Marcello Ferrada de Noli

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Marcello Ferrada de Noli
Professor
Professor Marcello Ferrada de Noli - Photo at the Dept of Social Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.png
Photo at the Department of Social Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, 2007
Born 25 July 1943 (1943-07-25) (age 75)
Chile
Citizenship Sweden
Known for Contributions to psychiatry & epidemiology research
Title Professor Emeritus, Med.dr.
Board member of SWEDHR Board of Directors [60], The Indicter Magazine Editorial Board [61]
Academic background
Education Profesor de Filosofía, Lic. Med. Sci. in psychiatry, Ph.D.
Alma mater Universidad de Concepción, Karolinska Institute, Harvard Medical School
Academic work
Discipline Cross-Cultural Psychiatry, Injury Epidemiology
Website L'esistenza [62]

Marcello Ferrada de Noli (born 25 July 1943 in Chile) is a Swedish professor emeritus[1] of epidemiology,[2] and medicine doktor in psychiatry (Karolinska Institute, Sweden). He was Research Fellow and lecturer at Harvard Medical School, and was later head of the research group of Cross-Cultural Injury Epidemiology at the Karolinska Institute until 2008.[3] Ferrada de Noli is known for his investigations on suicidal behaviour associated with severe trauma. He is the founder of the NGO Swedish Doctors for Human Rights, SWEDHR.

Professorships[edit]

Ferrada de Noli was full Professor of Psychology at the University of Chile, Arica, 1970.[4] Invited Professor at Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, México,1972. At the time of the 1973 Chilean coup d'état he was full Professor of Psychosocial Methods at the University of Concepción. He was later appointed Affiliate Professor at the Medical Faculty, University of Chile, 2006.[5] In Europe: Professor of Health Psychology, University of Tromsø, Norway 1997. He qualified as a full Professor of Health promotion, and as a Professor of Cross-cultural psychology, at the University of Bergen, Norway, 1999,[6] and was thereafter Invited Professor of Cross-Cultural Psychology at the University of Trondheim, Norway, 2000. In Sweden he was Full Professor of Public-Health Epidemiology at the University of Gävle, position shared 50% at Karolinska Institute, Department of Social Medicine 2002-2007. Invited Professor of International Health, University of Gävle, 2007. Professor Emeritus (title), 2007.[7]

Research[edit]

Before the professorships in Norway/Sweden, Ferrada de Noli held various research positions at the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm, from assistant researcher at the Social and Forensic Psychiatry Department (1987) to Senior Research Scientist at the Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Psychiatry Section (1997).[7] His scholarly work has been cited in about 800 scientific articles and books,[8] In the journal Clinical Psychology Review (2009), three authors wrote that Ferrada de Noli and co-workers had found a new pathway in the pathogenesis of suicidal behaviour associated with PTSD. The review concluded that Ferrada de Noli and his co-workers "demonstrated that among refugees with PTSD, major depression was not substantially associated with heightened levels of suicidal behaviour". Meaning that the path to severe suicide attempts in PTSD victims was not mediated by depression - as it was thought before - but linked directly to PTSD. The discovery indicated modifications in prevention and treatment of suicidal behaviour.[9] Another finding was significant correlations between specific methods in suicidal behavior and methods used in torture inflicted to prisoners later diagnosed with PTSD. In the book “Suicide and the Holocaust”, Professor David Lester referred to that finding, and summarized: "for example those subjected to water torture thought of using drowning”.[10] He worked on establishing ethnicity as significant risk factor for suicidal deaths in Sweden,[11] and found statistically significant markers associating Socioeconomic Status (SES) and suicidal behaviour in Sweden.[12][13][14] From 2005-2012 he was appointed by the Swedish government alternate scientific member of the Swedish Central Ethical Review Board Etikprövningsnämnd for research.[15]

Education: Bachiller en Humanidades (Filosofía), Pontifical Catholic University of Valparaiso, 1961. Bachiller en Humanidades, mención Letras, 1962, and Profesor de Filosofía, 1969, University of Chile. Licentiate in Medical Sciences in psychiatry, 1995, and Ph.D. in psychiatry, 1996, Karolinska Institute, Sweden. Postdoctoral: Research Fellow in Social Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, United States, 1996-1997. Earlier doctoral studies in Applied psychology, University of Lund, and in Practical philosophy, Stockholm University, Sweden.[7]

Controversies[edit]

Questioning of evidence on gas attacks in Syria war

The opinions of de Noli that have elicited controversy refer to his publications and statements questioning the evidence around allegations of gas attacks in Syria by government forces. The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) published as official document in December 2017 an analysis authored by Ferrada de Noli, in which he alleged epidemiological bias in the report issued by the OPCW-UN Joint Investigative Mechanism on the Khan Shaykhun chemical attack of April 2017 in Syria.[16]

European mainstream media, e.g. Le Figaro,[17] ARD/BR,[18][19] and Der Spiegel[20] have raised criticism on Ferrada de Noli’s articles with geopolitical content, published by SWEDHR and in the online magazine The Indicter.[21] Dagens Nyheter,[22] together with other Swedish newspapers, e.g. Aftonbladet[23] Expressen,[24] Göteborgs-Posten,[25] Västerbottens-Kuriren,[26] Uppsala Nya Tidning,[27] also have addressed Ferrada de Noli's “frequent interviews in Russian media and Russian-government international propaganda channels”, and questioned the mentions to his work and to his organization SWEDHR done at press briefings of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation.[28][29][30][31][32]

