Mutesa II of Buganda
||This article needs attention from an expert in Uganda. The specific problem is: unclear use of titles Ugandan royalty. (February 2015)|
|Kabaka of Buganda|
|Reign||22 November 1939 – 21 November 1969|
|coronation||19 November 1942 (at Buddo)|
|Predecessor||Daudi Cwa II of Buganda|
|Successor||Muwenda Mutebi II of Buganda|
|1st President of Uganda|
|Term||9 October 1963 – 2 March 1966 (Deposed)|
as Queen of Uganda
19 November 1924|
|Died||21 November 1969
Rotherhithe, London, United Kingdom
|Consort||1. Naabakyaala Damali Catherine Nnakawombe, the Naabagereka
2. Lady Edith Kasozi
3. Omubiitokati Beatrice Kabasweka
4. Lady Kate Ndagire
5. Naabakyaala Sarah Nalule
6. Muzaana Nalwooga
7. Lady Nesta M. Rugumayo
8. Lady Kaakako Rwanchwende
9. Lady Winifred Keihangwe
10. Lady Zibiah Wangari Ngatho
11. Lady Catherine Karungu
12. Lady Naome Nanyonga
13. Lady Margaret Nakato
|Issue||12 sons and 9 daughters|
|Father||Daudi Cwa II of Buganda|
|Mother||Abakyala Irene Drusilla Namaganda|
Major General Sir Edward Frederick William David Walugembe Mutebi Luwangula Muteesa II KBE (19 November 1924 – 21 November 1969), was Kabaka of the Kingdom of Buganda from 22 November 1939 until his death. He was the thirty-fifth Kabaka of Buganda and the first President of Uganda. The foreign press often referred to him as King Freddie, a name rarely used in Uganda.
Mutesa was born at the house of Albert Ruskin Cook in Makindye, Kampala, on 19 November 1924, the fifth son of Daudi Cwa II of Buganda KCMG KBE, Kabaka of Buganda, who reigned between 1897 and 1939. His mother was Lady Irene Drusilla Namaganda, of the Nte clan. He was educated at King's College Budo, a prestigious school in Uganda.
Upon the death of his father on 22 November 1939, he was proclaimed Kabaka at the age of fifteen and was installed outside the Lubiri at Mengo on 26 November 1939. He reigned under a Council of Regents until he came of age and assumed full powers.
He attended King's College Budo before he went to England to complete his education at Magdalene College, Cambridge, where he joined the University Officer Training Corps and was subsequently commissioned as a captain in the Grenadier Guards.
The years between 1945 and 1950 saw widespread protests against both the Governor of Uganda's and King Mutesa's governments. In the early 1950s the British Government floated the idea of uniting British East Africa (Uganda, Kenya and Tanganyika) into a federation. Africans feared that this would lead to their coming under the control of Kenya's white settler community, as had happened in Rhodesia. The Baganda, fearing they would lose the limited autonomy they had under British rule, were particularly opposed. Mutesa himself opposed the proposal, and thus came into conflict with the British Governor, Sir Andrew Cohen. In 1953, the Lukiiko (Parliament) of Buganda sought independence from Uganda, with Mutesa himself demanding that Buganda be separated from the rest of the protectorate of Uganda and transferred to Foreign Office jurisdiction. Cohen's response was to depose and exile the Kabaka, creating massive protests among the Baganda. Mutesa's forced departure made him a martyr in the eyes of the Baganda, whose latent separatism set off a storm of protest. Cohen could find no one among the Baganda willing and able to mobilise support for his schemes. After two years of unrelenting Ganda hostility and obstruction, Cohen was forced to reinstate "Kabaka Freddie", who returned to Kampala on 17 October 1955 under a negotiated settlement which made him a constitutional monarch and gave the Baganda the right to elect representatives to the kingdom's parliament, the Lukiiko. Mutesa's standing up to Cohen greatly boosted his popularity in the kingdom.
