Reporters Without Borders

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Reporters Without Borders
Reporters Sans Frontières
RSF 2020 logo min.svg
Logo from 2020 to present
Formation1985
FounderRobert Ménard, Rémy Loury, Jacques Molénat and Émilien Jubineau
TypeNonprofit organization, non-governmental organization with consultant status at the United Nations
HeadquartersParis, France
Director General
Christophe Deloire
(since July 2012)
Key people
Christophe Deloire, Secretary General
Pierre Haski, President RSF France
Mickael Rediske, President RSF Germany
Christian Mihr, CEO RSF Germany
Rubina Möhring, President RSF Austria
Alfonso Armada, President RSF Spain
Gérard Tschopp, President RSF Switzerland
Erik Halkjær, President, RSF Sweden
Jarmo Mäkelä, President, RSF Finland
Budget
€6 million (RSF France)
Staff
Approximately 100
Websitersf.org/en
Protest action in Paris, April 2008, displaying a 'Reporters Without Borders (RSF)' flag depicting the Olympic rings in the form of handcuffs or padlocks, along with the legend 'Beijing 2008'.

Reporters Without Borders (French: Reporters sans frontières; RSF) is an international non-profit and non-governmental organization with the stated aim of safeguarding the right to freedom of information. It describes its advocacy as founded on the belief that everyone requires access to the news and information, in line with Article 19 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights that recognizes the right to receive and share information regardless of frontiers, along with other international rights charters.[1] RSF has consultative status at the United Nations, UNESCO, the Council of Europe, and the International Organisation of the Francophonie.[2]

Activities[edit]

RSF works on the ground in defence of individual journalists at risk and also at the highest levels of government and international forums to defend the right to freedom of expression and information. It provides daily briefings and press releases on threats to media freedom in French, English, Spanish, Portuguese, Arabic, Farsi and Chinese and publishes an annual press freedom round up, the World Press Freedom Index, that measures the state of media freedom in 180 countries. The organization provides assistance to journalists at risk and training in digital and physical security, as well as campaigning to raise public awareness of abuse against journalists and to secure their safety and liberty. RSF lobbies governments and international bodies to adopt standards and legislation in support of media freedom and takes legal action in defence of journalists under threat.[3] In addition, RSF keeps a yearly count of journalists killed on the job.

To mark World Day Against Cyber-Censorship on 12 March, Reporters Without Borders (RSF) unveiled a list of 20 Digital Predators of Press Freedom and announced that it is unblocking access to a total 21 websites in the sixth year of its Operation Collateral Freedom.[4]

History[edit]

Previous logo
Head office in Paris

RSF was founded in Montpellier, France, in 1985 by Robert Ménard, Rémy Loury, Jacques Molénat and Émilien Jubineau. It was registered as a non-profit organization in 1995.[5] Ménard was RSF's first secretary general, succeeded by Jean-Francois Juillard. Christophe Deloire was appointed secretary-general in 2012.[6]

Structure[edit]

RSF's head office is based in Paris. It has 13 regional and national offices, including Brussels, London, Washington, Berlin, Rio de Janeiro, Taipei and Dakar, and a network of 146 correspondents.[7] It employs 57 salaried staff in Paris and internationally.[8] A board of governors, elected from RSF's members, approves the organization's policies.[9] An International Council has oversight of the organization's activities and approves the accounts and budget.[10]

Advocacy[edit]

World Press Freedom Index[edit]

2021 Press Freedom Index[11]

Information and Democracy Initiative[edit]

In 2018, RSF launched the Information and Democracy Commission to introduce new guarantees for freedom of opinion and expression in the global space of information and communication. In a joint mission statement, the Commission's presidents, RSF secretary-general Christophe Deloire and Nobel laureate Shirin Ebadi identified a range of factors currently threatening that freedom. This includes: political control of the media, subjugation of news and information to private interests, the growing influence of corporate actors, online mass disinformation and the erosion of quality journalism.[12]

