Alice Paul

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Alice Paul
Alice Paul (1915) by Harris & Ewing.jpg
Alice Paul in 1915
Born (1885-01-11)January 11, 1885
Mount Laurel Township, New Jersey
Died July 9, 1977(1977-07-09) (aged 92)
Moorestown, New Jersey
Alma mater University of Pennsylvania
Swarthmore College
American University
Occupation Suffragist
Political party National Women's Party
Religion Society of Friends (Quaker)
Parent(s) William Mickle Paul I (1850–1902)
Tacie Parry
Relatives Siblings: Willam, Helen, and Parry

Alice Paul (January 11, 1885 – July 9, 1977) was an American suffragist, feminist, and women's rights activist, and the main leader and strategist of the 1910s campaign for the Nineteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution which prohibits sex discrimination in the right to vote. Along with Lucy Burns and others, Paul strategized the events, such as the Woman Suffrage Procession and the Silent Sentinels, which led the successful campaign that resulted in its passage in 1920.[1]

After 1920, Paul spent a half century as leader of the National Woman's Party, which fought for her Equal Rights Amendment to secure constitutional equality for women. She won a large degree of success with the inclusion of women as a group protected against discrimination by the Civil Rights Act of 1964. She insisted that her National Woman's Party focus on the legal status of all women and resisted calls to address issues like birth control.

Early life[edit]

Alice Paul was born on January 11, 1885 at Paulsdale in Mount Laurel Township, New Jersey.[2] She was the eldest of four children of William Mickle Paul and Tacie Paul (née Parry), and a descendant of William Penn, the Quaker founder of Pennsylvania. She grew up in the Quaker tradition of public service; her ancestors included participants in the New Jersey Committee of Correspondence in the Revolutionary era and a state legislative leader in the 19th century. The Quakers believed that all people, including women, were equal in the sight of God. Alice first learned about womens' suffrage from her mother, a member of the National American Woman Suffrage Association; Paul would sometimes join her mother in attending suffragist meetings.[3]

Education[edit]

Alice Paul and Helen Gardener, ca. 1908–1915

Paul attended Moorestown Friends School, where she graduated at the top of her class.[4] In 1901, Paul went to Swarthmore College, an institution co-founded by her grandfather. While attending Swarthmore, Paul served as a member on the Executive Board of Student Government, one experience which may have sparked her eventual excitement for political activism. Alice graduated from Swarthmore College with a bachelor's degree in Biology in 1905.[3]

Partly in order to avoid going into teaching work, Paul completed a fellowship year at a settlement house in New York City after her graduation, living on the Lower East Side at the College Settlement House. While working on settlement activities taught her about the need to right injustice in America, Alice soon decided that social work was not the way she was to achieve this goal: "I knew in a very short time I was never going to be a social worker, because I could see that social workers were not doing much good in the world... you couldn't change the situation by social work."[5]

Paul then earned her M.A. in from the University of Pennsylvania in 1907, after completing coursework in political science, sociology, and economics .[3][6] She continued her studies at the Woodbrooke Quaker Study Centre in Birmingham, England, not far from the University of Birmingham, while continuing to earn money doing social work. She first heard Christabel Pankhurst speak at Birmingham. When she later moved to London to work, she joined the militant suffrage group the Women's Social and Political Union (WSPU) led by Christabel and her mother Emmeline Pankhurst. She was arrested repeatedly during suffrage demonstrations and served three jail terms. After returning from England in 1910, Paul continued her studies at the University of Pennsylvania, earning a Ph.D. in sociology. Her dissertation was entitled "The Legal Position of Women in Pennsylvania"; it discussed the history of the women's movement in Pennsylvania and the rest of the U.S., and urged woman suffrage as the key issue of the day.[7]

Paul later received her law degree (LL.B) from the Washington College of Law at American University in 1922, after the suffrage fight was over.[8] In 1927, she earned an LL.M, and in 1928, a Doctorate in Civil Laws from American University.[9]

Personal life[edit]

Alice Paul had an active social life until she moved to Washington in late 1912. She enjoyed close relationships with women and befriended, sometimes dated, men. Paul did not preserve private correspondence for the most part, so few details are available. Once Paul devoted herself to winning the vote for women, she placed the suffrage effort first in her life. Nevertheless, Elsie Hill and Dora Kelly Lewis, two women she met early in her work for NAWSA, remained close to her all their lives. She knew William Parker, a scholar she met at the University of Pennsylvania, for several years; he may have tendered a marriage proposal in 1917. The more thorough discussion of Paul's familial relations and friendships is found in J.D. Zahniser's biography.[10]