In 1962 Uganda became independent from Britain under the leadership of Milton Obote. Under the country's new constitution, the Kingdom of Buganda became a semi-autonomous part of a new Ugandan federation. The federal Prime Minister was Obote, the leader of the Uganda People's Congress, which entered a governing coalition with the dominant Buganda regional party, Kabaka Yekka. The post of Governor General was abolished with the attainment of republican status and replaced by a non-executive President, a post first held by Mutesa.
In 1964 the coalition between Mutesa and Obote's parties collapsed over the imposition, against Mutesa's will, of a referendum to decide the fate of two "lost counties". Residents of the two counties voted overwhelmingly in favour of their return from Buganda to Bunyoro. In 1966 Mutesa's estrangement from Obote merged with another crisis. Obote faced a possible removal from office by factional infighting within his own party. He had the other four leading members of his party arrested and detained, and then suspended the federal constitution and declared himself President of Uganda in February 1966, deposing Mutesa. The Buganda regional Parliament passed a resolution in May 1966 declaring that de jure Buganda's incorporation into Uganda had ended with the suspension of the constitution and requesting the federal government to vacate the capital city, which was in Buganda. Obote responded with an armed attack upon the King's palace, sending Mutesa into exile in the United Kingdom via Burundi, and in 1967 a new constitution abolished all of Uganda's kingdoms, including Buganda.
The final years
While in exile, Mutesa wrote an autobiography, The Desecration of My Kingdom.
Mutesa died of alcohol poisoning in his London flat, No. 28 Orchard House in Rotherhithe, in 1969. Identified by the British police as suicide, the death has been viewed as assassination by those who claim Mutesa may have been force-fed vodka by agents of the Obote regime. Mutesa was interviewed in his flat only a few hours before his death by the British journalist John Simpson, who found that he was sober and in good spirits. Simpson reported this to the police the following day on hearing of Mutesa's death, but this line of inquiry was not pursued.
After Mutesa's body had been embalmed by Desmond Henley, it was returned to Uganda in 1971 after the overthrow of Obote and given a state funeral at Kasubi Nabulagala. Ironically, the new President who ordered the state funeral was Idi Amin, who as Army Commander had led the assault on Mutesa's palace in 1966. It is said that while in exile in London, King Freddie lived in poverty.
Mutesa married Lady Damali in 1948. He is said to have fathered many children with her and twelve other women:
- Naabakyaala Damali Catherine Nnakawombe, the Naabagereka, daughter of Christopher Kisosonkole of the Nkima clan. Wedding on 19 November 1948 at St. Paul's Cathedral Namirembe.
- Lady Edith Kasozi
- Omubiitokati (Princess) Beatrice Kabasweka, a Mutoro from Toro.
- Lady Kate Ndagire. Married in 1950
- Naabakyaala Sarah Nalule, Omuzaana Kabejja, sister of the Naabagereka, and daughter of Christopher Kisosonkole of the Nkima clan. Married in 1954.
- Lady Nalwooga. She died in 2003.
- Lady Nesta M. Rugumayo, a Mutoro, from Toro
- Lady Kaakako Rwanchwende, a Munyankole princess from Ankole.
- Lady Winifred Keihangwe, a Munyankole princess from Ankole. She was imprisoned by Milton Obote and released only shortly before going into labour, in 1966.
- Lady Zibiah Wangari Ngatho, a Kikuyu, from Nairobi, Kenya.
- Lady Catherine Karungu, a Munyankole princess from Ankole
- Lady Naome Nanyonga, of Nsenene clan from Masaka Buddu. Naome Nanyonga was a midwife and is the founder of Sunga Maternity Hospital. She died in 2006.
- Lady Margaret Nakato of Nkumba, Busiro County.