This Commission published the International Declaration on Information and Democracy to state principles, define objectives and propose forms of governance for the global online space for information and communication.[13] The Declaration emphasised that corporate entities with a structural function in the global space have duties, especially as regards political and ideological neutrality, pluralism and accountability. It called for recognition of the right to information that is diverse, independent and reliable in order to form opinions freely and participate fully in the democratic debate.[13]

At the Paris Peace Forum in 2018, 12 countries launched a political process aimed at providing democratic guarantees for news and information and freedom of opinion, based on the principles set out in the Declaration.[13]

Journalism Trust Initiative[edit]

RSF launched the Journalism Trust Initiative (JTI) in 2018 with its partners the European Broadcasting Union (EBU), Agence France Presse (AFP) and the Global Editors Network (GEN). JTI defines indicators for trustworthy journalism and rewards compliance, bringing tangible benefits for all media outlets and supporting them in creating a healthy space for information. JTI distinguishes itself from similar initiatives by focusing on the process of journalism rather than content alone. Media outlets will be expected to comply with standards that include transparency of ownership, sources of revenue and proof of a range of professional safeguards.[14]

Actions[edit]

RSF's defence of journalistic freedom includes international missions, the publication of country reports, training of journalists and public protests. Recent global advocacy and practical interventions have included: opening a centre for women journalists in Afghanistan in 2017, a creative protest with street-artist C215 in Strasbourg for Turkish journalists in detention, turning off the Eiffel Tower lights in tribute to murdered Saudi journalist Jamal Kashoggi and providing training to journalists and bloggers in Syria.[15][16][17] In July 2018, RSF sent a mission to Saudi Arabia to call for the release of 30 journalists.[18] The organization publishes a gallery of Predators of Press Freedom, highlighting the most egregious international violators of press freedom.[19] It also maintains an online Press Freedom Barometer, monitoring the number of journalists, media workers and citizen journalists killed or imprisoned.[20] Its programme Operation Collateral Freedom, launched in 2014, provides alternative access to censored websites by creating mirror sites: 22 sites have been unblocked in 12 countries, including Iran, China, Saudi Arabia and Vietnam.[21] RSF offers grants to journalists at risk and supports media workers in need of refuge and protection.

Cumhuriyet's former editor-in-chief Can Dündar receiving the 2015 RSF Prize. Shortly thereafter, he was arrested.

Prizes[edit]

RSF's annual Press Freedom Prize, created in 1992, honours courageous and independent journalists who have faced threats or imprisonment for their work and who have challenged the abuse of power. TV5-Monde is a partner in the prize.[citation needed]

A Netizen Prize was introduced in 2010, in partnership with Google, recognizing individuals, including bloggers and cyber-dissidents, who have advanced freedom of information online through investigative reporting or other initiatives.[citation needed]

In 2018, RSF launched new categories for the Press Freedom Prize: courage, independence and impact.[citation needed]

Every few years, RSF also distributes Press freedom predator anti-awards.[22]

Press Freedom Prizewinners 1992–2020[edit]

Netizen Prize[edit]

RWB 2011 Netizen Prize
  • 2010 Change for Equality website, www.we-change.org, women's rights activists, Iran
  • 2011: Nawaat.org, bloggers, Tunisia
  • 2012: Local Coordination Committees of Syria, media centre, citizen journalists and activists, Syria
  • 2013: Huynh Ngoc Chenh, blogger, Vietnam[28]
  • 2014: Raif Badawi, blogger, Saudi Arabia
  • 2015: Zone9, blogger collective, Ethiopia
  • 2016: Lu Yuyu and Li Tingyu, citizen journalists, China[29]

Annual reports[edit]

RSF issues a report annually.