Early work in British woman suffrage[edit]

In 1907, after completing her master's degree at the University of Pennsylvania, Paul moved to England where she eventually became deeply involved with the British women's suffrage movement. After a "conversion experience" seeing Christabel Pankhurst speak at the University of Birmingham, Paul became enamored with the movement. She first became involved by selling a Suffragette magazine on street corners. This was a particularly difficult task considering the animosity towards the Suffragettes and opened her eyes to the abuse that women involved in the movement faced.[6] These experiences, combined with the teachings of Professor Beatrice Webb, convinced Paul that social work and charity could not bring about the needed social changes in society: this could only be accomplished through equal legal status for women.[6]

In 1906, Paul moved to London and became heavily involved with the Women's Social and Political Union (WSPU), regularly participating in demonstrations and marches. While in London, Paul also met Lucy Burns, a fellow American activist who would become an important ally for the duration of the suffrage fight, first in England, then in the United States. The two women quickly gained the trust of prominent WSPU members and began organizing events and campaign offices. When Emmeline Pankhurst attempted to spread the movement to Scotland, Paul and Burns accompanied her as assistants.[6]

Paul quickly gained the trust of fellow WSPU members through both her talent with visual rhetoric and her willingness to put herself in physical danger in order to increase the visibility of the suffrage movement. While at the WSPU's headquarters in Edinburgh, Paul and local suffragists made plans to protest a speech by the Minister of Foreign Affairs, Sir Edward Grey. For a week prior, they spoke with people on the streets to promote knowledge about why they were protesting against the Cabinet member. At the meeting, after Grey discussed proposed legislation he claimed would lead to prosperity, Paul stood up and exclaimed: “Well, these are very wonderful ideals, but couldn’t you extend them to women?”[6] Police responded by dragging her out of the meeting and through the streets to the police station where she was arrested. As planned, this act was viewed by many as a public silencing of legitimate protest and resulted in an increase of press coverage and public sympathy.[6]

Later events involved even more risk of bodily harm. Before a political meeting at St. Andrew's Hall in Glasgow in August 1909, Paul camped out on the roof of the hall so that she could address the crowd below. When she was forced by police to descend, crowds cheered her effort. Later, when Paul, Burns, and fellow suffragettes attempted to enter the event, they were beaten by police as sympathetic bystanders attempted to protect them. After Paul and her fellow protesters were taken into custody, crowds gathered outside the police station demanding the women's release.[6]

On November 9, 1909, in honor of Lord Mayor's Day, the Lord Mayor of London hosted a banquet for cabinet ministers in the city's Guild Hall. Alice Paul planned the WSPU's response; she and Amelia Brown disguised themselves as cleaning women and entered into the building with the normal staff at 9:00 am. Once in the building, the women hid until the event started that evening. It was then that they came out of hiding, and "took their stand." When Prime Minister Herbert Henry Asquith stood to speak, Brown threw her shoe through a pane of stained glass and both women yelled "votes for women!" Following this event, both women were arrested and sentenced to one month hard labor after refusing to pay fines and damages.[6]

Civil Disobedience[edit]

While associated with the Women's Social and Political Union, Paul was arrested seven times and imprisoned three times.[11] It was during her time in prison that Paul learned the tactics of civil disobedience from Emmeline Pankhurst. Chief among these tactics was demanding to be treated as a political prisoner upon arrest. This not only sent a message about the legitimacy of the suffragists to the public, but also had the potential to provide tangible benefits. In many European countries, including England, political prisoners were given a special status: "they were not searched upon arrest, not housed with the rest of the prisoner population, not required to wear prison garb, and not force-fed if they engaged in hunger strikes."[6] Though arrested suffragettes often were not afforded the status of political prisoners, this form of civil disobedience provided a lot of press for the WSPU. For example, during a London arrest (after being denied political prisoner status) Paul refused to put on prisoner's clothing. After the prison matrons were unable to forcibly undress her, they requested assistance from male guards. This shockingly improper act provided extensive press coverage for the suffrage movement.[6]

