Bielsko-Biała

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Bielsko-Biała
Bielsko-Biała, Poczta Główna.jpg
Bielsko-Biała Town Hall 2018.jpg
Rynek w Bielsku.jpg
Kosciol opatrznosci bozej bb.jpg
Hotel pod Orlem.jpg
  • From top, left to right: Main Post Office
  • City Hall
  • Market Square
  • Church of Divine Providence
  • Hotel "Pod Orłem"
Flag of Bielsko-Biała
Coat of arms of Bielsko-Biała
Bielsko-Biała is located in Poland
Bielsko-Biała
Bielsko-Biała
Bielsko-Biała is located in Silesian Voivodeship
Bielsko-Biała
Bielsko-Biała
Coordinates: 49°49′21″N 19°2′40″E / 49.82250°N 19.04444°E / 49.82250; 19.04444
Country Poland
Voivodeship Silesian
Countycity county
Town rights1312 Bielsko
1723 Biała
Government
 • City mayorJarosław Klimaszewski [pl] (PO)
Area
 • City124.51 km2 (48.07 sq mi)
Highest elevation
1,117 m (3,665 ft)
Lowest elevation
262 m (860 ft)
Population
 (31 December 2021)[3][4]
 • City168,319 Decrease (22nd)
 • Density1,352/km2 (3,500/sq mi)
 • Urban
325,000
 • Metro
529,400
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+2 (CEST)
Postal code
43-300 to 43-382
Area code+48 33
Car platesSB
Websitehttp://www.um.bielsko.pl

Bielsko-Biała ([ˈbʲɛlskɔ ˈbʲawa] (listen); Czech: Bílsko-Bělá, German: Bielitz-Biala, Silesian: Bjylsko-Bjoło) is a city in southern Poland, with a population of approximately 168,319 as of December 2021,[3] making it the 22nd largest city in Poland, and an area of 124.51 km2 (48.07 sq mi).[2] It is a centre of the Bielsko Urban Agglomeration with 325,000 inhabitants and is an administrative, automotive, education, transport, and tourism hub of Podbeskiedzie Region as well as the Bielsko Industrial Region. It serves as the seat of the Bielsko County, Euroregion Beskydy, Roman Catholic Diocese of Bielsko–Żywiec and the Evangelical Church Diocese of Cieszyn.

Situated north of the Beskid Mountains, Bielsko-Biała is composed of two former towns which merged in 1951 – Bielsko in the west and Biała in the east – on opposite banks of the Biała River that once divided Silesia and Lesser Poland. Between 1975 and 1998, the city was the seat of Bielsko Voivodeship and currently lies within the Silesian Voivodeship. The city is currently subdivided into 12 districts and is a member of the Association of Polish Cities (Związek Miast Polskich).[5]

History[edit]

Historical population
YearPop.±%
196075,527—    
1970106,200+40.6%
1980163,741+54.2%
1990181,278+10.7%
2000178,611−1.5%
2010175,008−2.0%
2020169,756−3.0%
source [6]

Both city names, Bielsko and Biała refer to the Biała River, with etymology stemming from either biel or biała, which means "white" in Polish.

Bielsko[edit]

Bielsko-Biała Museum, located in the Sułkowski Castle, which was initially built as a medieval Ducal Castle of the Piast dynasty, view from Bolesław Chrobry Square

The remnants of a fortified settlement in what is now the Stare Bielsko (Old Bielsko) district of the city were discovered between 1933 and 1938 by a Polish archaeological team. The settlement was dated to the 12th – 14th centuries. Its dwellers manufactured iron from ore and specialized in smithery. The current centre of the town was probably developed as early as the first half of the 13th century. At that time a castle (which still survives today) was built on a hill.

In the second half of the 13th century, the Piast dukes of Opole invited German settlers to colonize the Silesian Foothills. As the dukes then also ruled over the Lesser Poland lands east of the Biała River, settlements arose on both banks like Bielitz (now Stare Bielsko), Nickelsdorf (Mikuszowice Śląskie), Kamitz (Kamienica), Batzdorf (Komorowice Śląskie) and Kurzwald in the west as well as Kunzendorf (Lipnik), Alzen (Hałcnów) and Wilmesau (Wilamowice) in the east. Nearby settlements in the mountains were Lobnitz (Wapienica) and Bistrai (Bystra).

