Mukhmas

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Mukhmas
Other transcription(s)
 • Arabicمُخماس
Mikhmas from the west
Mikhmas from the west
Mukhmas is located in the Palestinian territories
Mukhmas
Mukhmas
Location of Mukhmas within Palestine
Coordinates: 31°52′22″N 35°16′37″E / 31.87278°N 35.27694°E / 31.87278; 35.27694Coordinates: 31°52′22″N 35°16′37″E / 31.87278°N 35.27694°E / 31.87278; 35.27694
Palestine grid176/142
GovernorateJerusalem
Government
 • TypeVillage council
Population
(2006)
 • Jurisdiction1,878
Name meaningMichmash [1]

Mikhmas (Arabic: مُخماس‎) is a Palestinian village in the Jerusalem Governorate, located Northeast of Jerusalem in the central West Bank. According to the Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics, the town had a population of 1,878 in 2006.[2]

Location[edit]

Mikhmas is located 11.2 kilometers (7.0 mi) (horizontally) north-east of Jerusalem. It is bordered by Deir Dibwan to the east and north, Burqa to the west, and Jaba' to the south.[3]

History[edit]

Byzantine remains found by Clermont-Ganneau in Mukhmas

Ceramics from the Byzantine era have been found here.[4] Clermont-Ganneau also found Byzantine remains here, speculating that they might be from the convent found by abbot Firminus, a disciple of St. Sabas.[5]

The SWP noted about Mikhmas: "In the village are remains of old masonry, apparendy a church. A pillar-shaft is built into a wall in the north-west corner of the village. Two lintel stones are built over the door of another house, one with three crosses in circles, the second with a design apparently cut in half."[6]

Ottoman era[edit]

Mukhmas was incorporated into the Ottoman Empire in 1517 with all of Palestine, and in 1596 it appeared in the tax registers as being in the nahiya of Al-Quds in the liwa of Al-Quds under the name of Mihmas. It had a population of 24 household;[7] who were all Muslims. They paid a fixed Ziamet tax-rate of 33,3 % on agricultural products, including wheat, barley, olive trees, fruit trees, goats and beehives, in addition to occasional revenues; a total of 2,200 akçe.[7]

In 1838, it was noted as a Muslim village, Mukhmas, located in the area immediately north of Jerusalem.[8][9]

In 1863, Victor Guérin observed a great number of sizeable antique stones in the modern houses. About thirty cisterns and silos dug in the rock also dated back to antiquity.[10] An Ottoman village list of about 1870 showed that Muchmas had 36 houses and a population of 120, though the population count included men, only.[11][12]

In 1883 the Palestine Exploration Fund's Survey of Western Palestine (SWP) described Mukhmas as: "A small stone village on the slope of a ridge. The houses are poor and scattered. The water supply is from cisterns. It has a well to the east, and some scattered figs to the west. On the north are rock-cut tombs; an ancient road leads past the place. There are foundations and remains of former buildings in the village; on the south a steep slope leads clown to the great valley, Wady Suweinit. This place is the ancient Michmash, which is placed by the Onomasticon 9 Roman miles from Jerusalem. The distance is 7 1/2 English or 8 Roman miles in a line."[13]

In 1896 the population of Muchmas was estimated to be about 288 persons.[14]

British Mandate era[edit]

In the 1922 census of Palestine conducted by the British Mandate authorities, Mukhmas had a population of 361,[15] increasing in the 1931 census to 404 inhabitants, in 80 houses.[16]

In the 1945 statistics, Mukhmas had a population of 540 Muslims,[17] and a land area of 13,479 dunams.[18] Of this, 569 dunams were designated for plantations and irrigable land, 2,274 for cereals,[19] while 28 dunams were built-up, urban land.[20]

Jordanian era[edit]

In the wake of the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, and after the 1949 Armistice Agreements, Mukhmas came under Jordanian rule.

The Jordanian census of 1961 found 774 inhabitants.[21]

Post 1967[edit]

After the Six-Day War in 1967, Mukhmas has been under Israeli occupation. After the 1995 accords, about 6.4% of the village land was defined as Area B land, while the remaining 93.6% was defined as Area C.[22]

The Israelis have confiscated land in Mukhmas for its military bases, roads, and Israeli settlements, including Sha'ar Binyamin and Ma'ale Mikhmas.[22] In 2010, Israeli Settlers from Ofra and Migron uprooted several hundred olive trees owned by the people of Mukhmas.[22]

In 2011, Israeli settlers from Ma'ale Mikhmas set fire to about a hundred olive trees, belonging to the people of Mukhmas.[22]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Palmer, 1881, p. 323
  2. ^ Projected Mid -Year Population for Jerusalem Governorate by Locality 2004- 2006 Archived 2012-02-07 at the Wayback Machine Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics.
  3. ^ Mikhmas village profile, ARIJ, p. 4
  4. ^ Dauphin, 1998, pp. 841–2
  5. ^ Clermont-Ganneau, 1896, pp. 282-283
  6. ^ Conder and Kitchener, 1883, SWP III, p. 149
  7. ^ a b Hütteroth and Abdulfattah, 1977, p. 116
  8. ^ Robinson and Smith, 1841, vol. 3, 2nd appendix, p. 122
  9. ^ Robinson and Smith, 1841, vol. 2, pp. 115, 117
  10. ^ Guérin, 1869, p. 63
  11. ^ Socin, 1879, p. 158 It was also noted to be in the Bire district
  12. ^ Hartmann, 1883, p. 127, noted 35 houses
  13. ^ Conder and Kitchener, 1883, SWP III, p. 12
  14. ^ Schick, 1996, p. 121, also writes that this locality is on Socin, p. 153. That is clearly a typo, this place is on Socin, p. 158 (The number of male inhabitants given in Socin, 120, is correct)
  15. ^ Barron, 1923, Table VII, Sub-district of Jerusalem, p. 14
  16. ^ Mills, 1932, p. 41
  17. ^ Government of Palestine, Department of Statistics, 1945, p. 25
  18. ^ Government of Palestine, Department of Statistics. Village Statistics, April, 1945. Quoted in Hadawi, 1970, p. 57
  19. ^ Government of Palestine, Department of Statistics. Village Statistics, April, 1945. Quoted in Hadawi, 1970, p. 103
  20. ^ Government of Palestine, Department of Statistics. Village Statistics, April, 1945. Quoted in Hadawi, 1970, p. 153
  21. ^ Government of Jordan, Department of Statistics, 1964, p. 24
  22. ^ a b c d Mikhmas village profile, ARIJ, pp. 16-17

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]