Ferrada de Noli’s contested the media criticism in the journal of the Swedish Medical Association Läkartidningen, claiming that SWEDHR is “absolutely independent”.[33] In an interview done on the subject, he declared, “We only have our own line. Whether that coincide or not with the positions of different countries, that is not our intention”.[34] Other official documents of the UNSC indicate that SWEDHR publications in The Indicter authored by de Noli have been cited or included in documents submitted at the UNSC by the Russian and Syrian ambassadors,[35][36][37] added the Russian envoys at the OPCW[38] or the ambassador to the UK.[39]

Geneva Press Club

Club Suisse de la Presse organized a conference November 2017 to debate events in Syria. Ensuing, Reporters Without Borders (RWB) called its cancellation, arguing against an invitation to Ferrada de Noli to hold a keynote address, being “president of an organization that, according with our information, acts as a tool of Russian propaganda.”[40] De Noli called RWB on Twitter to “publish your evidence now, or shame”.[41] Guy Mettan, president of the Geneva Press Club, dismissed the attacks[42] as “not worth of journalism”. The conference ultimately took place with police protection due to reported threats.[43][44] Earlier that year the Russian TV network Rossiya-24 had also reported on threats to Ferrada de Noli, to which he commented in the interview, “SWEDHR is not afraid and will continue its work”.[45]

Skripal case

At early events around the Skripal poison incident in Salisbury, de Noli was subject of new criticism in Danish TV[46] and Swedish media (e.g. Dagens Nyheter)[47] after he was interviewed on the topic [48] by Sputnik, in his capacity of chief editor of the online geopolitical magazine The Indicter. De Noli's thesis was that the poison Novichok would have been developed in Uzbekistan, not in Russia, and its possession by other countries could not be ruled out. According to Dagens Nyheter, he would have declared in an interview done with him by the newspaper April 2, 2018, that the Skripal incident could be a case of False flag in anticipating an eventual confrontation sought by the United Kingdom against Russia.[49]

Assange case

De Noli has also been criticized in the Swedish media for his public defence of Julian Assange . He published the book Sweden vs. Assange. Human Rights Issues, claiming that the case was instead political.[50] In a RT (TV network) interview he said that “WikiLeaks is a lifeboat to democracy”,[51] and 2011, via Jennifer Robinson (lawyer), he submitted to the London Court deliberating the extradition of Assange, a testimony based on his investigation “Swedish Trial by Media”.[52] In 2012, Swedish Radio said in a broadcast that Ferrada de Noli has implicated “a social democratic feminist working together with ‘arms companies’ trying to get Assange”.[53] Ferrada Noli denied that and asked Swedish Radio for a retraction.

Early controversies

Earlier controversies have involved articles in Swedish medical journals and media on his public opposition to the Swedish diagnose “utbrändhet” (work-related stress ‘burnout’), which he said didn’t have epidemiological ground.[54] After he wrote in DN that one risk factor for “utbrändhet” in women could be stress caused by a double working load, at the job and then at home –contradicting the notion of an advanced Swedish gender equality,[55] Minister Mona Sahlin commented that his thesis was “a bid insulting, to say the least”.[56] Later in 2005, Aftonbladet published a half front-page headline, “Professor in attack against the burned-out”. It referred an interview where Ferrada de Noli stated that to be displeased with a job cannot be equated with a medical diagnosis,[57] and a new debate ensued in the Swedish media.[58] In 1998, at that time professor in Norway, De Noli requested the legal extradition of General Augusto Pinochet, to be judged in a European court on allegations of torture and war crimes.[59][60][61]

Early political endeavours[edit]

Ferrada de Noli has been referred to as one of the founders[62][63][64] of the Revolutionary Left Movement (Chile), MIR (1965), and co-author of the “Political-Military Thesis”[65][66][67][68][69][70] approved in the foundation congress. MIR was a far left guerrilla organization with roots in the Socialist Party of Chile, where he participated in the regional board of the youth organization in Concepción.[71][72][73][74] MIR was considered Pinochet regime’s “number one counterinsurgency target”.[75] [76] He was detained several times by the government authorities,[77] and included in the national arrest warrant issued by the Chilean authorities prosecuting MIR’s subversion activities in 1969.[78][79][80][81] He was finally captured and held incommunicado in Concepción’s Prison.[82][83]

After the aborted MIR resistance to the military in Concepción,[84] Ferrada de Noli was captured and held prisoner in Quiriquina Island.[85][86] In a photo of the epoch in newspaper La Tercera, he appeared among prisoners described as “extremists that have attacked the military forces with fire weapons”.[87]

In 1974 he went to Italy[88] to participate as a witness at the Russell Tribunal in Rome, which reviewed human rights transgressions by the Government Junta of Chile.[89]

In Sweden, he continued in MIR until 1977 as head of MIR and Junta Coordinadora Revolucionaria counter-intelligence activity in Scandinavia, undertaking aimed the monitoring of Operation Condor.[90][91] In 1976 he started working as psychotherapist at health services for political refugees in Stockholm County, and 1989 in crisis therapy provided at the Swedish Red Cross Project for traumatized and torture-survivor refugees.[92] During mid-80s he participated in the Swedish Liberal Party.