After the partition of the Duchy of Opole in 1281, Bielsko passed to the Dukes of Cieszyn within fragmented Poland. The town was first documented in 1312 when Duke Mieszko I of Cieszyn granted a town charter. The Biała again became a border river, when in 1315 the eastern Duchy of Oświęcim split off from Cieszyn as a separate under Mieszko's son Władysław. After the Dukes of Cieszyn had become vassals of the Bohemian kings in 1327 and the Duchy of Oświęcim was sold to the Polish Crown in 1457, returning to Lesser Poland after three centuries, the Biała River for next centuries marked the border between the Bohemian crown land of Silesia within the Holy Roman Empire and the Lesser Poland Province of the Kingdom of Poland and the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.

With Bohemia and the Upper Silesian Duchy of Cieszyn, Bielsko in 1526 was inherited by the Austrian House of Habsburg and incorporated into the Habsburg monarchy. From 1560 Bielsko was held by Frederick Casimir of Cieszyn, son of Duke Wenceslaus III Adam, who due to the enormous debts his son left upon his death in 1571, had to sell it to the Promnitz noble family at Pless. With the consent of Emperor Maximilian II, the Promnitz dynasty and their Schaffgotsch successors ruled the Duchy of Bielsko as a Bohemian state country; acquired by the Austrian chancellor Count Friedrich Wilhelm von Haugwitz in 1743, and afterwards by Polish aristocrat Aleksander Józef Sułkowski in 1752, the ducal status was finally confirmed by Empress Maria Theresa in 1754. It remained in possession of the Polish Sułkowski family until the dissolution of the duchy in 1849, while the castle was still owned by the Sułkowskis until World War II.

After the Prussian king Frederick the Great had invaded Silesia, Bielsko remained with the Habsburg monarchy as part of Austrian Silesia according to the 1742 Treaty of Breslau.

In late 1849 Bielsko became a seat of political district. In 1870 it became a statutory city.

Biała[edit]

Austrian KK stamp first 1850 issue, cancelled BIALA

The opposite bank of the Biała River, again Polish since 1454, had been sparsely settled since the mid-16th century. A locality was first mentioned in a 1564 deed, it received the name Biała in 1584, and belonged at that time to Kraków Voivodeship. Its population increased during the Counter-Reformation in the Habsburg lands, when many Protestant artisans from Bielsko moved across the river. Though already named a town in the 17th century, Biała officially was granted city rights by the Polish king Augustus II the Strong in 1723.

In the course of the First Partition of Poland in 1772, Biała was annexed by the Austrian Habsburg Monarchy and incorporated into the crownland of Galicia. The Protestant citizens received the right to establish parishes according to the 1781 Patent of Toleration by Emperor Joseph II. Biala was head of the district with the same name, one of the 78 Bezirkshauptmannschaften in the Galicia crownland.[7]

Modern times[edit]

Polish newspaper Wieniec-Pszczółka issued in Bielsko-Biała in 1909

Although separate, the two cities effectively functioned as one urban area known as Bielsko-Biała since the 19th century. With the dissolution of Austria-Hungary in 1918 according to the Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye, both cities became part of the reconstituted Polish state, although the majority of the population was German,[8] forming a German language island.[9]

Some ethnic German citizens formed an anti-Polish, anti-Jewish Jungdeutsche Partei, supported financially by the Foreign Ministry of Nazi Germany.[10] Its members smuggled weapons[11] and waged a campaign of intimidating other German residents to leave for Germany.[10] A considerable number of young Germans joined this Party during the mid-1930s.[12]

Bielsko city center in the 1930s

During the German invasion of Poland, which started World War II, the Einsatzgruppe I entered Bielsko-Biała in the first half of September 1939 to torture, plunder, and murder Jews.[13][14] During the war Bielsko-Biała was annexed and occupied by Nazi Germany. In 1939 Germans arrested several Polish teachers and principals who were then deported to Nazi concentration camps and murdered there.[15] A prison for Poles was operated by the Germans in Bielsko-Biała.[16] Many of its Jewish residents were murdered at the nearby Auschwitz extermination camp. Less than 1000 of Bielsko-Biała's Jewish community of nearly 8000 survived the war. After the defeat of Nazi Germany in 1945, the remaining German population fled westward or were expelled. The town was polonized and gradually repopulated by Polish settlers.