Another popular civil disobedience tactic used by the Suffragettes was hunger striking. The first WSPU related hunger strike was conducted by sculptor Marion Wallace Dunlop in June 1909. By that fall it was being widely used by WSPU members because of its effectiveness in publicizing their mistreatment and gaining quick release from prison wardens. Refusing food worked in securing an early release for Paul during her first two arrests. However, during her third prison stint, the warden ordered twice daily force-feeding to keep Paul strong enough to finish out her month-long sentence.[6]

Though the prisons staunchly maintained that the force-feeding of prisoners was for their own benefit, Paul and other women described the process as torturous. At the end of her month in prison, Paul had developed severe gastritis. She was carried out of prison and immediately tended to by a doctor. However, after this event, her health was permanently scarred; she often developed colds and flues which would sometimes require hospitalization.[6][12]

Return to the United States[edit]

Alice Paul

After the ordeal of her final London imprisonment, Paul returned to the United States in January 1910 to continue her recovery and to develop a plan for suffrage work back home.[11] Paul's experiences in England were well-publicized, and the American news media quickly began following her actions upon her return home. She drew upon the teachings of Woodbrooke and her religion and quickly decided that she wanted to embrace a single goal as a testimony. The single goal she chose was the recognition of women as equal citizens.

Paul re-enrolled at the University of Pennsylvania, pursuing her Ph.D., while speaking about her experiences in the British suffrage movement to Quaker audiences and starting to work towards United States suffrage on the local level. After completing her dissertation, a comprehensive overview of the history of the legal status of United States women, she began participating in National Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA) rallies, and in April 1910 was asked to speak at NAWSA's annual convention. After this major opportunity, Paul and Burns proposed to NAWSA leadership a campaign to gain a federal amendment guaranteeing the vote for women. This was wholly contrary to NAWSA's state-by-state strategy. Paul and Burns were laughed at by NAWSA leadership; the only exception was Jane Addams, who suggested that the women tone down their plan. As a response, Paul asked to be placed on the organization's Congressional Committee.[12]

1913 Woman Suffrage Procession[edit]

One of Paul's first big projects was initiating and organizing the 1913 Woman Suffrage Procession in Washington the day before President Wilson's inauguration. Paul was determined to put pressure on Wilson, because the President would have the most influence over Congress. She assigned volunteers to contact suffragists around the nation and recruit supporters to march in the parade. In a matter of weeks, Paul succeeded in gathering roughly eight-thousand marchers, representing most of the country. However, she had much more trouble gaining institutional support for the protest parade. Paul was insistent that the parade route go along Pennsylvania Avenue before President Wilson. The goal was to send the message that the push for women's suffrage existed before Wilson and would outlast him if need be. This route was originally resisted by DC officials, and according to biographer Christine Lunardini, Paul was the only one who truly believed the parade would take place on that route. Eventually the city ceded the route to NAWSA. However, this was not the end of the parade's troubles. The City Supervisor Sylvester claimed that the women would not be safe marching along the Pennsylvania Avenue route and strongly suggested the group move the parade. Paul responded by demanding Sylvester provide more police; something that was not done. On March 13, 1913 the parade gained a boost in legitimacy as Congress passed a special resolution ordering Sylvester to prohibit all ordinary traffic along the parade route and "prevent any interference" with the suffrage marchers.[12]

Inez Milholland leading the Woman Suffrage Procession on horseback.

On the day of the event, the procession proceeded along Paul's desired route. The event, which was led by notable labor lawyer Inez Milholland dressed in white and riding a horse was described by the New York Times as "one of the most impressively beautiful spectacles ever staged in this country."[12] Multiple bands, banners, squadrons, chariots, and floats were also displayed in the parade representing all women’s lives. One of the most notable sights was the lead banner in the parade which declared, "We Demand an Amendment to the United States Constitution Enfranchising the Women of the Country.[11] "Over half a million people came to view the parade and with insufficient police protection, the situation soon devolved into a near-riot, with onlookers pressing so close to the women that they were unable to proceed. Police largely did nothing to protect the women from rioters. A senator who participated in the march later testified that he personally took the badge numbers of 22 officers who had stood idle, including 2 sergeants. Eventually, the Massachusetts and Pennsylvania national guards stepped in and students from the Maryland Agricultural College provided a human barrier to help the women pass. Some accounts even describe Boy Scouts as stepping in and providing first aid to the injured. The incident mobilized public dialogue about the police response to the women's demonstration, producing greater awareness and sympathy for NAWSA.[6][11][12]

Cover to the program for the 1913 Woman Suffrage Procession which Alice Paul organized

After the parade, the NAWSA's focus was lobbying for a constitutional amendment to secure the right to vote for women. Such an amendment had originally been sought by suffragists Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton who, as leaders of the NWSA, fought for a federal amendment to the constitution securing women's suffrage until the 1890 formation of NAWSA, which campaigned for the vote on a state-by-state basis.

