1992-JUNE-30-1998-JUNE-30
Danilo V. Roleda 4 1992-JUNE-30-1998-JUNE-30
Joey D. Hizon, Sr. 5 1992-JUNE-30-1998-JUNE-30
Felixberto D. Espiritu 5 1992-JUNE-30-1998-JUNE-30
Ernesto A. Nieva 1 1988-February-3-1998-JUNE-30
Nestor C. Ponce, Jr. 2 1988-February-3-1998-JUNE-30
Francisco G. Varona, Jr. 2 1988-February-3-1998-JUNE-30
Flaviano F. Concepcion, Jr. 2 1988-February-3-1998-JUNE-30
Humberto B. Basco 2 1988-February-3-1998-JUNE-30
Pedro S. De Jesus 3 1988-February-3-1998-JUNE-30
Rogelio P. Dela Paz 5 1988-February-3-1998-JUNE-30
Honorio Lopez II 1 1992-JUNE-30-1995-JUNE-30
Chika G. Go 3 1992-JUNE-30-1995-JUNE-30
Manuel L. Quin 3 1992-JUNE-30-1995-JUNE-30
Estrella S. Querubin 5 1992-JUNE-30-1995-JUNE-30
Bernardo D. Ragasa 5 1992-JUNE-30-1995-JUNE-30
Alexander S. Ricafort 6 1992-JUNE-30-1995-JUNE-30
Bienvenido M. Abante, Jr. 6 1992-JUNE-30-1995-JUNE-30
Romeo G. Rivera 2 1988-February-3-1995-JUNE-30
Romualdo S. Maranan 2 1988-February-3-1995-JUNE-30
Atty. Ernesto V. P. Maceda, Jr. 4 1988-February-3-1995-JUNE-30
Rolando P. Nieto 4 1988-February-3-1995-JUNE-30
Karlo A. Butiong 5 1988-February-3-1995-JUNE-30
Ma. Corazon P. Caballes 6 1988-February-3-1995-JUNE-30
Marites H. Martinez 3 1988-OCTOBER-15-1992-JUNE-30
Pedro Alfonso 1 1988-February-3-1992-JUNE-30
Rosenda Ann M. Ocampo 6 1988-February-3-1992-JUNE-30
Reynaldo B. Jose 1 1988-February-3-1992-JUNE-30
Saturnino C. Herrera 3 1988-February-3-1992-JUNE-30 (Died-1988-October-14)
Susana M. Ong 3 1988-February-3-1992-JUNE-30
Nemesio C. Garcia 3 1988-February-3-1992-JUNE-30
Emilio C. Bonoan 4 1988-February-3-1992-JUNE-30
Eduardo Quintos V 4 1988-February-3-1992-JUNE-30
Jaime L. Dela Rosa 4 1988-February-3-1992-JUNE-30
Susano F. Gonzalez, Jr. 5 1988-February-3-1992-JUNE-30
Rufino S. Bunsoy 5 1988-February-3-1992-JUNE-30
Ponciano D. Subido 5 1988-February-3-1992-JUNE-30
Arturo E. Valenzona 5 1988-February-3-1992-JUNE-30
Benedicto D. Dorado 6 1988-February-3-1992-JUNE-30
Manuel S. Isip 6 1988-February-3-1992-JUNE-30
Marissa Papa Liga President 2007-JUNE-30-2007-NOVEMBER-30-(Liga ng Mga Barangay Manila Chapter)
Carlos "Caloy" Castañeda Liga President 2004-JUNE-30-2007-JUNE-30-(Liga ng Mga Barangay Manila Chapter)
Natalio F. Beltran III Liga President 1997-JUNE-30-2004-JUNE-30-(Liga ng Mga Barangay Manila Chapter)
Luningning F. Go Liga President 1994-JUNE-30-1997-JUNE-30-(Liga ng Mga Barangay Manila Chapter)
Leonardo Angat Liga President 1989-JUNE-30-1994-JUNE-30-(Liga ng Mga Barangay Manila Chapter)
Tagumpay Eusebio Liga President 1986-JUNE-30-1989-JUNE-30-(Liga ng Mga Barangay Manila Chapter)