Several widely known Holocaust survivors from Bielsko-Biała were Roman Frister, Gerda Weissmann Klein and Kitty Hart-Moxon, all of whom wrote accounts of their experiences during World War II.[17][18]

The combined city of Bielsko-Biała was created administratively on 1 January 1951 when the two cities of Bielsko, and Biała (known until 1951 as Biała Krakowska), were unified.

Geography[edit]

The city is situated on the border of historic Upper Silesia and Lesser Poland at the eastern rim of the smaller Cieszyn Silesia region, about 60 km (37 mi) south of Katowice. Administrated within Silesian Voivodeship since 1999, the city was previously capital of Bielsko-Biała Voivodeship (1975–1998).

Bielsko-Biała is one of the most important cities of the Beskidy Euroregion and the main city of the Bielsko Industrial Region (Polish: Bielski Okręg Przemysłowy [pl]), part of the Upper Silesian metropolitan area.

Climate[edit]

Bielsko-Biała has an oceanic climate (Köppen :Cfb)[19] with cold, damp winters and warm, wet summers. However, using the 0 °C isotherm, the climate is a Dfb-type called of humid continental climate, which explains its considerable thermal amplitude for Central Europe. The extremes may still be moderated by the western patterns and winds of this direction, which still maintains hybrid characteristics in the city's climate. Foëhn winds help maintain a milder winter in Bielsko-Biała and average about 4 °C lower than the surrounding mountains each year. The sunniest days are between late summer and early fall, with a few months reaching 9 sunny days. In the 1960s 55 cm of snow cover was recorded.[20][21]

Climate data for Bielsko-Biała (1991–2020 normals, extremes 1951–present)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 15.0
(59.0)
19.0
(66.2)
22.8
(73.0)
29.0
(84.2)
30.7
(87.3)
33.9
(93.0)
35.4
(95.7)
36.4
(97.5)
34.1
(93.4)
26.4
(79.5)
23.1
(73.6)
18.3
(64.9)
36.4
(97.5)
Average high °C (°F) 2.2
(36.0)
3.5
(38.3)
7.6
(45.7)
14.1
(57.4)
18.6
(65.5)
21.9
(71.4)
24.0
(75.2)
23.9
(75.0)
18.6
(65.5)
13.5
(56.3)
8.2
(46.8)
3.3
(37.9)
13.3
(55.9)
Daily mean °C (°F) −0.9
(30.4)
0.2
(32.4)
3.5
(38.3)
9.0
(48.2)
13.4
(56.1)
16.8
(62.2)
18.7
(65.7)
18.5
(65.3)
13.8
(56.8)
9.3
(48.7)
4.8
(40.6)
0.3
(32.5)
9.0
(48.2)
Average low °C (°F) −3.9
(25.0)
−3.0
(26.6)
−0.2
(31.6)
4.1
(39.4)
8.4
(47.1)
12.0
(53.6)
13.7
(56.7)
13.5
(56.3)
9.6
(49.3)
5.7
(42.3)
1.6
(34.9)
−2.6
(27.3)
4.9
(40.8)
Record low °C (°F) −27.4
(−17.3)
−29.6
(−21.3)
−20.7
(−5.3)
−8.5
(16.7)
−3.1
(26.4)
−0.2
(31.6)
4.3
(39.7)
2.6
(36.7)
−2.4
(27.7)
−8.6
(16.5)
−19.8
(−3.6)
−26.0
(−14.8)
−29.6
(−21.3)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 45.2
(1.78)
46.6
(1.83)
58.6
(2.31)
67.8
(2.67)
128.7
(5.07)
131.6
(5.18)
143.2
(5.64)
92.0
(3.62)
110.2
(4.34)
72.7
(2.86)
56.8
(2.24)
45.2
(1.78)
998.3
(39.30)
Average extreme snow depth cm (inches) 21.2
(8.3)
27.4
(10.8)
19.7
(7.8)
9.9
(3.9)
0.5
(0.2)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
4.1
(1.6)
9.5
(3.7)
14.2
(5.6)
27.4
(10.8)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 17.03 16.34 15.57 13.93 16.80 15.73 15.60 12.77 13.13 14.20 14.57 15.77 181.44
Average snowy days (≥ 0 cm) 26.7 25.3 20.7 6.5 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 2.8 10.9 23.5 116.6
Average relative humidity (%) 81.4 78.5 73.6 67.3 71.4 72.8 71.9 72.3 77.5 79.0 80.8 82.4 75.7
Source 1: Institute of Meteorology and Water Management[22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29]
Source 2: Meteomodel.pl (records, relative humidity 1991–2020)[30][31][32]