RSF reported that 67 journalists were killed, while 879 were arrested and 38 were abducted in 2012.[30] The number of journalists killed worldwide in 2014 was 66, two-thirds of whom were killed in war zones. The deadliest areas for the journalists in 2014 were Syria, Palestine, Ukraine, Iraq and Libya. The number of journalists convicted by their government rose to 178 in 2014, most of them in Egypt, Ukraine, China, Eritrea and Iran.[31] RSF said that 110 journalists were killed in the course of their work in 2015.[32][33] In 2016, RSF stated that, there were 348 imprisoned journalists and 52 hostages. Nearly two-thirds of imprisoned journalists were in Turkey, China, Syria, Egypt and Iran.[34][35] The RSF's 2017 annual report stated that 65 journalists were killed, 326 journalists were imprisoned and 54 journalists were taken hostage during the year.[36] RSF's 2018 report stated that over 80 journalists were killed, 348 were currently imprisoned, and another 60 were being held hostage.[37][38][39]

Publications[edit]

In addition to its country, regional and thematic reports, RSF publishes a photography book 100 Photos for Press Freedom three times a year as a tool for advocacy and a fundraiser. It is a significant source of income for the organization, raising nearly a quarter of its funds in 2018:[40]

Selected reports[edit]

  • 2016 Freedom of expression under state of emergency, Turkey (with ARTICLE 19 and others)[41]
  • 2016 When oligarchs go shopping[42]
  • 2017 Who owns the media?[43]
  • 2017 Media Ownership Monitor, Ukraine (with Ukrainian Institute of Mass Information)[44]
  • 2018 Women's Rights: forbidden subject[45]
  • 2018 Journalists: the bête noire of organized crime[46]
  • 2018 Cambodia: independent press in ruins[47]
  • 2018 Women's rights: forbidden subject[45]
  • 2019 China's Pursuit of a New World Order Media[48]
  • 2019 Media Ownership Monitor, Pakistan (with Freedom Network)[49]

Statements[edit]

On 22 February 2020, RSF issued a statement condemning the IRGC's call for journalists to be detained in Iran. IRGC intelligence has summoned some journalists[clarification needed] and banned any media activities. Reporters Without Borders described the IRGC's intelligence action as "arbitrary and illegal" and aimed at "preventing journalists from being informed on social media."[50]

Following the outbreak of the Coronavirus in Iran, RSF issued a statement on 6 March expressing concern over the health of imprisoned journalists.[51]

On 16 April 2020, RSF wrote to two United Nations special rapporteurs on Freedom of Expression and Health, urging the United Nations to issue serious warnings to governments that restrict freedom of expression in the context of the coronavirus epidemic. The letter, signed by RSF Director Christian Mihr, stated: "Freedom of the press and access to information are more important than ever at the time of Corona's pandemic."[52]

On 21 April 2020, The RSF based in Paris said that the pandemic had amplified and highlighted many crises and over shadowed freedom of the press. The high representative of the EU, Josep Borrell, stated that the pandemic should not be used to justify the limitation of democratic and civil freedoms and that the rule of law and international commitments should be respected. He said freedom of speech and access to information should not be limited and that measures taken against the pandemic should not be used to restrict human rights advocates, reporters, media staff and institutions of civil societies.[53]

On 25 June 2020, RSF issued a statement entitled "Enforced online repentance, Iran's new method of repression". According to the report, the Revolutionary Guards summoned a number of journalists, writers and human rights activists and threatened to detain them, forcing them to express their regrets or apologies for publishing their comments in cyberspace in order to silence them.[54][clarification needed]

On 25 June 2020, Reporters Without Borders issued a statement entitled "Online Repentance, a New Method of Repression in the Islamic Republic of Iran." According to the report, the Revolutionary Guards summoned and threatened to detain a number of journalists, writers, and human rights activists, forcing them to express regret or apology for posting their views online to silence them. The organization condemned the pressure, threats and silence of social activists.[55][clarification needed]

Funding[edit]

RSF's budget for 2018 totalled €6.1m. Fifty per cent of the organization's income comes from public subsidy; 12 per cent from foundations; 24 per cent from the publication of photography books and 9 per cent from public donations. Foundations supporting RSF's work include the Adessium Foundation, the Directorate-General for International Cooperation and Development, the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency, and Pierre Omidyar.[citation needed]

RSF has been criticised for accepting funding from the National Endowment for Democracy in the US and the Center for a Free Cuba. In response, Secretary-general Robert Ménard stated that funding from NED totalled 0.92 per cent of RSF's budget and was used to support African journalists and their families.[56] RSF stated that it ceased its relationship with the Center for a Free Cuba in 2008.[57]

Recognitions[edit]

