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. (January 2012)
Two early forms of the m-rune of the Younger Futhark.
*Mannaz is the conventional name of the m-rune ᛗ of the Elder Futhark. It is derived from the reconstructed Common Germanic word for "man", *mannaz.
Younger Futhark ᛘ is maðr ("man"). It took up the shape of the algiz rune ᛉ, replacing Elder Futhark ᛗ.
As its sound value and form in the Elder Futhark indicate, it is derived from the letter M (𐌌) in the Old Italic alphabets, ultimately from the Greek letter Mu (μ).
The rune is recorded in all three Rune Poems, in the Norwegian and Icelandic poems as maðr, and in the Anglo-Saxon poem as man.
- ᛉ Maðr er moldar auki;
- mikil er græip á hauki.
- Man is an augmentation of the dust;
- great is the claw of the hawk.
- ᛉ Maðr er manns gaman
- ok moldar auki
- ok skipa skreytir.
- Man is delight of man
- and augmentation of the earth
- and adorner of ships.
- ᛗ Man byþ on myrgþe his magan leof:
- sceal þeah anra gehƿylc oðrum sƿican,
- forðum drihten ƿyle dome sine
- þæt earme flæsc eorþan betæcan.
- The joyous man is dear to his kinsmen;
- yet every man is doomed to fail his fellow,
- since the Lord by his decree
- will commit the vile carrion to the earth.
For the "man" rune of the Armanen Futharkh as "life rune" in Germanic mysticism, see Lebensrune.
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