In 2006, the Basketball Federation of Montenegro along with this team joined the International Basketball Federation (FIBA) on its own following the Independence of Montenegro.
The Montenegrin national team entered international competition in 2008, and appointed Duško Vujošević as the national coach. Montenegro started from FIBA Division B, where they won first place on their first competitive season. Since becoming a separate team, Montenegro have won 13 official games in a row, until losing to Israel in August 2010.
At that time, NBA players like Nikola Vučević and Nikola Peković became most known players of Montenegrin national basketball team.
In their first qualifiers for EuroBasket, Montenegro finished first in group. So, team qualified for Eurobasket 2011, where they played five games in the first phase - with one win and four loses. Coach of Montenegro at their first ever EuroBasket was Dejan Radonjić.
In August 2012, with the new coach Luka Pavićević, Montenegro started qualifiers for Eurobasket 2013. Again, they won first place, but without any defeat from 10 matches. Notable matches were against Serbia, first after the two countries separated. Montenegro won both games, and victory in Belgrade (73:71), in front of 18,000 spectators, is gained by Nikola Ivanović three-point shot from the center, one second before the end of match.
As a first-placed team in qualifiers, Montenegro participated at Eurobasket 2013 in Slovenia. They made better result than 2011, with two wins and three defeats, but that was not enough for second phase of EuroBasket.
First unsuccessful qualifying campaign since independence, Montenegro had during the 2014. Surprisingly, group stage at the EuroBasket 2015 qualification, Montenegro finished third, so they failed to qualify for final tournament.
Bogdan Tanjević is a current head coach of Montenegro
Since independence, all head coaches were Montenegrin-born. First head coach of Montenegro was Duško Vujošević. With him, Montenegro won FIBA B division championship (2009). From 2010 to 2012, Montenegro was coached by Dejan Radonjić and, for the first time played on Eurobasket (2011). At their next Eurobasket participation (2013) Montenegro was led by Luka Pavićević. From 2015, head coach of Montenegro is Bogdan Tanjević.