Economy and industry[edit]

Stellantis Poland plant

Bielsko-Biała is one of the most business friendly medium size cities in Poland. In the 2014 ranking of the 'Most Attractive Cities for Business' published yearly by Forbes the city was ranked 3rd in the category of cities with 150,000–300,000 inhabitants.[33] About 2% of people are unemployed (compared to 5.8% for Poland).[34]

Bielsko-Biała is known for its textile, machine-building, and especially automotive industry. FCA Poland, a subsidiary of Stellantis, has a car factory based in the city. Four areas in the city belong to the Katowice Special Economic Zone. The city region is a home for several manufacturers of high-performance gliders and aircraft including Margański & Mysłowski, a local producer and designer of business long range small aircraft.[citation needed] The labor market in the city shows deficits in the workforce in such professions as: construction workers, operators of construction machines, electricians, electromechanics, dressmakers, couriers.[35]

Transport[edit]

Interior of the main railway station (of several) in Bielsko-Biała, 28 April 2006

Road transport[edit]

Bielsko-Biała is located within a short distance to Czech and Slovakian borders on the crossroads of two Expressways (S1 and S52) connecting Poland with Southern Europe:

Bielsko-Biała is connected with the rest of Poland by the dual carriageway DK1 road running to Tychy where it intersects the Expressway S1 and further to Katowice where it intersects the Motorway A4.

It is planned to extend S1 north along the existing dual carriageway DK1 from Bielsko-Biała to Tychy and Katowice, thus building an expressway connection of the city with the national motorway network of Poland. National Road DK52 connects Bielsko-Biała with Kraków in the east. The most important interchange in the area is the cloverleaf north of Bielsko-Biała where S1, DK1 and S52 meet.

Voivodeship roads nr. 940 and 942 pass through the city.

Rail transport[edit]

Bielsko-Biała is connected by direct train services with the following large Polish cities (November 2014): Bydgoszcz, Gdańsk, Gdynia, Katowice, Kraków, Łódź, Olsztyn, Opole, Poznań, Szczecin, Toruń, Warszawa (Warsaw), Wrocław.

Airports[edit]

There are 3 international airports within the 90 km distance from Bielsko-Biała, all serving connections with major European cities: Katowice International Airport, Kraków John Paul II International Airport, Ostrava Leoš Janáček Airport.

Sights[edit]

City Hall
Ulica 11 Listopada, the city's most notable pedestrian zone

Bielsko-Biała is known for its Art Nouveau architecture and is often referred to as Little Vienna[citation needed]. Sights include:

Apart from being an attractive destination itself the city is a convenient base for hiking in Silesian Beskids and Żywiec Beskids as well as for skiing in one of the most popular Polish ski resorts Szczyrk (located 18 km (11 mi) from the city centre) and in a couple of smaller nearby ski resorts.