Mutesa is recorded to have fathered at least 12 sons and 9 daughters:
- citation needed] [
- Prince (Omulangira) Daudi Kintu Wasajja, whose mother was Winifred Keihangwe. He was born in Kampala in May 1966, after his father had left Uganda. He was educated at Nottingham University in the UK, graduating with a Bachelor of Arts. He worked as an executive underwriter for Pan World Insurance Company and as a regional retail manager for Celtel (Uganda) Limited (now Airtel Uganda Limited). He is a member of Buganda Land Board, Kabira Country Club, Hash Harriers Athletic Club, and others. Lives in Kampala.
- citation needed] [
- Princess (Omumbejja) Catherine Agnes Nabaloga, whose mother was Kate Ndagire. She was installed as the Lubuga at the coronation of her brother Kabaka Ronald Muwenda Mutebi II, the thirty-sixth Kabaka of Buganda, who has reigned since 1993. Princess Nabaloga is the patron of Buganda Heritage Association in Denmark, founded in 1998. She holds a Doctor of Philosophy degree in linguistics.
- Princess (Omumbejja) Alice Mpologoma Zaalwango, whose mother was Edith Kasozi. She was born in 1961. She was educated at Gayaza Junior School, Kibuli High School, and Makerere University. She died in Pretoria, South Africa from breast cancer on 23 March 2005. She is buried at Kasubi.
- Princess (Omumbejja) Stella Alexandria Sserwamutanda Ndagire. Born in Nairobi, Kenya. Her mother was Zibiah Wangari Ngatho, a Kikuyu. She was raised in Kampala and Nairobi. Settled in Atlanta, Georgia, U.S.
- citation needed] [
- Princess (Omumbejja) Gertrude Christine Nabanakulya Tebattagwabwe. Was born at Mengo Hospital on 20 August 1964. Her mother is Margaret Nakato of Nkumba, Busiro County. Grew up in Uganda until age 9 years, when she relocated to London, England. Studied to become an accountant. Moved back to Uganda in May 2013.
- citation needed] [
- "The Early Life of Edward Frederick Walugembe Muteesa II". Royalark.net. Retrieved 6 October 2014.
- Boddy-Evans, Alistair. "Edward Frederick Mutesa II: First President of Uganda". About.com – African History. Retrieved 6 October 2014.
- The Editors, . "Mutesa II: King of Buganda". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 6 October 2014.
- Kavuma-Kaggwa, JM (15 November 2013). "Tracing The Life And Legacy of Sir Edward Muteesa II". The Independent (Uganda). Retrieved 6 October 2014.
- "Mutesa II". Oxford DNB. Retrieved 24 December 2013.
- "In Memoriam Desmond C. Henley". Internet. Christopher Henley Limited 2008 – 2010. Retrieved 8 March 2014.
- "Sir Edward Muteesa II Is Buried At Kasubi". Buganda.com. Retrieved 6 October 2014.
- "The Consorts of Sir Edward Muteesa II". Royalark.net. Retrieved 6 October 2014.
- Mwagiru, Ciugu (30 May 2015). "The Kikuyu Village Girl Who Became A Queen In Buganda". The EastAfrican (Nairobi). Retrieved 30 May 2015.
- Serunjogi, Titus (18 May 2006). "Meet The Kabaka's Illustrious Brothers". New Vision (Kampala). Retrieved 6 October 2014.
- Serunjogi, Titus (27 April 2006). "Traditional And Modern: Meet The Kabaka's Sisters". New Vision (Kampala). Retrieved 6 October 2014.
- Kalema, Ndawula (10 April 2005). "Farewell To The People's Princess". New Vision (Kampala). Retrieved 6 October 2014.
- "List of The Children of Sir Edward Muteesa II". Royalark.net. Retrieved 6 October 2014.
- Anthony Ssempereza, and Herbert Musoke (10 February 2014). "Here Is The Previously Missing Child of King Edward Frederick Walugembe Muteesa II". Bukedde Newspaper (Kampala). Retrieved 6 October 2014.
Daudi Chwa II
|Kabaka of Buganda
22 November 1939 – 21 November 1969
Title next held byRonald Muwenda Mutebi II
as Queen of Uganda
|President of Uganda
9 October 1963 – 2 March 1966