In 2014, a genetic study revealed that Peruvian human skeleton dating to 1000 CE had been infected with a form of tuberculosis most closely related to M. pinnipedii, suggesting that seals had served as a vector for transmission of tuberculosis from the Old World to the New.
^ abCousins, DV; Bastida, R; Cataldi, A; Quse, V; Redrobe, S; Dow, S; Duignan, P; Murray, A; et al. (2003). "Tuberculosis in seals caused by a novel member of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex: Mycobacterium pinnipedii sp. Nov". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology53 (Pt 5): 1305–14. doi:10.1099/ijs.0.02401-0. PMID13130011.