The National Woman's Party[edit]

Paul's methods started to create tension between her and the leaders of NAWSA, who thought she was moving too aggressively in Washington. Eventually, disagreements about strategy and tactics led to a break with NAWSA. Paul formed the Congressional Union and, later, the National Woman's Party (NWP) in 1916.[13]

The NWP began introducing some of the methods used by the suffrage movement in Britain and focused entirely on achieving a constitutional amendment for woman suffrage.[11] Alva Belmont, a multi-millionaire socialite at the time, was the largest donor to Paul's efforts. The NWP was accompanied by press coverage and the publication of the weekly Suffragist.[9]

Silent Sentinels[edit]

In the US presidential election of 1916, Paul and the NWP campaigned in western states where women could already vote against the continuing refusal of President Woodrow Wilson and other incumbent Democrats to actively support the Suffrage Amendment. In January, 1917, the NWP staged the first political protest and picketing at the White House. The pickets, participating in a nonviolent civil disobedience campaign known as the "Silent Sentinels," held banners demanding the right to vote.

After the United States entered World War I in April, 1917, many people viewed the picketing Silent Sentinels as disloyal. In June, 1917, picketers were arrested on charges of "obstructing traffic." Over the next six months, many, including Alice, were convicted and incarcerated at the Occoquan Workhouse in Virginia (which later became the Lorton Correctional Complex) and the District of Columbia Jail.[9]

When the public heard the news of the first arrests some were surprised that leading suffragists and very well-connected women were going to prison for peacefully protesting. President Wilson received bad publicity from this event, and was livid with the position he was forced into. He quickly pardoned the first women arrested on July 19, two days after they had been sentenced, but reporting on the arrests and abuses continued. The Boston Journal, for example, stated, "The little band representing the NWP has been abused and bruised by government clerks, soldiers and sailors until its efforts to attract the President's attention has sunk into the conscience of the whole nation."[11]

Suffragists continued picketing outside the White House after the Wilson pardon, and throughout World War I. Their banners contained such slogans as "Mr. President, How Long Must Women Wait For Liberty?".[14] Although the suffragists protested peacefully, their protests were sometimes violently opposed. While protesting, young men would harass and beat the women, with the police never intervening on behalf of the protesters. Police would even arrest other men who tried to help the women who were getting beaten. Even though they were protesting during wartime, they maintained public support by agitating peacefully. Throughout this time, more protesters were arrested and sent to Occoquan or the District Jail. Pardons were no longer offered.[11]

Prison, hunger strikes, and passage of Nineteenth Amendment[edit]

In solidarity with other activists in her organization, Paul purposefully strove to receive the seven-month jail sentence that started on October 20, 1917. She began serving her time in the District Jail.[15]

Whether sent to Occoquan or the District Jail, the women were given no special treatment as political prisoners and had to live in harsh conditions with poor sanitation, infested food, and dreadful facilities.[11] In protest of the conditions at the District Jail, Paul began a hunger strike.[16] This led to her being moved to the prison's psychiatric ward and being force-fed raw eggs through a feeding tube. "Seems almost unthinkable now, doesn't it?" Paul told an interviewer from American Heritage when asked about the forced feeding. "It was shocking that a government of men could look with such extreme contempt on a movement that was asking nothing except such a simple little thing as the right to vote."[17]

Alt
Alice Paul in 1918

On November 14, 1917, the suffragists who were imprisoned at Occoquan endured brutality which became known as the "Night of Terror". The National Woman's Party (NWP) went to court to protest the treatment of the women in Occoquan Prison. The women were later moved to the District Jail where Paul languished. Despite the brutality that she experienced and witnessed, Paul remained undaunted, and on November 27 and 28 all the suffragists were released from prison.[13]

