One Million Dollar Paranormal Challenge

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The One Million Dollar Paranormal Challenge is an offer by the James Randi Educational Foundation (JREF) to pay out one million U.S. dollars to anyone who can demonstrate a supernatural or paranormal ability under agreed-upon scientific testing criteria. A version of challenge was first issued in 1964, and over a thousand people have applied to take it since then, but none have yet been successful.

History[edit]

James Randi, Founder of the James Randi Educational Foundation.

James Randi developed the idea for the challenge during a radio panel discussion when a parapsychologist challenged him to "put [his] money where [his] mouth is."[1] In 1964, Randi started offering $1,000, then $10,000 prizes. Later, Lexington Broadcasting wanted Randi to do a show called the $100,000 Psychic Prize, so they added $90,000 to the original $10,000 raised by Randi. Finally, in 1996, one of his friends, Internet pioneer Rick Adams, donated US $1,000,000 for the prize.[2]

By April 1, 2007, only those with an already existing media profile and the backing of a reputable academic were allowed to apply for the challenge. It was hoped that the resources freed up by not having to test obscure and possibly mentally ill claimants would then be used to challenge high-profile alleged psychics and mediums such as Sylvia Browne and John Edward with a campaign in the media.[3]

On January 4, 2008, it was announced that the prize would be discontinued on March 6, 2010 in order to free the money for other uses. In the meantime, claimants were welcome to vie for it. One of the reasons offered for its discontinuation is the unwillingness of higher-profile claimants to apply.[4] However, at The Amaz!ng Meeting 7, it was announced that the $1 Million Challenge prize would not expire in 2010. The Foundation issued a formal update on its website on July 30, 2009, announcing the Challenge's continuation, and stated more information would be provided at a later date on any possible changes to the requirements and procedures.[5]

As an April Fool's prank on April 1, 2008, at the MIT Media Lab, Randi pretended to award the prize to magician Seth Raphael after participating in a test of Raphael's "psychic abilities".[6]

On March 8, 2011, the JREF announced that qualifications were being altered to open the Challenge to more applicants. Whereas applicants were previously required to submit press clippings and a letter from an academic institution to qualify, the new rules now require applicants to present either press clippings, a letter from an academic institution, or a public video demonstrating their ability. The JREF explained that these new rules would give people without media or academic documentation a way to be considered for testing, and would allow the JREF to use online video and social media to reach a wider audience.[7]

Since the challenge was first created by Randi in 1964, about a thousand people have applied, but no one has been successful.[1] Randi has said that few unsuccessful applicants ever seriously consider that their failure to perform might be due to the nonexistence of the power they believe they possess.[8]

Rules and judging[edit]

A TAM 2012 Applicant claimed that a wristband product could improve a person's balance. Here, James Underdown (back to camera) has his balance performance tested during the preliminary test phase of the challenge.

The official Challenge rules stipulate that the participant must agree, in writing, to the conditions and criteria of their test. Claims that cannot be tested experimentally are not eligible for the Challenge. Claimants are able to influence all aspects of the testing procedure and participants during the initial negotiation phase of the challenge. Applications for any challenges that might cause serious injury or death will not be accepted.

To ensure that the experimental conditions themselves do not negatively affect a claimant's ability to perform, non-blinded preliminary control tests are often performed. For example, the JREF has dowsers perform a control test, in which the dowser attempts to locate the target substance or object using their dowsing ability, even though the target's location has been revealed to the applicant. Failure to display a 100% success rate in the open test will cause their immediate disqualification. However, claimants are usually able to perform successfully during the open test, confirming that experimental conditions are adequate.

Claimants agree to readily observable success criteria prior to the test, results are unambiguous and clearly indicate whether or not the criteria have been met. Randi has said that he need not participate in any way with the actual execution of the test, and he has been willing to travel far from the test location to avoid the perception that his anti-paranormal bias could influence the test results.[9]

The discussions between the JREF and applicants were at one time posted on a public discussion board for all to see. Since the resignation of Randi's assistant, Mr. Kramer—and subsequent changes to challenge rules requiring applicants to have demonstrated considerable notability—new applications are no longer logged, but the JREF continues to maintain an archive of previous applicants.[10]

Example of a test (dowsing)[edit]

