9th century

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The 9th century was a period from 801 to 900 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Common Era.

West Africa[edit]

A bronze ceremonial vessel made around the 9th century, one of the bronzes found at Igbo-Ukwu.[1]

Southeastern Nigeria[edit]

Around the 9th century the Edo people of what is now southeastern Nigeria developed bronze casts of humans, animals, and mythical creatures. These bronzes, which were used as vessels, amulets, pendants, and sacrificial tools, are among the earliest made bronzes ever found in Nigeria. Most items were part of a burial of a nobleman culture in the northern part of benin empire. Evidence of long distance trade between benin empire and poutugist was also discovered through the thousands of glass beads found at Old Cairo at the workshops of Fustat.

The development of the Benin Kingdom can be attributed to the proficiency at advanced metallurgy seen in the bronze jewelry crafted by local artisans.

Ghana Empire[edit]

The Ghana (Wagadu) Empire (before c. 830 until c. 1235) was located in what is now southeastern Mauritania and western Mali. It is considered the first of the Sahelian Kingdoms, which would exist in some form until the early 20th century.

Western Europe[edit]

Britain and Ireland[edit]

Britain experienced a great influx of Viking peoples in the 9th century as the Viking Age continued from the previous century. The kingdoms of the Heptarchy were gradually conquered by the Danes, who set up Anglo-Saxon puppet rulers in each kingdom. This invasion was achieved by a huge military force known as the Great Heathen Army, which was supposedly led by Ivar the Boneless, Halfdan Ragnarsson, and Guthrum. This Danish army first arrived in Britain in 865 in East Anglia. After conquering that kingdom, the army proceeded to capture the city of York (Jorvik) and establish the kingdom of Jorvik. The Danes went on to subjugate the kingdom of Northumbria and to take all but the western portion of Mercia. The remaining kingdom of Wessex was the only kingdom of the Heptarchy left. Alfred the Great managed to maintain his kingdom of Wessex and push back the Viking incursions, relieving the neighbouring kingdoms from the threat of the Danes following his famous victory over them at the Battle of Ethandun in 878. Alfred re-established Anglo-Saxon rule over the western half of Mercia, and the Danelaw was established which separated Mercia into halves, the eastern half remaining under the control of the Danes.

Ireland was also affected by the Viking expansion across the North Sea. Extensive raids were carried out all along the coast and eventually permanent settlements were established, such as that of Dublin in 841. Particular targets for these raids were the monasteries on the western coast of Ireland, as they provided a rich source for loot. On such raids the Vikings set up impermanent camps, which were called longphorts by the Irish—this period of Viking raids on the coasts of Ireland has been named the longphort phase after these types of settlements. Ireland in the 9th century was organised into an amalgam of small kingdoms, called tuatha. These kingdoms were sometimes grouped together and ruled by a single, provincial ruler. If such a ruler could establish and maintain authority over a portion of these tuatha, he was sometimes granted the title of High King.

Scotland also experienced significant Viking incursions during the 9th century. The Vikings established themselves in coastal regions, usually in northern Scotland, and in the northern islands such as Orkney and Shetland. The Viking invasion and settlement in Scotland provided a contributing factor in the collapse of the kingdoms of the Picts, who inhabited most of Scotland at the time. Not only were the Pictish realms either destroyed or severely weakened, the Viking invasion and settlement may have been the reason for the movement of Kenneth MacAlpin, the king of Dál Riata at that time. The kingdom of Dál Riata was located on the western coast of Scotland, and Viking incursions destroyed it after the death of its previous king, Áed mac Boanta in 839, according to the Annals of Ulster. This may have caused the new king, MacAlpin, to move to the east, and conquer the remnants of the Pictish realms. MacAlpin became king of the Picts in 843 and later kings would be titled as the King of Alba or King of Scots.