Paul's hunger strike, combined with the continuing demonstrations and attendant press coverage, kept pressure on the Wilson administration.[9] In January 1918, Wilson announced that women's suffrage was urgently needed as a "war measure," and strongly urged Congress to pass the legislation. The House of Representatives passed a Constitutional amendment for women's suffrage that month. In response, the NWP stopped picketing, but when the Senate failed to pass the amendment in September, they returned, staging more confrontational demonstrations through the winter of 1918–19. NWP women now climbed statues, chained themselves to fences, burned "watch fires" in front of the White House while Wilson went to Versailles. They also set fire to banners imprinted with his words on democracy as these words were announced from the Peace Conference.[18]

In June 1919, the Senate passed the suffrage amendment, beginning the battle for ratification by state legislatures. The Nineteenth Amendment to the USA Constitution was ratified in August 1920.[18] In the Tennessee Assembly's vote to decide ratification, the amendment was at first not going to pass, being short by one vote, but Assembly Member Harry Burn changed his vote when he received a telegram from his mother, Febb Burn, asking him to support women's suffrage.[3]

1964 Civil Rights Act[edit]

Later in life, Alice Paul played a major role in adding protection for women in the Civil Rights Act of 1964, despite the opposition of liberals who feared it would end protective labor laws for women. The prohibition on sex discrimination was added to the Civil Rights Act by Howard W. Smith, a powerful Virginia Democrat who chaired the House Rules Committee. Smith's amendment was passed by a teller vote of 168 to 133. For twenty years Smith had sponsored the Equal Rights Amendment in the House because he believed in equal rights for women, even though he opposed equal rights for blacks. For decades he had been close to the National Woman's Party and especially to Paul. She and other feminists had worked with Smith since 1945 trying to find a way to include sex as a protected civil rights category.[19]

Equal Rights Amendment[edit]

Paul was the original author of a proposed Equal Rights Amendment to the Constitution in 1923.[9] The ERA was passed by both houses in Congress in 1972 and was then submitted to the state legislatures for ratification. Approval by 38 states was required to ensure adoption of the amendment. Not enough states—only 35—voted in favor in time for the deadline. However, efforts to revive the ERA are still happening, as well as efforts to pass a new equality amendment. Although the amendment did not pass, almost half of the U.S. states have adopted the ERA into their state constitutions.[20]

A rivalry was formed between Paul's NWP and the League of Women Voters (LWV), who opposed the Equal Rights Amendment. The LWV also supported workplace legislation for women, whereas the NWP thought that workplace legislation restricted women's natural ability to work.[21]

Death[edit]

Paul continued fighting for equal rights until she suffered a debilitating stroke in 1974. She died at the age of 92 on July 9, 1977 at the Greenleaf Extension Home, a Quaker facility in Moorestown, New Jersey, less than a mile from her birthplace and childhood home at Paulsdale.[4]

Legacy[edit]

Alt
Alice Paul was honored in 2012 on a $10 gold coin

In 1979 Paul was inducted, posthumously, into the National Women's Hall of Fame.[22]

Her alma mater, Swarthmore College, named a dormitory in her honor. Montclair State University in New Jersey has also named a building in her honor.

Two countries have honored her by issuing a postage stamp: Great Britain in 1981 and the United States in 1995. The U.S. stamp was the 78-cent Great Americans series stamp.

In 1987, a group of New Jersey women raised the money to purchase Alice Paul's papers when they came up for auction, so that an archive could be established. Her papers and memorabilia are now held by the Schlesinger Library in Boston and the Smithsonian Institution in Washington D.C. In 1990, the same group, now the Alice Paul Institute, purchased the brick farmhouse, Paulsdale, in Mount Laurel, New Jersey where Paul was born. Paulsdale is a National Historic Landmark, and is on the New Jersey and National Registers of Historic Places. The Alice Paul Institute keeps her legacy alive with their mission to promote gender equality.[3]

Hilary Swank played Paul in the 2004 movie Iron Jawed Angels, which portrayed the 1910s movement for passage of the 19th Amendment.

In 2010 she was posthumously inducted into the New Jersey Hall of Fame.

Paul appeared on a United States half-ounce $10 gold coin in 2012, as part of the First Spouse Gold Coin Series. A provision in the Presidential $1 Coin Program (see Pub.L. 109–145, 119 Stat. 2664, enacted December 22, 2005) directs that Presidential spouses be honored. As President Chester A. Arthur was a widower, Paul is shown representing "Arthur's era".[23]

Some of her papers are held in the Arthur and Elizabeth Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America, at Radcliffe Institute, Harvard University. The archives of the Alice Paul Institute include papers and items from Paul's family history.

