Mysłowice

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Mysłowice
Part of Old Town and a chapel from 1745
Part of Old Town and a chapel from 1745
Flag of Mysłowice
Coat of arms of Mysłowice
Mysłowice is located in Poland
Mysłowice
Mysłowice
Mysłowice is located in Silesian Voivodeship
Mysłowice
Mysłowice
Coordinates: 50°14′N 19°8′E / 50.233°N 19.133°E / 50.233; 19.133Coordinates: 50°14′N 19°8′E / 50.233°N 19.133°E / 50.233; 19.133
Country Poland
VoivodeshipPOL województwo śląskie flag.svg Silesian
Countycity county
First mentioned1308
Town rights1360
Government
 • MayorDariusz Wójtowicz
Area
 • City65.75 km2 (25.39 sq mi)
Population
 (December 2018)
 • City74,586 Decrease (47th)
 • Density1,130/km2 (2,900/sq mi)
 • Urban
2,746,000
 • Metro
4,620,624
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+2 (CEST)
Postal code
41-400 to 41-412
Area code(s)+48 32
Car platesSM
Primary airportKatowice Airport
HighwaysA4-PL.svg S1-PL.svg
National roadsDK79-PL.svg
Voivodeship roadsDW934-PL.svg
Websitehttp://www.myslowice.pl

Mysłowice [mɨswɔˈvʲit͡sɛ] (Silesian: Myslowicy; German: Myslowitz) is a city in Silesia in southern Poland, near Katowice. The population of the city as of 2018 is 74,586.

It is located in the south district of the Upper Silesian Metropolitan Union in the Silesian Highlands, on the Przemsza and Brynica rivers (tributaries of the Vistula). It is situated in the Silesian Voivodeship since its formation in 1999, previously in the Katowice Voivodeship, and before then, the Autonomous Silesian Voivodeship. Mysłowice is one of the cities comprising the 2.7 million conurbation – Katowice urban area and within the greater Silesian metropolitan area with a population of about 5,294,000.[1]

History[edit]

Mysłowice town hall

Mysłowice is one of the oldest towns in Upper Silesia. Located at the confluence of the White and Black Przemsza rivers, it is situated on an important trading route from Wrocław to Kraków. The earliest traces of the modern settlement date back to the 12th and 13th century, when it was part of Piast-ruled Poland. The first mention of a parish priest is found in a document from 1306. In 1360, Mysłowice was already referred to as a town.

Over the centuries the ownership of the town changed frequently, as did the borders between different countries. After the foundation of the German Empire in 1871 the area became known as Dreikaisereck ("triangle of the three emperors"), as it was situated at the point where the Austrian, German and Russian Empires adjoined. After World War I, in 1918, Poland regained independence, and in 1919, local Polish miners organized large protests in Mysłowice.[2] On August 15, 1919, the German Grenzschutz opened fire on protesting Polish miners and their families.[2] Seven miners, two women and a teenage boy were killed, and many people were wounded.[2] The event, known as the "Mysłowice massacre", sparked the First Silesian Uprising against Germany.[2] In 1921, the Upper Silesia plebiscite was held, in which 56% of the residents of Myslowitz voted to remain in Germany and 44% voted to rejoin Poland, while the overwhelming majority in the present-day districts (then surrounding villages) of Brzezinka, Brzęczkowice, Dziećkowice, Kosztowy, Krasowy and Wesoła opted to reintegrate with Poland, with the result ranging from 77.3% voting for Poland in Brzęczkowice to 96.7% in Wesoła.[3][4] After the Silesian Uprisings in 1922, Mysłowice and the rest of East Upper Silesia became part of the newly restored Second Polish Republic.

During the German occupation of Poland (World War II), the Germans operated a Nazi prison in the town.[5] Many Polish children passed through the prison during the implementation of the Nazi genocidal policy towards Polish families in Silesia.[6] In the Wesoła district, the Germans also established and operated a forced labour camp for Jews[7] and a subcamp of the Auschwitz concentration camp.[8] In the final stages of the war, most prisoners of the subcamp were evacuted by the Germans in a death march to Gliwice and then deported to Germany, while the remaining sick prisoners were mostly murdered by the SS.[8] A dozen or so prisoners managed to hide and survived the massacre, and were taken care of by Polish miners afterwards.[8]

In 1951, city limits were expanded, and Brzezinka and Brzęczkowice were included as new districts.[9]

Districts[edit]

Mysłowice is subdivided into 14 districts:[10]

Education[edit]

Mysłowice is home to a university-level institution called Górnośląska Wyższa Szkoła Pedagogiczna im. Kard. Augusta Hlonda (August Hlond College of Pedagogy) located at ul. Piastów Śląskich 10.