Ideology characterizations in Swedish media

The Swedish newspaper Dagens Nyheter (2008) described Ferrada de Noli as “left-liberal”,[93] and newspaper Ystads Allehanda (2013) writes, “Left-liberal. But his conservative past continued to chase him”.[94] In newspaper Expressen (2018) Ferrada de Noli declared he participated as “social-libertarian” in the foundation of the guerrilla organization MIR in 1965, as well of been transitorely active in the Swedish Liberal Party during the 80’s – which at the time had a social-liberal profile in Swedish politics.[95]

In an op-ed in Dagens Nyheter (2015) de Noli advocated for Sweden to return being a neutral country “as it was in Olof Palme’s times”, and “resuming an active role in the work for peace and respect for human rights in the world”[96]

Awards[edit]

Swedish Reward medal “For Zealous and Devoted Service of the Realm”.[99]

Family[edit]

Marcello Ferrada de Noli was born in Copiapó, Chile, in family of Italian origin, descendants to the nobleman and navigator Antonio de Noli.[100] His father was a company owner and retired officer in the armed forces. His mother, professor at the University of Concepción. He lives in Italy and is the father of seven sons and one daughter.[101]

Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^ “Title of Distinction". University of Gävle, Sweden, 10 December 2007.
  2. ^ Professorships and research areas listed in Biographical Lexicon of Public Health. Ed. Prof Izet Masic (2015). Library of Biomedical Publications. Book 49. ISBN 978-9958-720-60-4. Page 108. [1]
  3. ^ Karolinska Institute Registrar’s Office. Document 1217/2007-2335.
  4. ^ La Defensa (newspaper), Arica, Chile, 25 April 1970. Article: “Especial significado tendrá acto académico de Universidad de Chile”. Excerpt: Professor Marcello Ferrada, 26 years old, shall address the inauguration lecture, "The Tomb of Don Quixote". He has been Lecturer at the University of Concepción, member of its University Board. Also member of the Sociedad de Escritores de Chile (Chilean Writers Society). Currently, he is Professor of Psychology at the University of Chile in Arica.” The text of the lecture [Spanish, mimeograph] was published 2015 by the University of Chile, Arica, and republished by Libertarian books, Sweden, 2015, ISBN 978-91-981615-5-7 [2]
  5. ^ Medical Faculty appointment. In Spanish, Profesor Agregado, Escuela de Salud Pública.
  6. ^ Evaluated by the Scientific Committee appointed by the University of Bergen. The Committee: Head, Prof. Lillemor Hallberg (Professor i Public Health Sciences, Sweden), Prof. Geisela Geisler, and Prof. Maurice Mittelmark (Norway). Academic CV
  7. ^ a b c d "Academic CV". 28 December 2009. 
  8. ^ The sum of citations in Google Scholar referred solely to original articles by “Ferrada-Noli” (Marcello Ferrada de Noli) was n= 752. The sum of citations in Google Books of publications by “Ferrada-Noli” and “Ferrada de Noli”, n= 62. Total N= 813. Retrieved 14 December 2017. [3] [4]
  9. ^ Panagioti M, Gooding P, Tarrier N (2009). "Post-traumatic stress disorder and suicidal behavior: A narrative review". Clinical Psychology Review. 29 (6): 471–82. doi:10.1016/j.cpr.2009.05.001. PMID 19539412.
  10. ^ David Lester (2005), “Suicide and the Holocaust”. Nova Science Publishers, New York. ISBN 1-59454-427-1. In section “Suicidal Behaviour in Refugees and After Torture”, page 57: “Ferrada-Noli found that the method of suicide used or planned was similar to the method of torture with which the victim has been brutalized”.[5]
  11. ^ Sweden's National Center for Suicide Research and Prevention of Mental-Ill Health, "Suicide research in Sweden from the early 1990’s until 2014". See chronology in publications referred to risks factor for suicide in immigrants and adoptees, in section "Epidemiology and register studies" - [6]
  12. ^ Sweden's National Center for Suicide Research and Prevention of Mental-Ill Health, "Suicide research in Sweden from the early 1990’s until 2014". Chronology of publications on SES-subject in Reference list. [7]
  13. ^ The findings are found in a series published by Psychological Reports: a) Ferrada-Noli M (December 1996). "Social psychological vs socioeconomic hypotheses on the epidemiology of suicide: an empirical study". Psychological Reports. 79 (3 Pt 1): 707–10. doi:10.2466/pr0.1996.79.3.707. PMID 8969074; b) Ferrada-Noli M (February 1997). "Social psychological indicators associated with the suicide rate: replying to the socioeconomic hypothesis". Psychological Reports. 80 (1): 315–22. doi:10.2466/PR0.80.1.315-322. PMID 9122344; c) Ferrada-Noli M, Asberg M (August 1997). "Psychiatric health, ethnicity and socioeconomic factors among suicides in Stockholm". Psychological Reports. 81 (1): 323–32. doi:10.2466/PR0.81.5.323-332. PMID 9293223. Full text pdf; d) Ferrada-Noli M (October 1997). "Health and socioeconomic indicators in psychiatric catchment areas with divergent suicide rates". Psychological Reports. 81 (2): 611–9. doi:10.2466/PR0.81.6.611-619. PMID 9354114; and Ferrada-Noli M (August 1997). "Social psychological variables in populations contrasted by income and suicide rate: Durkheim revisited". Psychological Reports. 81 (1): 307–16. doi:10.2466/PR0.81.5.307-316. PMID 9293220. Fulltext pdf. De Noli's findings were discussed in an article by David Lester et al (Lester D, Savlid AC S, Mäkinen IH (1997). "Suicide and wealth in Sweden: comment on Ferrada-Noli". Psychological Reports. 80 (1 Pt 1): 34. doi:10.2466/PR0.80.1.34-34.), and later supported in an investigation by Magnusson S & Mäkinen IH (2010). "Sweden: Income and Suicide". Psychological Reports. 107 (1 Pt 1): 157–162. doi:10.2466/02.12.13.17.PR0.107.4.157-162)