On January 11, 2016, the Google home page honored the 131st birthday of Alice Paul with a Google Doodle.

On April 12, 2016, President Barack Obama designated Sewall-Belmont House as the Belmont-Paul Women's Equality National Monument, named for Alice Paul and Alva Belmont.[24][25][26]

Ten Dollar Bill[edit]

On April 20, 2016 Treasury Secretary Jacob Lew announced that several denominations of United States currency would be redesigned prior to 2020, the 100th anniversary of the 19th Amendment. The newly designed $10 bill, which will include images which pay homage to the women's suffrage movement, will feature the images of Alice Paul, Sojourner Truth, Susan B. Anthony, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, and Lucretia Mott, along with an image of the 1913 Women's Suffrage Procession that Paul organized.[27][28]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Baker, Jean H., "Placards At The White House," American Heritage, Winter 2010, Volume 59, Issue 4.
  2. ^ Kahn, Eve M. "Group Seeks to Buy a Suffragist's Home", The New York Times, July 13, 1989. Accessed July 12, 2008. "The Alice Paul Centennial Foundation plans to buy the house in Mount Laurel, but first the organization must raise $500,000 by Sept. 8.... The 2½-story, stucco-clad brick farmhouse was built in 1840 and once overlooked the Paul family's 173-acre Burlington County farm, east of Camden. Miss Paul was born in an upstairs bedroom in 1885 and lived in the house until she left for Swarthmore College in 1901."
  3. ^ a b c d e "Who Was Alice Paul". Alice Paul Institute. Archived from the original on 2014-09-09. 
  4. ^ a b "Paul, Alice Stokes". Social Welfare History Project. 
  5. ^ Alice Paul in oral history compiled by Amelia Fry, Online Archive of California, quoted in Adams & Keene (2008), p. 7.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Adams, Katherine; Keene, Michael (2008). Alice Paul and the American Suffrage Campaign. Urbana-Champaign: University of Illinois Press. ISBN 978-0-252-07471-4. 
  7. ^ Adams & Keene (2008), pp. 12–14
  8. ^ "Honoring Alice Paul". Washington College of Law. Retrieved September 3, 2010. 
  9. ^ a b c d e "Alice Paul Biography.". Lakewood Public Library: Women in History. Retrieved 2006-05-01. 
  10. ^ Zahniser & Fry (2014).
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h Dodd, Lynda G. (2008). "Parades, pickets, and prison: Alice Paul and the virtues of unruly constitutional citizenship". Journal of Law & Politics. 24 (4): 339–443. SSRN 2226351. 
  12. ^ a b c d e Lunardini, Christine (2012). Alice Paul: Equality for Women. Westview Press. ISBN 9780813347615. 
  13. ^ a b Zahniser & Fry (2014), pp. 178–231.
  14. ^ Bernikow, Louise (October 30, 2004). "Night of Terror Leads to Women's Vote in 1917". Womens eNews. 
  15. ^ Zahniser & Fry (2014), pp. 279–281.
  16. ^ "Miss Alice Paul on Hunger Strike", The New York Times, Nov 7, 1917. Accessed June 25, 2012.
  17. ^ Gallagher, Robert S., "I Was Arrested, Of Course…", American Heritage, February 1974, Volume 25, Issue 2. Interview of Alice Paul.
  18. ^ a b Adickes, Sandra (2002). "Sisters, not demons: The influence of British suffragists on the American suffrage movement". Women's History Review. 11 (4): 675–690. doi:10.1080/09612020200200336. 
  19. ^ Freeman, Jo (March 1991). "How 'Sex' Got Into Title VII: Persistent Opportunism as a Maker of Public Policy". Law and Inequality. 9 (2): 163–184. 
  20. ^ "ERA Charm Bracelet". National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved 2008-07-22. 
  21. ^ Scharf, Lois (1983). Decades of Discontent: The Women's Movement, 1920–1940. Westport: Greenwood Press. p. 223. ISBN 0313226946. 
  22. ^ "Alice Paul". National Women's Hall of Fame. 
  23. ^ Alice Paul is explicitly specified in 31 U.S.C. § 5112(o)(3)(D)(i)(II)