RSF has received multiple international awards honouring its achievements:

RSF was criticized for accepting the Dan David Prize, awarded by the Dan David Foundation in Israel, due to the alleged Palestinian journalists killed or arrested in Gaza.[70]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ RSF Annual Report 2018, p5
  2. ^ "Presentation, Reporters Without Borders (RSF), for freedom of information". RSF. 22 January 2016. Archived from the original on 21 April 2020. Retrieved 20 February 2020.
  3. ^ RSF Annual Report 2018, pp14-16
  4. ^ "2020 World Day Against Cyber-Censorship : RSF compiles Digital Predator list, unblocks more censored websites". RSF. 17 February 2016. Archived from the original on 27 September 2020. Retrieved 31 March 2020.
  5. ^ "RSF Presentation". RSF. 22 January 2016. Archived from the original on 21 April 2020. Retrieved 24 February 2020.
  6. ^ "Christophe Deloire appointed Reporters Without Borders director-general". RSF. 21 May 2012. Archived from the original on 19 February 2020. Retrieved 24 February 2020.
  7. ^ RSF Annual Report 2018, pp51-52
  8. ^ RSF Annual Report 2018, p10
  9. ^ "Administration Board". RSF. 26 July 2016. Archived from the original on 24 February 2020. Retrieved 24 February 2020.
  10. ^ "International Council". RSF. 26 July 2016. Archived from the original on 24 February 2020. Retrieved 24 February 2020.
  11. ^ "2021 World Press Freedom Index". Reporters Without Borders. 2021. Archived from the original on 1 February 2017. Retrieved 2 December 2016.
  12. ^ Ebadi, Shirin, et Christophe Deloire (20 July 2018). "Information and Democracy Commission LETTRE DE MISSION" (PDF). Reporters Without Borders. Archived (PDF) from the original on 18 February 2020. Retrieved 18 February 2020.
  13. ^ a b c "RSF Declaration". RSF. 22 August 2019. Archived from the original on 2 March 2020. Retrieved 2 March 2020.
  14. ^ "RSF and partners launch a public consultation on the Journalism Trust Initiative". RSF. 2 March 2020. Archived from the original on 15 January 2020. Retrieved 2 March 2020.
  15. ^ "RSF opens first center for the protection of Afghan women journalists". RSF. 6 March 2017. Archived from the original on 9 July 2020. Retrieved 2 March 2020.
  16. ^ "Turkey's imprisoned journalists pin hopes on European Court". RSF. 29 May 2017. Archived from the original on 2 March 2020. Retrieved 2 March 2020.
  17. ^ "RSF blacks out Eiffel Tower for slain journalists, a month after Khashoggi death". RSF. November 2018. Archived from the original on 2 March 2020. Retrieved 2 March 2020.
  18. ^ "Media watchdog visits Saudi Arabia to free journalists". Al Jazeera. 10 July 2019. Archived from the original on 2 March 2020. Retrieved 2 March 2020.
  19. ^ "Predators gallery". RSF. Archived from the original on 2 November 2019. Retrieved 2 March 2020.
  20. ^ "Barometer". RSF. Archived from the original on 21 February 2020. Retrieved 2 March 2020.
  21. ^ "#CollateralFreedom: RSF unblocks 22 sites censored in their own country". RSF. 11 March 2019. Archived from the original on 27 September 2020. Retrieved 2 March 2020.
  22. ^ "Pakistan rejects naming of PM Khan as press freedom 'predator'".
  23. ^ "Hafnaoui Ghoul freed provisionally after being held for six months for libel". RSF. 26 November 2004. Archived from the original on 25 September 2020. Retrieved 5 March 2020.
  24. ^ "N. Korean Defectors Fight Regime with the Radio". NPR. 24 October 2006. Retrieved 5 March 2020.
  25. ^ 4 December 2009. ""Reporters Without Borders" award "Dosh" magazine from Chechnya". Caucasian Knot. Archived from the original on 3 January 2021. Retrieved 5 March 2020.