  14. ^ Jan-Otto Ottosson (2015), (“Psychiatry in Sweden”) (“Psykiatrin i Sverige”), Natur & Kultur, Stockholm, 2005, 2015. ISBN 9789127095953- In chapter “Suicide – the main death cause in psychiatry” (Självmord –Psykiatrins stora dödsorsak) Prof. Ottosson describes six findings by Ferrada de Noli –two psychiatric and four epidemiological– regarding suicidal behavior.
  15. ^ The Swedish Ethical Review Board sections (Etikprövningsnämnderna, EPS) for research vetting, are composed by ten scientific members, one judge, and five representatives of the community. All members appointed by the government.[8] Retrieved 23 November 2017
  16. ^ UNSC,"Annex to the letter dated 30 November 2017 from the Permanent Representative of the Russian Federation to the United Nations addressed to the Secretary-General". Doc S/2017/1010 [9]
  17. ^ Le Figaro. (“In Russia, a curious thesis arises to exculpate Damascus”). “En Russie, une curieuse thèse reprise pour exonérer Damas”. Paris, 13 April 2017. [10]
  18. ^ Telepolis. (“Serious allegations against ARD and manipulation of the media “). “Schwere Vorwürfe gegen ARD und Manipulation der Medien”. 14 April 2017 [11]
  19. ^ RT Deutsch. “Wie die ARD vergeblich versuchte, RT Deutsch der Fake News zu überführen”. 11 April 2017. [12]
  20. ^ Der Spiegel, "Russlands perfider Feldzug gegen die Wahrheit", 21 December 2017. [13]
  21. ^ Following retirement, Ferrada de Noli founded the online magazine The Indicter [14], dealing with "human rights and geopolitical issues", as read in the magazine's banner published by Dagens Nyheter “Gasattacker förnekas med hjälp från svensk läkargrupp” (“Gas attacks denied with help of a group of Swedish doctors”) 21 April 2017. [15]
  22. ^ "Gasattacker förnekas med hjälp från svensk läkargrupp - DN.SE". 21 April 2017. 
  23. ^ “Svensk läkargrupp: Syrien oskyldigt till angrepp”, 21 April 2017, Aftonbladet,
  24. ^ Gasattack förnekas med hjälp av svenska läkare, 22 April 2017, Expressen,
  25. ^ "Svensk läkargrupp: Syrien oskyldigt till angrepp". 
  26. ^ ,Svensk läkargrupp: Syrien oskyldigt till angrepp, 21 April 2017, Västerbottens-Kuriren
  27. ^ "Svensk läkargrupp: Syrien oskyldigt till angrepp". 21 April 2017. 
  28. ^ ”Conférence de presse de Maria Zakharova, porte-parole du Ministère russe des Affaires étrangères, Moscou, 6 juillet 2017. (“Briefing by Foreign Ministry Spokesperson Maria Zakharova, Moscow, July 6, 2017”). Excerpt: “As example, I can cite the publications by Professor Theodore A. Postol of Massachusetts Institute of Technology, from Professor Marcello Ferrada de Noli, who chairs the organization Swedish Doctors for Human Rights (SWEDHR), and also Pulitzer Prize-winner Seymour Hersh and independent US disarmament expert Scott Ritter.” Text in French in the cited publication: “A titre d’exemple je peux citer la publication du professeur Theodore Postol de l’université du Massachussetts, du professeur Marcello Ferrada de Noli qui dirige l’Organisation des médecins suédois pour les droits de l’homme, ou encore celui du lauréat du prix Pulitzer Seymour Hersh et de l’expert américain indépendant du désarmement Scott Ritter.” [16]
  29. ^ The official twitter-account of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation posted 16 March 2017 the facsimile of an article by Ferrada de Noli published in The Indicter, adding a quote by Maria Zakharova, Director of Information Dept, “We would like the public to take note of conclusions about the White Helmets made by independent Swedish human rights advocates”. [17]
  30. ^ Briefing by Foreign Ministry Spokesperson Maria Zakharova, Moscow, April 27, 2017”. Excerpts: “We have taken note of the criticism and open pressure put on the NGO, Swedish Doctors for Human Rights, after it questioned the allegation by the United States and several other countries that it was the Syrian Army that was responsible for the April 4 chemical attack in Idlib.” “The situation with Swedish Doctors for Human Rights is fresh evidence of the Western practice of double standards regarding freedom of speech: it appears that the only information that can be made public is that which strictly corresponds to the policies of Washington and Brussels.”[18]
  31. ^ Atkontakt.de VideoTube. “M. Zakharova on SWEDHR's analysis of White-Helmets videos in The Indicter”, 22 March 2017. [19]
  32. ^ Briefing by Foreign Ministry Spokesperson Maria Zakharova, Moscow, April 12, 2017. [20]
  33. ^ Läkartidningen Journal of the Swedish Medical Association. (SWEDHR is an independent organization”) “SWEDHR är en oberoende organization”. [21]
  34. ^ Dagens Nyheter, "Gasattacker förnekas med hjälp från svensk läkargrupp” (“Gas attacks denied with help of a group of Swedish doctors”) Full quote in Swedish, original: “Vi driver bara vår egen linje. Om den överensstämmer med olika länders positioner så är det inte vår avsikt”. Stockholm, 21 April 2017, DN
  35. ^ United Nations Security Council, official document A/72/626 S/2017/848, “Letter dated 6 October 2017 from the Permanent Representative of the Russian Federation to the United Nations addressed to the Secretary-General, 10 October 2017. Annex”. It mentions: “mismatches, as mentioned in particular by the non-governmental organization Swedish Doctors for Human Rights. [22]