Patria House
Polish Theatre
Main Post Office
The Pod Żabami Townhouse – an example of Art Nouveau architecture in the city
Lipnicki Palace

Districts[edit]

Education[edit]

Politics[edit]

The executive body of the gmina is the President (Mayor) of the City of Bielsko-Biała. This office was created in 1951 when Bielsko and Biała became one city. Previously the city of Bielsko was governed by a President while the city of Biała was governed by a burmistrz. The city is divided into five constituencies during the local elections.[40]

Bielsko-Biała constituency[edit]

Senators from Bielsko-Biała constituency:

Members of Sejm from Bielsko-Biała constituency:

Municipal politics[edit]

Mayor[edit]

  • Mayor – Jarosław Klimaszewski (PO)[1]
  • Deputy Mayor – Przemysław Kamiński
  • Deputy Mayor – Adam Ruśniak
  • Deputy Mayor – Piotr Kucia

City council[edit]

  • President of the council – Dorota Piegzik-Izydorczyk (PO)
  • Deputy Chairman – Piotr Ryszka (PiS)
  • Deputy Chairman – Jacek Krywult (KWW JK)

Sports[edit]

Gondola lift on Mount Szyndzielnia

The city co-hosted the 1978 UEFA European Under-18 Championship and 2019 FIFA U-20 World Cup.

Major teams and athletes[edit]

Notable people[edit]

International relations[edit]

Twin towns – sister cities[edit]