  26. ^ "Journalist Abdolreza Tajik, 2010 press freedom prize winner, is freed from prison". RSF. 23 December 2010. Archived from the original on 25 September 2020. Retrieved 5 March 2020.
  27. ^ "US, Uzbekistan – RSF welcomes Muhammad Bekjanov, once the world's longest-detained journalist, to Washington". RSF. 21 September 2018. Archived from the original on 29 July 2020. Retrieved 5 March 2020.
  28. ^ "Reporters Without Borders Awards Vietnamese blogger Huynh Ngoc Chenh | Reporters without borders". RSF. 7 March 2013. Archived from the original on 17 January 2021. Retrieved 18 December 2020.
  29. ^ "Lu Yuyu and Li Tingyu, the activists who put non news in the news". CLB. 18 August 2017. Archived from the original on 24 March 2020. Retrieved 5 March 2020.
  30. ^ "News providers decimated in 2012". rsf. 19 December 2012. Archived from the original on 26 July 2020. Retrieved 26 July 2020.
  31. ^ "World press freedom index 2014". rsf.org. 2014. Archived from the original on 1 January 2020. Retrieved 25 June 2020.
  32. ^ "One of the most oppressive countries". rsf.org. 2015. Archived from the original on 19 January 2018. Retrieved 24 June 2020.
  33. ^ "گزارشگران بدون مرز: ایران رتبه سوم جهان را در زندانی کردن روزنامه نگاران دارد". BBC News فارسی (in Persian). 15 December 2015. Archived from the original on 14 December 2016. Retrieved 7 July 2020.
  34. ^ "Worldwide Press Freedom Index 2016". nationsonline.org. 2016. Archived from the original on 13 May 2020. Retrieved 23 June 2020.
  35. ^ "Iran Ranked 169th on 2016 World Press Freedom Index". journalismisnotacrime. 21 April 2016. Archived from the original on 29 June 2020. Retrieved 23 June 2020.
  36. ^ "2017 World Press Freedom Index – tipping point". rsf.org. 2017. Archived from the original on 8 June 2020. Retrieved 22 June 2020.
  37. ^ "Iranian journalists sentenced to imprisonment, flogging". refworld.org. Archived from the original on 17 June 2020. Retrieved 30 August 2018.
  38. ^ "RSF's 2018 round-up of deadly attacks and abuses against journalists – figures up in all categories". rsf.org. 14 December 2018. Archived from the original on 30 May 2020. Retrieved 18 December 2018.
  39. ^ "2020 WORLD PRESS FREEDOM INDEX MAP PRESENTATION INDEX DETAILS ANALYSES METHODOLOGY". rsf.org. 2018. Archived from the original on 10 June 2020. Retrieved 17 June 2020.
  40. ^ "Albums Photo". RSF. Archived from the original on 9 March 2020. Retrieved 5 March 2020.
  41. ^ "Turkey: "You cannot report the news under the state of emergency". RSF. 5 October 2016. Archived from the original on 25 September 2020. Retrieved 5 March 2020.
  42. ^ ""Media: when oligarchs go shopping" – RSF's latest report". RSF. 20 July 2016. Archived from the original on 23 December 2017. Retrieved 5 March 2020.
  43. ^ "Who owns the media in France?". RSF. 8 December 2017. Archived from the original on 13 August 2020. Retrieved 5 March 2020.
  44. ^ "Media Ownership in Ukraine: informal influence through murky business schemes". RSF. 9 October 2017. Archived from the original on 21 September 2020. Retrieved 5 March 2020.
  45. ^ a b "RSF shines light on "forbidden coverage" of women's rights". 1 March 2018. Archived from the original on 8 April 2020. Retrieved 5 March 2020.
  46. ^ "RSF report on journalists who are targeted by organized crime". 26 November 2018. Archived from the original on 12 August 2019. Retrieved 5 March 2020.
  47. ^ "RSF publishes report on media freedom under attack in Cambodia". RSF. 13 February 2018. Archived from the original on 23 April 2020. Retrieved 5 March 2020.
  48. ^ "RSF Report: "China's Pursuit of a New World Media Order"". RSF. 22 March 2019. Archived from the original on 29 May 2020. Retrieved 5 March 2020.