Art of the 9th century[edit]

  • Art in the 9th century was primarily dedicated to the Gospel and employed as basic tools of liturgy of the Roman Orthodox Church. Thousands of golden art objects were made: Sacred cups, vessels, reliquaries, crucifixes, rosaries, altar pieces, and statues of the Virgin and Child or Saints all kept the flame of western art from dying out. Architecture began to revive to some extent by the 9th century, taking the form of Church facilities of all kinds, and the first castle fortifications since Roman times began to take form in simple "moat and bailey" castles, or simple "strong point" tower structures, with little refinement.
  • 9th - 13th century - El Castillo, Chichen Itza, Yucatan, Mexico, is built. Itza (northern Maya) culture.

Events[edit]

Eastern Hemisphere at the beginning of the 9th century.
Eastern Hemisphere at the end of the 9th century.
Borobudur was likely founded around 800.[4] This corresponds to the period between 760 and 830, the peak of the Sailendra dynasty in central Java,[5] when it was under the influence of the Srivijayan Empire. The construction has been estimated to have taken 75 years and been completed during the reign of Samaratungga in 825.[2][3]

Significant people[edit]

Charlemagne (left) and Pippin the Hunchback. 10th-century copy of a lost original from about 830.
Saint Clement of Ohrid

Inventions, discoveries, introductions[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Apley, Alice. "Igbo-Ukwu (ca. 9th century)". Metropolitan Museum of Art. Archived from the original on 4 December 2008. Retrieved 2008-11-23.
  2. ^ a b Dumarçay (1991).
  3. ^ a b Paul Michel Munoz (2007). Early Kingdoms of the Indonesian Archipelago and the Malay Peninsula. Singapore: Didier Millet. p. 143. ISBN 981-4155-67-5.
  4. ^ Soekmono (1976), page 9.
  5. ^ Miksic (1990)
  6. ^ "Succession of the Carolingian Empire, 843 CE". Cmunce.org. Columbia Model United Nations Conference and Exposition. Retrieved 24 December 2014. The year is 843 C.E., and the Carolingian Empire has reached the peak of its expansion, covering more territory in Western Europe than any one dynasty since the Roman Empire.
  7. ^ Miksic (1997)
  8. ^ Soekmono, R, Drs., Pengantar Sejarah Kebudayaan Indonesia 2, 2nd ed. Penerbit Kanisius, Yogyakarta, 1973, 5th reprint edition in 1988 p.46
  9. ^ Sengaku Mayeda, Shankara, Encyclopedia Britannica
  10. ^ Sharma 1962, p. vi.
  11. ^ Comans 2000, p. 163.
  12. ^ Johannes de Kruijf and Ajaya Sahoo (2014), Indian Transnationalism Online: New Perspectives on Diaspora, ISBN 978-1-4724-1913-2, page 105, Quote: "In other words, according to Adi Shankara's argument, the philosophy of Advaita Vedanta stood over and above all other forms of Hinduism and encapsulated them. This then united Hinduism; (...) Another of Adi Shankara's important undertakings which contributed to the unification of Hinduism was his founding of a number of monastic centers."
  13. ^ Shankara, Student's Encyclopedia Britannia - India (2000), Volume 4, Encyclopaedia Britannica (UK) Publishing, ISBN 978-0-85229-760-5, page 379, Quote: "Shankaracharya, philosopher and theologian, most renowned exponent of the Advaita Vedanta school of philosophy, from whose doctrines the main currents of modern Indian thought are derived.";
    David Crystal (2004), The Penguin Encyclopedia, Penguin Books, page 1353, Quote: "[Shankara] is the most famous exponent of Advaita Vedanta school of Hindu philosophy and the source of the main currents of modern Hindu thought."
  14. ^ Christophe Jaffrelot (1998), The Hindu Nationalist Movement in India, Columbia University Press, ISBN 978-0-231-10335-0, page 2, Quote: "The main current of Hinduism - if not the only one - which became formalized in a way that approximates to an ecclesiastical structure was that of Shankara".