  36. ^ United Nations, General Assembly – Security Council, official document A/71/910–S/2017/415. “Letter Dated 10 May 2017 From The Charge D' Affaires A.I. of The Permanent Mission Of The Russian Federation To The United Nations Addressed To The Secretary-General. Document annexed to letter, subheading “Slide 5, SWEDHR”. It transcribes the findings summarized by Marcello Ferrada de Noli in two articles published in The Indicter Magazine, March 2017. (Doc. A/71/910-S/2017/415)
  37. ^ United Nations Security Council, 7922nd meeting, 12 April 2017. Doc. S/ P V.7 9 2 2. The Syrian Ambassador Bashar Jaafari cites “the report on the White Helmets issued by Swedish Doctors for Human Rights, exposing the duplicity of the so-called White Helmets”. It refers to the report series authored by Ferrada de Noli in The Indicter, March 2017. [23]
  38. ^ OPCW Executive Council, 19 April 2017. “Statement by Director of the Department for Non-Proliferation and Arms Control of The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation at the Fifty-Fourth Meeting of The Executive Council”. It refers analysis by SWEDHR. [24]
  39. ^ The Telegraph, 11 May 2017. “Russian Ambassador to the UK: We need a full investigation of chemical weapons allegations in Syria”. It mentions “the analysis of the social media content on the Khan Sheikhoun incident provided by the NGO Swedish Doctors for Human Rights” The referred analysis was done by Ferrada de Noli and colleagues at SWEDHR. [25]
  40. ^ Tribune de Genève (Newspaper), Geneva, 23 November 2017. (“Guy Mettan requested to cancel conference”). “Guy Mettan sommé d’annuler une conference”. The reportage transcribes the full text of letter sent RWB to the Geneva Press Club. Full quote in, in French: “De plus, il est pour le moins inacceptable d’inviter Monsieur Marcello Ferranda De Noli, président de Swedish Doctors for Human Rights, une association qui, selon nos informations, agit comme un outil de propagande russe.” [26]
  41. ^ Prof Ferrada de Noli [@ProfessorsBlogg] (24 Nov 2017). "'Free-speech' org. @RSF demand @genevapressclub that @SWEDHR not be invited speaker at Nov 28 Conf. on WhiteHelmets. Reason: RSF would have "links" showing SWEDHR "a tool of Russian propaganda". I challenge RSF: Publish Your Evidence, Now! Or shame members5.boardhost.com/xxxxx/thread/1511540138.html … #Syria" (Tweet) – via Twitter. 
  42. ^ In its protest to the Geneva Press Club, RWB also disputed the presentation of invited speaker Vanessa Beeley as “independent journalist”.
  43. ^ "'Reporters Without Scruples' fails to derail revelatory conference on White Helmets". RT International. 
  44. ^ "Geneva International". www.genevainternational.org. 
  45. ^ Spútnik Mundo (News agency in Spanish). “La sueca SWEDHR recibe amenazas tras informe sobre los polémicos Cascos Blancos”. 12 April 2017. The quote in original Spanish: “De Noli apuntó que SWEDHR no teme y seguirá su labor.” [27]
  46. ^ TV 2 (Denmark), March 17, 2018 [28]
  47. ^ Dagens Nyheter, April 2, 2018 [29]
  48. ^ Sputnik (News Agency), March 13, 2018 [30]
  49. ^ Dagens Nyheter, April 2, 2918. Id.
  50. ^ Libertarian Books Sweden (publisher), Stockhom, 2016 (2nd edition). 340 pages. ISBN ISBN 978-91-981615-1-9. [31]
  51. ^ RT (TV network). 'MSM blacks Assange as US seeks Manning link'. 27 March 2012. (Video-interview): “The disclosures made by Wikileaks aim to reveal the secrets that actually belong to the people which have elected those authorities which are abusing power by not telling the truth. In my opinion, Wikileaks is actually sending a lifeboat to democracy and democratic societies should instead be thankful for that effort, and not punish Wikileaks.” [32]
  52. ^ However the testimony was received off court, the issue was referred in “Findings of facts and reasons” delivered by Chief Magistrate Howard Riddle. See “City of Westminster Magistrates’ Court (Sitting at Belmarsh Magistrates’ Court). Excerpts; “There has been considerable adverse publicity in Sweden for Mr Assange, in the popular press, the television and in parliament” (Judge Riddle); and, “There is significant prejudice because of trial by media” (Lawyer Hurtig). [33]
  53. ^ Radio Sweden (Sweden's official international broadcasting station). “Whistleblower in row with newspaper –Wikileaks vs. Swedish tabloid Expressen”. Stockholm, 8 March 2012. [34]
  54. ^ Torbjörn Friberg. “Burnout: From Popular Culture to Psychiatric Diagnosis in Sweden”. Culture, Medicine, and Psychiatry (2009) 33: 538. [35]
  55. ^ Dagens Nyheter, DN-debatt, 20 October 2000. "Utbrändheten mest en modetrend".
  56. ^ Expressen. (“It is insulting”). “Det är förelämpande”. Stockholm, 21 October 2000. Mona Sahlin (later the leader of the Swedish Social Democrat Party), meant that the problem was not rooted in whether men help women at home, but instead in poor organized environments in working places. The debate on his theses continued 2000-2002 in the journal of the Swedish Medical Association Läkartidningen. [36]
  57. ^ Aftonbladet. (“Stress-burnout is an invention”). ”Utbrändhet är ett påhitt”. Stockholm, 14 April 2005. [37]
  58. ^ Svenska Dagbladet. “Professor condemns sick leaves“. “Professor dömer ut sjukskrivningar”. 19 September 2002. [38]
  59. ^ Associated Press (AP). "Chilean in Norway files against Pinochet". Oslo, Norway. 1 November 1998.
  60. ^ NTB/Dagbladet. (“Pinochet accused in Norge”). "Pinochet politianmeldt i Norge", Oslo, 1 Nov 1998. [39]
  61. ^ Svenska Dagbladet. Brännpunkt. (“Pinochet has to be taken to court”). “Pinochet måste ställas inför rätta”. 6 November 1998.