In 1979 Randi tested four people in Italy for dowsing ability (Mr. Fontana, Dr. Borga, Mr. Stanziola, and Mr. Senatore). The prize at the time was $10,000. The conditions were that a 10 meter by 10 meter test area would be used. There would be water supply and a reservoir just outside the test area. There would be three plastic pipes running underground from the source to the reservoir along different concealed paths. Each pipe would pass through the test area by entering at some point on an edge and exiting at some point on an edge. A pipe would not cross itself but it might cross others. The pipes were 3 centimeters in diameter and were buried 50 centimeters below ground. Valves would select which of the pipes water was running through, and only one would be selected at a time. At least 5 liters per second of water would flow through the selected pipe. The dowser must first check the area to see if there is any natural water or anything else that would interfere with the test, and that would be marked. Additionally, the dowser must demonstrate that the dowsing reaction works on an exposed pipe with the water running. Then one of the three pipes would be selected randomly for each trial. The dowser would place ten to one hundred pegs in the ground along the path he or she traces as the path of the active pipe. Two-thirds of the pegs placed by the dowser must be within 10 centimeters of the center of the pipe being traced for the trial to be a success. Three trials would be done for the test of each dowser and the dowser must pass two of the three trials to pass the test. A lawyer was present, in possession of Randi's $10,000 check. If a claimant were successful, the lawyer would give him or her the check. If none were successful, the check would be returned to Randi.

All of the dowsers agreed with the conditions of the test and stated that they felt able to perform the test that day and that the water flow was sufficient. Before the test they were asked how sure they were that they would succeed. All said either "99 percent" or "100 percent" certain. They were asked what they would conclude if the water flow was 90 degrees from what they thought it was and all said that it was impossible. After the test they were asked how confident they were that they had passed the test. Three answered "100 percent" and one answered that he had not completed the test.

When all of the tests were over and the location of the pipes was revealed, none of the dowsers had passed the test. Dr. Borga had placed his markers carefully, but the nearest was a full 8 feet from the water pipe. Borga said, "We are lost", but within two minutes he started blaming his failure on many things such as sunspots and geomagnetic variables. Two of the dowsers thought they had found natural water before the test started, but disagreed with each other about where it was, as well as with the ones who found no natural water.[11]

Criticism[edit]

Astronomer Dennis Rawlins has described the challenge as insincere, saying that Randi would ensure he never had to pay out. In the October 1981 issue of Fate, Rawlins quoted him as saying "I always have an out".[12] Randi has stated that Rawlins did not give the entire quotation, and actually said "Concerning the challenge, I always have an 'out': I'm right!".[13] Randi states that the phrase "I always have an out" refers to the fact that he does not allow test subjects to cheat. Randi stated that if such phenomena did exist and someone accurately demonstrated it, he would give them one million dollars.[citation needed]

Rosemary Altea has suggested the one million dollar prize fund does not exist, or is in the form of pledges or promissory notes.[14] The JREF has stated that the million dollars is in the form of negotiable bonds within a "James Randi Educational Foundation Prize Account" and that validation of the account and the prize amount can be supplied on demand. The money is held in an Evercore Wealth Management account.[15]

Challenges[edit]

Refusals to be tested[edit]

On Larry King Live, March 6, 2001, Larry King asked psychic Sylvia Browne if she would take the challenge and she agreed.[16] Randi appeared with Browne again on Larry King Live on September 3, 2001 and she again accepted the challenge.[17] However, she refused to be tested and Randi kept a clock on his website recording the number of weeks that have passed since Sylvia accepted the challenge without following through. Eventually the clock was replaced with text stating that "over 5 years" had passed.[18] Browne died in 2013.

In an appearance on Larry King Live on January 26, 2007, Randi challenged psychic Rosemary Altea to take the one million challenge. On Altea and Randi's June 5, 2001 meeting on the same show, Altea refused to take the challenge, calling it "a trick". Instead Altea, in part, replied "I agree with what he says, that there are many, many people who claim to be spiritual mediums, they claim to talk to the dead. There are many, people, we all know this. There are cheats and charlatans everywhere." Randi's response was to say "you're one of them".[19]

In an appearance on ITV's This Morning, on September 27, 2011, magician Paul Zenon challenged Welsh psychic Leigh Catherine (aka Leigh-Catherine Salway) to take the one million dollar challenge and she accepted. Phillip Schofield, a This Morning host, stated that the program would pay for her flights to the US to be tested.[20] Salway subsequently backed out of the challenge, explaining in a Tweet "As expected - dodgy as legally & set up to make it impossible to pass!".[21]

Rejected applicants[edit]

Randi rejected an application from Rico Kolodzey, a Breatharian who claimed to have survived without food since 1998. In 2006 Randi agreed to test Kolodzey's claims, but the two parties were unable to agree on the venue and method of the test.[22]

Members of a group from Bali, referring to themselves as Yellow Bamboo, claimed one of their number, Pak Nyoman Serengen, could knock down an attacker at a distance, using only a piece of yellow bamboo. Video clips on their website showed a crowd of students running at Serengen, and falling to the ground when (or, in some cases, slightly before) Serengen extended his hand and shouted. The JREF arranged volunteers to carry out a preliminary investigation, but after the Yellow Bamboo group "threw every sort of obstacle in the way of that plan", Randi announced that he was terminating further involvement with them.[23] A local volunteer contacted Randi offering to investigate the group unofficially. A low resolution video showed the investigator being knocked to the ground during a preliminary test. The JREF pointed out that the test was not conducted according to the proposed protocol, with multiple flaws in the execution including being carried out at night.[23] Upon viewing a set of still shots from the incident, several people experienced with stun-guns suggested that an electroshock weapon could have been used.[24]