  24. ^ Hirschfeld, Julie (April 12, 2016). "House With Long Activist History Is Now Monument to Equality". The New York Times. Retrieved April 13, 2016. 
  25. ^ Eilperin, Juliet (April 12, 2016). "A new memorial to tell 'the story of a century of courageous activism by American women'". The Washington Post. Retrieved April 12, 2016. 
  26. ^ Hefler, Jan (14 April 2016). "White House honors Alice Paul's Washington headquarters". Philly.com. 
  27. ^ Korte, Gregory (April 20, 2016). "Anti-slavery activist Harriet Tubman to replace Jackson on $20 bill". USA Today. 
  28. ^ Calmes, Jackie (April 20, 2016). "Change for a $20: Tubman Ousts Jackson". New York Times. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Adams, Katherine H.; Keene, Michael L. (2008). Alice Paul and the American Suffrage Campaign. Chicago: University of Illinois Press. ISBN 978-0-252-07471-4. 
  • Baker, Jean H. Sisters: The Lives of American Suffragists. New York: Hill and Wang, 2005.
  • _____. Votes for Women: The Struggle for Suffrage Revisited. New York: Oxford University Press, 2002.
  • Butler, Amy E. Two Paths to Equality: Alice Paul and Ethel M. Smith in the ERA Debate, 1921–1929. Albany: State University of New York Press, 2002.
  • Cahill, Bernadette. Alice Paul, the National Woman's Party and the Vote: The First Civil Rights Struggle of the 20th Century. Jefferson: McFarland & Company, Inc., Publishers, 2005.
  • Cott, Nancy F. (1984). "Feminist politics in the 1920's: The National Woman's Party". The Journal of American History. 71 (1): 43–68. doi:10.2307/1899833. JSTOR 1899833. 
  • Cullen-Dupont, Kathryn. American Women Activists' Writings: An Anthology, 1637–2002. New York: Cooper Square Press, 2002.
  • Evans, Sara M. Born for Liberty: A History of Women in America. New York: The Free Press, 1989.
  • Graham, Sally Hunter. "Woodrow Wilson, Alice Paul, and the Woman Suffrage Movement" (PDF). Political Science Quarterly. 98 (4): 665–679. doi:10.2307/2149723. JSTOR 2149723. 
  • Hartmann, Susan M. "Paul, Alice"; American National Biography Online Feb. 2000 Access Jun 05 2014
  • Hawranick, Sylvia; Doris, Joan M.; Daugherty, Robert (2008). "Alice Paul: Activist, advocate, and one of ours". Affilia. 23 (2): 190–196. doi:10.1177/0886109908314332. 
  • Hill, Jeff. Defining Moments: Women's Suffrage. Detroit: Omnigraphics, Inc., 2006.
  • Irwin, Inez Haynes. The Story of Alice Paul and the National Woman's Party. Fairfax: Denlinger's Publishers, LTD, 1964.
  • Leleux, Robert. "Suffragettes March on Washington." The American Prospect 24 (2013): 81.
  • Lunardini, Christine. Alice Paul: Equality for Women. Boulder: Westview Press, 2013.
  • _______. From Equal Suffrage to Equal Rights: Alice Paul and the National Woman's Party, 1910–1928. New York: New York University Press, 1986.
  • McGerr, Michael (1990). "Political Style and Woman's Power, 1830–1930". The Journal of American History. 77 (3): 864–885. doi:10.2307/2078989. JSTOR 2078989. 
  • Olson, Tod. "One Person, One Vote." Scholastic Update 127 (1994): 15
  • Stevens, Doris. Jailed for Freedom. New York: Liverwright Publishing Corporation, 1920.
  • Stillion Southard, Belinda Ann. "The National Woman's Party's Militant Campaign for Woman Suffrage: Asserting Citizenship Rights through Political Mimesis." (2008). PhD thesis, U of Maryland online
  • Walton, Mary (2010). A Woman's Crusade: Alice Paul and the Battle for the Ballot. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-230-61175-7. 
  • Ware, Susan (2012). "The book I couldn't write: Alice Paul and the challenge of feminist biography". Journal of Women's History. 24 (2): 13–36. doi:10.1353/jowh.2012.0022. 
  • Willis, Jean L. "Alice Paul: The Quintessential Feminist," in Feminist Theorists, ed. Dale Spender (1983).
  • Zahniser, J. D.; Fry, Amelia R. (2014). Alice Paul: Claiming Power. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-019-9958429. 

External links[edit]