  62. ^ Nancy Guzmán Jazmen (1998), “Un grito desde el silencio: detención, asesinato y desaparición de Bautista van Schouwen y Patricio Munita”. LOM Ediciones, Santiago. ISBN 956-282-161-7. Page 79: Ferrada de Noli named among Miguel Enríquez's four associates, “participants of this foundational meeting of the Revolutionary Left Movement”.
  63. ^ The Clinic (newspaper), Santiago, 5 October 2015. (“The story of Miguel Enríquez lost trunk”) “La historia del baúl perdido de Miguel Enríquez“. Author Daniela Yáñez, journalist, writes that Miguel Enríquez met at the Enrique Molina Garmendia High School in Concepción Bautista van Schouwen, Luciano Cruz and Marcello Ferrada, all "which constituted in 1965 the central nucleon in the foundation of MIR". The Clinic, 5-10-2015. [40]
  64. ^ Marco Álvarez (2015), (“The Revolutionary Constitution – History of the foundation of the Chilean MIR”) “La Constituyente Revolucionaria – Historia de la fundación del MIR chileno” LOM Ediciones, Santiago, 2015. ISBN 978-956-00-0617-2. [41]. The book reproduces witnesses’ accounts on statements by Ferrada-Noli during the MIR foundation event. [42]
  65. ^ Mauricio Ahumada and Pedro Naranjo (2004), “Miguel Enríquez, el proyecto revolucionario en Chile”. LOM Ediciones, Santiago. ISBN 956-282-676-7 The book states that Ferrada de Noli was one of the founders of the MIR and a co-author of MIR “Political-Military Thesis”, the first document approved in the foundation congress of August 1965 [43].
  66. ^ Inés Nercesian (2013). “La política en armas y las armas en la política” (“Politics by weapons and the weapons of politics”). CLACSO, Buenos Aires. ISBN 978-987-1891-75-7. Page 221: In the MIR Foundational Congress “the political-military thesis developed by Miguel Enríquez, Marco Antonio Enríquez and Marcello Ferrada-Molli, was also approved." [44]
  67. ^ Daniel Avendaño; Mauricio Palma (2001). El rebelde de la burguesía : la historia de Miguel Enríquez (2001 ed.). Santiago [de Chile]: Ed. CESOC. ISBN 9789562110952. The book refers Ferrada de Noli as to a founder of MIR and co-author of the “Political-Military Thesis” together with Miguel Enriquez and Marco Antonio Enríquez.
  68. ^ Patricio Lagos (2014). Pueblo, Conciencia, Guerra Revolucionaria. VIII Jornadas de Sociología, National University of La Plata. Excerpt: “The Insurrectional Thesis of MIR called ‘La Conquista del Poder por la Vía Insurreccional’ was written by Miguel Enríquez (aka Viriato), Marco Antonio Enríquez (aka Bravo) and Marcelo Ferrada Noli (aka Atacama)”. [45]
  69. ^ Pedro Alfonso Valdés Navarro (2008) "Elementos teóricos en la formación y desarrollo del MIR durante el período 1965-1970". University of Valparaíso, Chile. Tesis de grado. [46]
  70. ^ Jose Leonel Calderon Lopez. “La politica del Movimiento de Izquierda Revolucionaria (MIR) durante los dos primeros años de la Dictadura Militar. University of Santiago, Chile, Departamento de Historia. Tesis de Grado. Pagina 21 [47]
  71. ^ Pedro Naranjo Sandoval (2004) “La Vida de Miguel Enríquez y el MIR” (“Life of Miguel Enríquez and the MIR”). CEME / Archivo Chile. ISBN 91-631-0558-6. It reports that by 1961, a group of five youngsters that “had established strong personal interactions” since school years (brothers Miguel and Marco Antonio Enríquez, Bautista van Schouwen, Marcello Ferrada, and Dario Ulloa), initiated a group called “Movimiento Socialista Revolucionario, MSR”. “Most of them became members of the Socialist Youth (a formation of the Socialist Party of Chile), although in different moments” (Page 10). The same young men –except Ulloa– appear four years later in the foundation of MIR (1965), as co-authors of the first document of that organization (Page24). [48]
  72. ^ El Sur (newspaper), Concepción, 4 December 1962, reports that Ferrada de Noli was Board member of the Socialist Youth, Region of Concepción. Newspaper El Sur’s text in Spanish: “Ferrada Noli is Secretario de Arte y Cultura del Regional de la Juventud del Partido Socialista en Concepción”.
  73. ^ Marcelo Casals (2010). “El alba de una revolución. La izquierda y la construcción estratégica de la vía chilena al socialismo”. LOM Ediciones, Santiago, 2nd ed. ISBN 978-956-00-0123-8. In Chapter 4, the author names Marcello Ferrada in the group of five members of the Socialist Youth that started the publication of Revolución in 1963. The book also refers that the group would later become a clandestine formation (“fracción”) within the Socialist Party.
  74. ^ Julio César Jobet (1971). “History of the Socialist Party of Chile” (“Historia del Partido Socialista de Chile”). Ediciones Documenta, Santiago. Pages 283-284: “The mimeograph journal Revolución, whose N° 1 issue appeared in May 1963 with Miguel Enríquez as Chief Editor, and the editors M.A. Enríquez, B. van Schouwen, C. Sepúlveda, M. Ferrada Noli, J. Gutiérrez, P. Valdés, and R. Jara, all of them university students. Their combatant behaviour climaxed in the XX National Congress of the Socialist Party of Chile which took place in Concepción, February 1964”…”the referred student leaders, added some others from Concepción and Santiago, decided to abandon the Socialist Party and tried to give birth to a new revolutionary movement”. MIR was founded in 1965, although from that group, only the brothers Enríquez, van Schouwen and Ferrada de Noli participated in its foundation.
  75. ^ Peter Kornbluh (2003). “The Pinochet Files”. The New Press, New York. ISBN 978-1-59558-912-5. Page 173.