Mysłowice has eight Junior High Schools and five Secondary and vocational schools. There are at least 20 kindergartens located in Mysłowice, residing at location with greater density of children. On top of that, there are also 17 primary schools operating in the city.

Monuments[edit]

There are some buildings in Mysłowice which prove the medieval origin of the town. Farna Church, located near the market square, is the oldest and probably the only brick church in Mysłowice.[citation needed] Saint Cross Church is another brick building, maintained in baroque and classicistic style; according to Catholic tradition, it is the oldest place of religious worship in the town. There is also a Jewish cemetery in the town. The origins of the place trace back to the 18th century, when Jews decided to buy a tract in order to create their own graveyard.

Culture[edit]

Museum of Firefighting in Mysłowice

The Off Festival is an annual music festival started in 2006 by musician Artur Rojek (however, in 2010 it was moved to Katowice[11]). Bands from Mysłowice include Myslovitz formed 1992 (named after their hometown), as well as Lenny Valentino (1998–2001).

Economy[edit]

As of 2017, the city was the location of one of five Amazon logistics centres in Poland,[12] which serves customers across Europe.

Notable people[edit]

Performance by Myslovitz. The band take their name from their hometown.

Twin towns – sister cities[edit]

Mysłowice is twinned with:[13]

References[edit]

  1. ^ European Spatial Planning Observation Network (ESPON) "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2009-07-28. Retrieved 2009-03-28.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  2. ^ a b c d "Strzały w Mysłowicach doprowadziły do wybuchu I powstania śląskiego". PolskieRadio24.pl (in Polish). Retrieved 9 May 2021.
  3. ^ "Landsmannschaft der Oberschlesier in Karlsruhe". web.archive.org. 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2021-07-20.
  4. ^ "Results of the Upper Silesia plebiscite in Pless/Pszczyna County" (in German). Archived from the original on 2 May 2015. Retrieved 8 August 2021.
  5. ^ "Schweres NS-Gefängnis Mislowitz". Bundesarchiv.de (in German). Retrieved 9 May 2021.
  6. ^ Kostkiewicz, Janina (2020). "Niemiecka polityka eksterminacji i germanizacji polskich dzieci w czasie II wojny światowej". In Kostkiewicz, Janina (ed.). Zbrodnia bez kary... Eksterminacja i cierpienie polskich dzieci pod okupacją niemiecką (1939–1945) (in Polish). Kraków: Uniwersytet Jagielloński, Biblioteka Jagiellońska. p. 56.
  7. ^ "Zwangsarbeitslager für Juden Fürstengrube". Bundesarchiv.de (in German). Retrieved 9 May 2021.
  8. ^ a b c "Fürstengrube". Memorial and Museum Auschwitz-Birkenau. Retrieved 9 May 2021.
  9. ^ Rozporządzenie Rady Ministrów z dnia 17 marca 1951 r. w sprawie zniesienia i zmiany granic niektórych powiatów oraz utworzenia i zmiany granic niektórych miast, stanowiących powiaty miejskie w województwie katowickim., Dz. U. z 1951 r. Nr 18, poz. 147
  10. ^ "Jednostki pomocnicze" (in Polish). BIP Miasta Mysłowice. Retrieved 2015-05-08.
  11. ^ "Rojek zabiera festiwal z Mysłowic". Tvn24.pl. 2010-02-25. Retrieved 2013-03-26.
  12. ^ Marcin Goettig (2017-02-20). "Amazon to open its fifth logistics center in Poland". Reuters.
  13. ^ "Miasta partnerskie". myslowice.pl (in Polish). Mysłowice. Retrieved 2020-03-10.

External links[edit]

Media related to Mysłowice at Wikimedia Commons