Abd al-Hafid of Morocco
|Abd al-Hafid of Morocco|
عبد الحفيظ بن الحسن العلوي
|Sultan of Morocco|
|Reign||1909 – 30 March 1912|
|Predecessor||Abdelaziz of Morocco|
|Successor||Vacant until August 1912|
Ahmed al-Hiba (in Marrakesh)
|Died|| (aged 62)|
|House||House of Alaoui|
Abdelhafid of Morocco (Arabic: عبد الحفيظ بن الحسن العلوي) or Mulai Abdelhafid (24 February 1875, in Fes – 4 April 1937, in Enghien-les-Bains) (Arabic: عبد الحفيظ) was the Sultan of Morocco from 1908 to 1912 and a member of the Alaouite Dynasty. His younger brother, Abdelaziz of Morocco, preceded him. While Mulai Abdelhafid initially opposed his brother for giving some concessions to foreign powers, he himself became increasingly backed by the French and finally signed the protectorate treaty giving de facto control of the country to France.
After his brother, Abdelaziz appointed him as caliph of Marrakech, Abdelhafid sought to have him overthrown by fomenting distrust over Abdelaziz's European ties. He was aided by Madani al-Glaoui, older brother of T'hami, one of the Caids of the Atlas. He was assisted in the training of his troops by Andrew Belton (Kaid), a British officer and veteran of the Second Boer War. For a brief period Abdelaziz reigned from Rabat while Abdelhafid reigned in Marrakech and Fes was disputed. In 1908 Abdelaziz was defeated in battle. In 1909, he became the recognized leader of Morocco.
In 1911, rebellion broke out against the Sultan. This led to the Agadir Crisis, also known as the Second Moroccan Crisis. These events led Abdelhafid to abdicate after signing the Treaty of Fez on 30 March 1912, which made Morocco a French protectorate. He signed his abdication only when on the quay in Rabat, with the ship that would take him to France already waiting. After an extended visit to France, where he received a great deal of attention from the press, he returned to Morocco and was exiled to the Dar el Makhzen (Sultanate Palace) in Tangier.
His brother Yusef was proclaimed Sultan by the French administration several months later (13 August 1912). Yusef was chosen by some dignitaries of Rabat which wasn't the capital of Morocco at the time.
- "Abd al-Hafid". Encyclopædia Britannica. I: A-Ak – Bayes (15th ed.). Chicago, IL: Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. 2010. p. 14. ISBN 978-1-59339-837-8.
- There is uncertainty about his exact birthdate. Some sources list either 1875 or 1880 without any month or day listed
- Biography of Mulai Abd al Hafiz
- New York Times, November 4, 1908
- W. Harris, "Morocco That Was", ISBN 0-907871-13-5
- Long, David E.; Bernard Reich (2002). The Government and Politics of the Middle East and North Africa. p. 393.
- "Journal Officiel" (PDF). 1 November 1912. Retrieved 22 October 2013.
- Morocco Alaoui dynasty
- History of Morocco
- Newspaper clippings about Abd al-Hafid of Morocco in the 20th Century Press Archives of the ZBW
| Sultan of Morocco