  76. ^ Matías Ortiz Figueroa (2013), in “El Tercer Congreso Del MIR: Giro generacional, re-estructuración orgánica y cambios en la militancia, 1967-1969”, writes, “In the MIR converged two political generations ... in the latter (the young generation), stand out subjects like Miguel Enríquez, Bautista van Schouwen, Marcello Ferrada-Noli or Luciano Cruz, who joined the organic structure at its foundation, and reached towards the year 1967 positions in the National Secretariat." Academy of Christian Humanism University, TIEMPO HISTÓRICO. N°6 /91-110/ Santiago-Chile. 2013. [49]
  77. ^ Marcello Ferrada de Noli was first arrested in 1966, charged of attacking carabineers during clashes in conjunction with the long health-workers’ strike that year. Noticias de la Tarde (newspaper) Talcahuano, 5 August 1969. (Carabineers handed him over to the Security Police”). “Carabineros lo entregó a Investigaciones”. It reads: “On December 20, 1966 (Ferrada) was detained on the cause of outrageous confrontations against police officers, which he was protagonist of during the strike of the National Health Service workers”. Spanish, original: “El 20 de Diciembre de 1966 estuvo detenido a raíz de los bochornosos incidentes que protagonizó contra funcionarios policiales, durante una huelga del Servicio Nacional de Salud”.
  78. ^ Ferrada de Noli was among the “13 MIR-fugitives from justice”, according to El Mercurio (Newspaper), (“Across the terrorist-history of the Left Revolutionary Movement”) "A Través de la Historia Terrorista del Movimiento de Izquierda Revolucionaria (MIR)", Santiago, 25 August 1973. El Mercurio’s retrospective article reports on the arresting near Concepción, 4 August 1969, of Marcello Ferrada Noli, “one of the 13 MIR fugitives of justice against whom an arrest warrant did exist, in connection with the process on subversion activities of the MIR”. Others MIR leaders listed in the warrant were Miguel Enríquez, Bautista van Schouwen, Andrés Pascal Allende and Luciano Cruz.
  79. ^ Newspapers in Concepción report that Ferrada de Noli came near being captured on two occasions, but escaped. Crónica (newspaper), Concepción, 9 July 1969, “Allanado fundo de Los Angeles” (“Search carried out in country state”), reports the failed operation by “a police task force from Santiago de Chile” in a country stated referred as “property of MIR leader Ferrada de Noli’s parents”. There were hidden Ferrada de Noli, Patula Saavedra and Luciano Cruz. “The operative did not give results, but it served to establish a new route of the fugitives”.
  80. ^ La Patria (newspaper), Concepción, 3 August 1969. (MIR’s Marcello Ferrada downed in Chaimávida”). “Cayó el Mirista Marcello Ferrada en Chaimávida”. The article reports on a ‘get away’ by Ferrada de Noli a week before being finally captured 4 August 1969. Ferrada de Noli is reported to have escaped from the police after they spotted him driving away from the university campus, “but the police could not keep him in sight” (“pero los policías le perdieron la vista”)
  81. ^ La Patria (newspaper), Concepción, 3 August 1969 (Id.), writes that Carabineers finally arrested him in a checkpoint near Concepción and kept him under interrogation during the day.
  82. ^ La Patria (newspaper), Concepción, 3 August 1969. (MIR’s Marcello Ferrada downed in Chaimávida”). “Cayó el Mirista Marcello Ferrada en Chaimávida”. From the article: “Aproximately 19.00 PM Ferrada de Noli was made available to the Security Police headquarters (then called “Policía Política”, within Investigations Police of Chile), where he is being interrogated since last night, in connection to the subversion activities of MIR denounced by the government”. (Original: “Cerca de las 19 horas Marcello Ferrada Noli fue puesto a disposición de la prefectura de Investigaciones, donde está siendo interrogado desde anoche en relación con las actividades subversivas del MIR denunciadas por el Gobierno…”). Later that evening Carabineros handed him over to agents of the Security Police for further interrogation at its headquarters.
  83. ^ Crónica (newspaper, since 1984 La Estrella de Concepción), Concepción, 9 August 1969: “The Appeals Court Judge in charge of the investigation on infringements of the Domestic Security Act, declared the university professor Marcello Ferrada Noli free ‘for the time being’, before completing five days incommunicado”. Original Spanish text: “Antes de que cumpliera cinco días de incomunicación, el Ministro a cargo del sumario que se instruye por infracción a la Ley de Seguridad Interior, dejó en libertad al profesor universitario Marcello Ferrada Noli… libre, por ahora”.
  84. ^ Oscar Guardiola-Rivera (2013). “Story of a Death Foretold: The Coup against Salvador Allende, 11 September 1973.” Bloomsbury, London. ISBN 978-140-883-989-8. reports (pages 330-331) that Marcello Ferrada and other members of the MIR “launched resistance operations on the night of 11 September” in the town of Concepción”. Excerpt: “In the town of Concepción, Marcello Ferrada and other members of the MIR moved to their safe houses awaiting orders from the movement’s headquarters in Santiago. The orders were contradictory. Although they launched resistance operations on the night 11 September (1973), Ferrada and his compañeros were obliged to rush from one safe house to another, constantly on the move…” A review of Oscar Guardiola-Rivera’s book in The Guardian, 23 September 2013: [50]