Former Manila City Council Members[edit]

Name District Term
Gemiliano Lopez, Jr. 1 1967-December-30–1975-December-31
Cesar T. Lucero Jr. 1 1967-December-30–1975-December-31
Ben Rubio Ronquillo 1 1967-December-30–1975-December-31
Ambrosio L. Lorenzo Jr. 2 1967-December-30–1975-December-31
Alfonso V. Mendoza Jr. 2 1967-December-30–1975-December-31
Hermogenes Pablo 2 1967-December-30–1975-December-31
Atty. Danilo Lacuna, Sr. 3 1967-December-30–1975-December-31
Carlos Loyzaga 3 1967-December-30–1975-December-31
Avelina V. Villacorta 3 1967-December-30–1975-December-31
Jose S. Brillantes 4 1967-December-30–1975-December-31
Manuel S. Isip 4 1967-December-30–1975-December-31
Gonzalo Puyat III 4 1967-December-30–1975-December-31
Manuel Uy, Jr. 4 1967-December-30–1975-December-31
Jose Pete Villanueva 4 1967-December-30–1975-December-31
Jose M. Sembrano 1 1967-December-30–1975-December-31
Atty. Martin B. Isidro, Sr. 1 1959-December-30–1975-December-31
Apolonio V. Gener 2 1959-December-30–1975-December-31
Mariano M. Magsalin 3 1959-December-30–1975-December-31
Eduardo Quintos, Jr. 3 1959-December-30–1975-December-31
Francis P. Yuseco 2 1959-December-30–1975-December-31
Atty. Ernesto Maceda, Sr. 3 1959-December-30-1967-December-30
Eriberto A. Remigio 3 1959-December-30-1967-December-30
Vicente G Cruz 3 1959-December-30-1967-December-30
Pablo V. Ocampo 4 1959-December-30-1967-December-30
Leonardo B. Fugoso 2 1959-December-30-1967-December-30
Gonzalo Santos Rivera 4 1959-December-30-1967-December-30
Francisco G. Varona, Jr 2 1959-December-30-1967-December-30
Francisco Gatmaitan 1959-December-30-1967-December-30
Alfredo R. Gomez 1959-December-30-1967-December-30
Pedro S. De Jesus 3 1959-December-30-1967-December-30
Atty. Felicisimo R. Cabigao 3 1959-December-30-1967-December-30
Fidel Santiago 1 1959-December-30-1967-December-30
Herminio A. Astorga 4 1959-December-30-1962-April-16


  1. ^ a b c "The City Council of Manila". Manila Standard. 2002-06-24. Retrieved 2012-12-13. 
  2. ^ Donald F. Lach, Edwin J. Van Kley (1998). Asia in the Making of Europe, Volume III: A Century of Advance. Book 3: Southeast Asia. University of Chicago Press. p. 1531. 
  3. ^ "Manila Bans Claire Danes' Movies". Associated Press. 1998-09-29. Retrieved 2012-12-13. 
  4. ^ a b "Manila city council bans showing of 'Da Vinci Code'". GMA News Online. 2006-05-18. Retrieved 2012-12-13. 
  5. ^ Santos, Pat C. (2012-07-10). "Manila to ban plastic, polystyrene". The Daily Tribune. Retrieved 2012-12-13. 
  6. ^ Sauler, Erika (2012-09-13). "Manila City council overrides Lim's veto of ordinance vs oil depots". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved 2012-12-13. 
  7. ^ Leonard D. Postrado and John Carlo M. Cahinhin (2012-01-10). "Manila opens solar-powered Session Hall". Manila Bulletin. Retrieved 2012-12-13.