Voiceless alveolo-palatal sibilant
|Voiceless alveolo-palatal sibilant|
The voiceless alveolo-palatal fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some oral languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨ɕ⟩ ("c" with the curl also found in its voiced counterpart ⟨ʑ⟩).
Features of the voiceless alveolo-palatal fricative:
- Its manner of articulation is sibilant fricative, which means it is generally produced by channeling air flow along a groove in the back of the tongue up to the place of articulation, at which point it is focused against the sharp edge of the nearly clenched teeth, causing high-frequency turbulence.
- Its place of articulation is alveolo-palatal. This means that:
- Its place of articulation is postalveolar, meaning that the tongue contacts the roof of the mouth in the area behind the alveolar ridge (the gum line).
- Its tongue shape is laminal, meaning that it is the tongue blade that contacts the roof of the mouth.
- It is heavily palatalized, meaning that the middle of the tongue is bowed and raised towards the hard palate.
- Its phonation is voiceless, which means it is produced without vibrations of the vocal cords. In some languages the vocal cords are actively separated, so it is always voiceless; in others the cords are lax, so that it may take on the voicing of adjacent sounds.
- It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
- It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
- The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.
|Catalan||Eastern and Majorcan||caixa||[ˈkaɕə]||'box'||See Catalan phonology|
|Chinese||Mandarin||西安 Xī'ān||[ɕí.án] (help·info)||'Xi'an'||Contrasts with /ʂ/ and /s/. See Mandarin phonology|
|Chuvash||çиçĕм||[ˈɕiɕ̬əm]||'lightning'||Contrasts with /ʂ/ and /s/.|
|Danish||sjæl||[ɕeˀl]||'soul'||See Danish phonology|
|Dutch||Some speakers||sjabloon||[ɕäˈbloːn]||'template'||May be [ʃ] or [sʲ] instead. See Dutch phonology|
|Japanese||塩 shio||[ɕi.o]||'salt'||See Japanese phonology|
|Korean||시 si||[ɕi]||'poem'||See Korean phonology|
|Norwegian||sjel||[ɕe:l]||'soul'||See Norwegian phonology|
|Pashto||Wazirwola dialect||لښکي||[ˈləɕki]||'little, slight'|
|Polish||śruba||[ˈɕrubä] (help·info)||'screw'||Contrasts with /ʂ/ and /s/. See Polish phonology|
|Romanian||Transylvanian dialects||ce||[ɕɛ]||'what'||Realized as [tʃ] in standard Romanian. See Romanian phonology|
|Russian||счастьe||[ˈɕːæsʲtʲjə] (help·info)||'happiness'||The letter щ is pronounced this way. Contrasts with /ʂ/, /s/, and /sʲ/. See Russian phonology|
|Serbo-Croatian||Croatian||miš će||[mîɕ t͡ɕe̞]||'the mouse will'||Allophone of /ʃ/ before /t͡ɕ, d͡ʑ/. See Serbo-Croatian phonology|
|Swedish||Finland||sjok||[ɕuːk]||'chunk'||Allophone of /ɧ/.|
|Sweden||kjol||[ɕuːl] (help·info)||'skirt'||See Swedish phonology|
|Tibetan||Lhasa dialect||བཞི་||[ɕi˨˧]||'four'||Contrasts with /ʂ/.|
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- Landau, Ernestina; Lončarić, Mijo; Horga, Damir; Škarić, Ivo (1999), "Croatian", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A guide to the use of the International Phonetic Alphabet, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 66–69, ISBN 0-521-65236-7
- Okada, Hideo (1991), "Japanese", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 21 (2): 94–97, doi:10.1017/S002510030000445X
- Pop, Sever (1938), Micul Atlas Linguistic Român, Muzeul Limbii Române Cluj
- Recasens, Daniel; Espinosa, Aina (2007), "An electropalatographic and acoustic study of affricates and fricatives in two Catalan dialects" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association 37 (2): 143–172, doi:10.1017/S0025100306002829
- Sjoberg, Andrée F. (1963), Uzbek Structural Grammar
- Zygis, Marzena (2003), "Phonetic and Phonological Aspects of Slavic Sibilant Fricatives" (PDF), ZAS Papers in Linguistics 3: 175–213