  85. ^ Alejandro Witkers (1975). (“Prison in Chile”). “Prisión en Chile”. Editorial Fondo de Cultura Económica, México. Chapter 3, Item 7, “Long-time confinement…” mentions Marcello Ferrada among the university professors confined in Quiriquina Island. [51]
  86. ^ El Diario Color (newspaper). Concepción, 5 October 1973. In page 3, a picture of Marcello Ferrada de Noli. The caption reads: “In the first row, Marcello Ferrada, ex-professor at the University of Concepción, with a military haircut and very thoughtful. He refused to approach the journalists.”
  87. ^ La Tercera. (“The prisoners in Quiriquina”) “Los presos en La Quiriquina”. Santiago de Chile, 6 Octobre 1973. Full text of photo's caption, translated: “The extremists and the local bosses of the past Marxist regime have been concentrated in Quiriquina Island. The first ones are there because they have attacked the military forces with fire weapons. The second ones, as the case of former governor Fernando Alvarez, for being the intellectual authors of the plan aimed to exterminate officers (of the armed forces) and most prominent members of the opposition”. Fernando Alvarez was killed in Quiriquina Island days after the publication of the photo in La Tercera.”
  88. ^ In 1974, General Augustin Toro, in charge of the 3rd Division (Concepción), and under pressure from Ferrada de Noli's family –several of them officers and commanders at the armed forces and in the judiciary- ordered his release from the Quiriquina camp in exchange of expulsion from the country under military custody. He was airborned to México but escaped in a stopover in Lima, Peru, from where he made his way to Italy. Source: "Ferrada de Noli VS. Pinochet. PART III My Life as Pinochet's Prisoner in Quiriquina Island". [52]
  89. ^ In Rome he testified at the Russell Tribunal on the torture and health conditions of the prisoners at the Quiriquina Island, the Navy Base in Talcahuano, and the Football stadium in Concepción, the places where he has been detained. His 12-page testimony and participation in the Russell Tribunal was found 2017 in the Archive of the Senator Lelio Basso Foundation, organizer of the event. Source: Fondazione Lelio e Lisli Basso – ISSOCO. Fondo: Tribunale Russell II per la repressione in Brasile, Cile e America Latina. Serie 3: Documentazione delle Sessioni: Prima Sessione (Roma, 30 mar. - 5 apr. 1974), sotto serie 2: “Testimonianza di Marcello Ferrada, relativa alla repressione culturale”, 3 aprile 1974. [53]. Excerpted remarks can be seen at [54]. In the Foundation‘s archive also are found two other documents containing Ferrada Noli’s correspondence with Linda Bimbi, secretary of the scientific working committee established after the Tribunal session on Chile, Abril 1974.
  90. ^ French newspaper Le Figaro described the activity as de Noli's "espionage assaying". In article (“In Russia, a curious thesis puts forward to exculpate Damascus”) “En Russie, une curieuse thèse reprise pour exonérer Damas”, authored by the newspaper’s correspondent in Moscow and using a Swedish journalist source, affirms that Ferrada de Noli “sought refuge in Sweden, where, in addition to have assayed espionage, he would have pursued a scientific career...” In French, original text: «il s’est réfugié en Suède, où, en plus de avoir gôuté à l’espionnage, il aurait poursuivi une carrière scientifique, notamment à Harvard et à l’institut suédois Karolinska des Nobel.» [55]
  91. ^ "PART IV. Fighting Pinochet's "Operation Condor" in Scandinavia". 26 February 2018. 
  92. ^ "Professional work in psychotherapy and psychology", Academic CV Academic CV
  93. ^ Dagens Nyheter. (“The professors has sailed in dangerous waters”). “Professorn har seglat i farliga farvatten. 23 July 2008. [56]
  94. ^ Ystads Allehanda. (“Prisoners camp to nice hall”). “Fångläger till finsal”. 25 July 2013.
  95. ^ Expressen, 3 January 2018. [57]
  96. ^ Dagens Nyheter. (“Sweden risks to be a first target”) “Sverige riskerar bli förstahandsmål”. 2 September 2015. [58]. Excerpt “Defence Minister Peter Hultqvist has not proven that an increasing “Vi tycker att den neutralitetspolitik som fanns på Olof Palmes tid…är bättre garanti för Sveriges säkerhet. Detta skulle även medföra att Sverige kan återta en aktiv roll för arbetet med fred och för respekt för de mänskliga rättigheterna i världen.
  97. ^ In the above-referred statement by Professor Danuta Wasserman and Professor Leif Svanström, 12 February 2007 (archived at Karolinska Institute Registra’s Office. N° 1217/2007-2335): “Professor Ferrada-Noli’s research on PTSD and suicidal behavior in a cross-cultural perspective has been internationally recognized, and for that reason he received an academic award from the Instituto Superior de Ciencias Médicas de La Habana, one of Latin America’s oldest and most prestigious medical faculties. The award was reported in The Karolinska Institute’s Year Book 2005.” The motivation for the award is found at the Karolinska Institute notice of 5/10/2005. It reads: “For his academic commitment on behalf of the poor people of the world (…) For his pioneer contribution to epidemiological research”. [59]
  98. ^ 1 July 2007. See Ref. 1.
  99. ^ Conferred by the Swedish Agency for Government Employers, 2007.
  100. ^ Astengo C, Balla M., Brigati I., et al, (1013) "Da Noli a Capo Verde. Antonio de Noli e l’inizio delle scoperte del Nuovo Mondo." Editor Prof. Alberto Peluffo. Marco Sabatelli Editore. Savona, 2013. ISBN 9788888449821 [22]
  101. ^ "Marcello Ferrada de Noli – L'Esistenza". Marcello Ferrada de Noli – L'Esistenza. 

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