Bielsko-Biała is twinned with:[42]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Prezydent Miasta i Zastępcy". bielsko-biala.pl. Bielsko-Biała City Council. Retrieved 2022-09-07.
  2. ^ a b "Local Data Bank". Statistics Poland. Retrieved 2022-09-07. Category K1, group G441, subgroup P1410. Data for territorial unit 2461011.
  3. ^ a b "Local Data Bank". Statistics Poland. Retrieved 2022-09-07. Category K3, group G7, subgroup P1336. Data for territorial unit 2461011.
  4. ^ "Local Data Bank". Statistics Poland. Retrieved 2022-09-07. Category K3, group G7, subgroup P2425. Data for territorial unit 2461011.
  5. ^ "Miasto Bielsko-Biała nowym członkiem Związku Powiatów Polskich" (in Polish). Retrieved 29 August 2022.
  6. ^ "Bielsko-Biała (śląskie) » mapy, nieruchomości, GUS, noclegi, szkoły, regon, atrakcje, kody pocztowe, wypadki drogowe, bezrobocie, wynagrodzenie, zarobki, tabele, edukacja, demografia".
  7. ^ Die postalischen Abstempelungen auf den österreichischen Postwertzeichen-Ausgaben 1867, 1883 und 1890, Wilhelm KLEIN, 1967
  8. ^ "Municipal website".
  9. ^ Kuhn, Walter (1981). Geschichte der deutschen Sprachinsel Bielitz (Schlesien). Holzner.
  10. ^ a b Sir H. Kennard to Viscount Halifax (August 24, 1939). "The British War Bluebook". 2008 Lillian Goldman Law Library. Retrieved 11 September 2014.
  11. ^ Wacław Uruszczak (2012). Krakowskie Studia z Historii Państwa i Prawa Vol. 5. Wydawnictwo UJ. p. 339. ISBN 978-8323388685.
  12. ^ Karol Grünberg (1963). Nazi Front Schlesien: niemieckie organizacje polityczne w województwie Śląskim w latach 1933-1939. Wydawnictwo Śląsk, Katowice. Retrieved 11 September 2014.
  13. ^ Maria Wardzyńska, Był rok 1939. Operacja niemieckiej policji bezpieczeństwa w Polsce. Intelligenzaktion, IPN, Warszawa, 2009, p. 58 (in Polish)
  14. ^ Megargee, Geoffrey (2012). Encyclopedia of Camps and Ghettos. Bloomington, Indiana: University of Indiana Press. p. Volume II 144–145. ISBN 978-0-253-35599-7.
  15. ^ Wardzyńska, p. 137-139
  16. ^ Wardzyńska, p. 139
  17. ^ Frister, Roman (1999). The Cap or the Price of Life. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson. p. 352.
  18. ^ Klein, Gerda Weissman (1957). All but My Life. Hill and Wang.
  19. ^ "Bielsko-Biała, Bielsko-Biała, Silesia, Poland - City, Town and Village of the world". en.db-city.com. Retrieved 2019-08-05.
  20. ^ "Bielsko-Biala, Poland Köppen Climate Classification (Weatherbase)". Weatherbase. Retrieved 2019-08-05.
  21. ^ "The climate of Bielsko-Biała and Podbeskidzie Region – Informacja Turystyczna – Bielsko-Biała". Archived from the original on 2018-04-30. Retrieved 2019-08-05.
  22. ^ "Średnia dobowa temperatura powietrza". Normy klimatyczne 1991–2020 (in Polish). Institute of Meteorology and Water Management. Archived from the original on 3 December 2021. Retrieved 31 January 2022.
  23. ^ "Średnia minimalna temperatura powietrza". Normy klimatyczne 1991–2020 (in Polish). Institute of Meteorology and Water Management. Archived from the original on 15 January 2022. Retrieved 31 January 2022.
  24. ^ "Średnia maksymalna temperatura powietrza". Normy klimatyczne 1991–2020 (in Polish). Institute of Meteorology and Water Management. Archived from the original on 15 January 2022. Retrieved 31 January 2022.
  25. ^ "Miesięczna suma opadu". Normy klimatyczne 1991–2020 (in Polish). Institute of Meteorology and Water Management. Archived from the original on 9 January 2022. Retrieved 31 January 2022.
  26. ^ "Liczba dni z opadem >= 0,1 mm". Normy klimatyczne 1991–2020 (in Polish). Institute of Meteorology and Water Management. Archived from the original on 15 January 2022. Retrieved 31 January 2022.
  27. ^ "Średnia grubość pokrywy śnieżnej". Normy klimatyczne 1991–2020 (in Polish). Institute of Meteorology and Water Management. Archived from the original on 15 January 2022. Retrieved 31 January 2022.
  28. ^ "Liczba dni z pokrywą śnieżna > 0 cm". Normy klimatyczne 1991–2020 (in Polish). Institute of Meteorology and Water Management. Archived from the original on 15 January 2022. Retrieved 31 January 2022.
  29. ^ "Średnia suma usłonecznienia (h)". Normy klimatyczne 1991–2020 (in Polish). Institute of Meteorology and Water Management. Archived from the original on 15 January 2022. Retrieved 31 January 2022.
  30. ^ "Bielsko-Biała Absolutna temperatura maksymalna" (in Polish). Meteomodel.pl. 6 April 2018. Retrieved 31 January 2022.
  31. ^ "Bielsko-Biała Absolutna temperatura minimalna" (in Polish). Meteomodel.pl. 6 April 2018. Retrieved 31 January 2022.
  32. ^ "Bielsko-Biała Średnia wilgotność" (in Polish). Meteomodel.pl. 6 April 2018. Retrieved 31 January 2022.
  33. ^ WP.PL, Ranking miast najlepszych do inwestowania. Finanse.wp.pl: "Forbes" i Centralny Ośrodek Informacji Gospodarczych (COIG).
  34. ^ "Stopy bezrobocia dla kraju, województwa, powiatu i miasta Bielska-Białej w 2018 roku". Powiatowy Urząd Pracy w Bielsku-Białej. Retrieved 4 November 2018.
  35. ^ "Rynek pracy w Bielsku-Białej". GoWork.pl Serwis Pracy. 2022-10-27.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  36. ^ BBOSiR Bielsko-Biała Municipal Centre of Sports and Leisure, Dębowiec Resort official website
  37. ^ University of Bielsko-Biała official website in English
  38. ^ "The School of Administration in Bielsko-Biała official website in English". Archived from the original on 2015-03-11. Retrieved 2015-04-07.
  39. ^ Bielsko-Biała School of Finances and Law official website in English
  40. ^ "Rada miejska" (in Polish). Archived from the original on 2008-10-11. Retrieved 29 August 2022.
  41. ^ Current FAI ranking of Sebastian Kawa Archived 2014-03-06 at the Wayback Machine, retrieved on: August 22, 2012
  42. ^ "Miasta partnerskie". bielsko-biala.pl (in Polish). Bielsko-Biała. Retrieved 2020-03-10.

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 49°49′21″N 19°02′40″E / 49.82250°N 19.04444°E / 49.82250; 19.04444