  49. ^ "Media Ownership Monitor: Pakistan a high-risk country in terms of media pluralism". RSF. 18 July 2019. Archived from the original on 13 February 2020. Retrieved 5 March 2020.
  50. ^ "Iran's War on Journalism and Journalists". United Against Nuclear Iran. Archived from the original on 8 December 2020. Retrieved 7 January 2021.
  51. ^ "Iran: Press freedom violations recounted in real time January 2020". rsf.org. 29 June 2020. Archived from the original on 5 May 2020. Retrieved 1 July 2020.
  52. ^ "RSF complains to UN about coronavirus press freedom violations". rsf.org. 14 April 2020. Archived from the original on 3 July 2020. Retrieved 3 July 2020.
  53. ^ "Coronavirus pandemic 'amplifies press freedom threats'". FRANCE24. 21 April 2020. Archived from the original on 29 April 2020. Retrieved 21 September 2020.
  54. ^ "Enforced online repentance, Iran's new method of repression". rsf.org. 25 June 2020. Archived from the original on 27 June 2020. Retrieved 26 June 2020.
  55. ^ "Enforced online repentance, Iran's new method of repression". rsf. 25 June 2020. Archived from the original on 27 June 2020. Retrieved 26 June 2020.
  56. ^ Campbell, Duncan (19 May 2005). "Bias claim against reporters' group". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 7 February 2021. Retrieved 5 March 2020.
  57. ^ "Reporters Without Borders keeps UNESCO consultative status, condemns disinformation". RSF. 13 March 2012. Archived from the original on 25 February 2021. Retrieved 5 March 2020.
  58. ^ "Previous Natali Prize winners". International Federation of Journalists. 2002-10-14. Retrieved 2022-06-26.
  59. ^ "OSCE journalism prize awarded to Christiane Amanpour". OSCE. 1999-04-23. Retrieved 2022-06-26.
  60. ^ "Ladies, Ibrahim and Reporters joint Sakharov prize winners" Archived 20 June 2020 at the Wayback Machine, European Parliament, 27 June 2006
  61. ^ Huang, Jewel (2006-12-26). "Reporters Without Borders wins Asia Democracy and Human Rights award". Taipei Times. Retrieved 2022-06-26.
  62. ^ "Reportrar utan gränser har tilldelats det nyinstiftade Dawit Isaak-priset". Journalisten (in Swedish). Archived from the original on 2022-06-26. Retrieved 2022-06-26.
  63. ^ "Tenth Annual Kahlil Gibran "Spirit of Humanity" Awards Gala to Honor Refugees International, Reporters Without Borders for Commitment to Advocacy, U.S. Rep. Ray LaHood of Illinois, Barenboim-Said Foundation". Arab America. 2008-03-20.
  64. ^ "Roland Berger Human Dignity Award goes to Reporters Without Borders and Shirin Ebadi". Reports Without Borders. 25 March 2009. Archived from the original on 3 April 2015. Retrieved 3 March 2012.
  65. ^ "Reporter ohne Grenzen". Medaille Charlemagne (in German). Retrieved 2022-06-26.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  66. ^ "Entrega de los premios del 50º aniversario del Club Internacional de Prensa". Casa real (in Spanish). 2012-04-18. Retrieved 2022-06-23.
  67. ^ "Reporters Without Borders, Laureate of the International Association of Press Clubs Award" Archived 15 October 2013 at the Wayback Machine, Reporters Without Borders, 4 June 2013. Retrieved 2 January 2013.
  68. ^ "International recognition" Archived 21 April 2020 at the Wayback Machine, Reporters Without Borders, 4 June 2013. Retrieved 8 November 2016.
  69. ^ "Dan David Prize awarded to Reporters Without Borders (RSF) for its contribution in the field of Defending Democracy". RSF. 20 May 2019. Archived from the original on 24 September 2020. Retrieved 5 March 2020.
  70. ^ Abunimah, Ali (2 June 2019). "Reporters Sans Frontières reçoit le prix du régime assassin de journalistes (The Electronic Intifada)". Le Grand Soir. Archived from the original on 29 September 2020. Retrieved 5 March 2020.

External links[edit]