Tests at The Amazing Meeting[edit]

In July 2014, Chinese salesman Fei Wang was tested in front of an audience of 600 at the conclusion of The Amazing Meeting in Las Vegas. Wang said "'from his right hand, he could transmit a mysterious force a distance of three feet, unhindered by wood, metal, plastic or cardboard, The energy, he said, could be felt by others as heat, pressure, magnetism or simply “an indescribable change.”' A total of nine people were selected by Wang as people who would be able to receive the force from his hand, each person was to be blindfolded on stage and Wang and a control person were behind the curtain. A die was rolled and either the control or Wang would try to transmit the energy onto the subject's hand which was hidden inside a cardboard box. The subject then removed their blindfold and stated if they had felt any energy and if it came from person one or two. Wang needed to be selected 8 out of 9 trials in order to win the million dollars. After two trials, both failures for Wang, the challenge was over. Wang stated that he would try again the next year, saying "This energy is mysterious".[25]

Audiophile Lee Hutchinson approached the JREF after writing an article for Ars Technica about directional Ethernet cables that claim to "keep your audio signal completely free of electromagnetic interference". At the 2015 Amazing Meeting, the MDC set up a controlled double-blind demonstration with volunteers listening to two identical recordings with a randomly selected Ethernet cable, a normal one or the cable claiming to improve the listening experience. After seven volunteers (1 hit, 1 miss and 5 hearing no difference), the demonstration was ended as they were unable to select the "enhanced" cable over the common cable enough times to satify the testing protocols.[26][27]

Year Challenger Ability Test Results Notes
2009 Connie Sonne Dowsing (Pendulum) Identify playing cards in sealed envelope. Failed
2010 Anita Ikonen Medical Dowsing Determine by observation which of 5 subjects was missing a kidney. Failed Billed as "demonstration" not "test"
2011 No challenger available
2012 Andrew Needles Performance-enhancing bracelet Distinguish participants wearing real product significant number of times Failed Claimant abandoned test in progress
2013 Brahim Addoun Remote viewing Remotely identify 3 of 20 objects Failed
2014 Fei Wang Can send energy through his hand that can be felt by another person Electricity to the hand felt correctly 8 out of 9 times Failed
2015 No claimant - "Demonstration test" Ethernet cables that are claimed to be "directional". Volunteers were played sound twice and were asked to determine which cable had the highest sound quality Failed

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "JREF Challenge FAQ". James Randi Educational Foundation. Retrieved 18 December 2012. 
  2. ^ "The Demystifying Adventures of the Amazing Randi". Retrieved September 5, 2009. SF Weekly, August 24, 2009, online version, page 2: "One of his friends, Internet pioneer Rick Adams, put up $1 million in 1996."
  3. ^ Poulsen, Kevin (January 12, 2007). "Skeptic Revamps $1M Psychic Prize". Wired. Retrieved 2007-01-14. 
  4. ^ "SWIFT Newsletter January 4, 2008". Randi.org. Retrieved 2014-06-12. 
  5. ^ "Million Dollar Challenge Update: It's not ending!". Retrieved July 30, 2009.  Announcement by Director Phil Plait on July 29, 2009
  6. ^ Raphael, Seth (1 April 2008). "Seth Raphael claims Randi's Million Dollar Challenge". Retrieved 11 April 2013. 
  7. ^ Crabtree, Sadie. "JREF’s $1,000,000 Paranormal Challenge Now Easier Than Ever", James Randi Education Foundation, March 9, 2011
  8. ^ "James Randi interview on Penn Radio, 2007-02-08". Pennfans.net. 2007-02-08. Retrieved 2009-06-15. 
  9. ^ "Challenge Info". JREF. Retrieved 10 April 2013. 
  10. ^ "JREF logs of challenge applicants". Forums.randi.org. Retrieved 2013-04-10. 
  11. ^ Randi, James (1982). Flim-Flam!. Prometheus Books. pp. 307–324. ISBN 978-0879751982. 
  12. ^ Rawlins, Dennis (October 1981). "sTARBABY". FATE Magazine (34).  Reprinted in "sTARBABY". Centre Universitaire de Recherche en Astrologie (The International Astrology Research Center). Retrieved 2006-09-09. 
  13. ^ Swift newsletter, vol. 2 no. 2, 1998 (page 3)
  14. ^ "Interview with Larry Birkhead" Larry King Live, CNN, January 26, 2007
  15. ^ "Million Dollar Challenge financial statement" (PDF). Retrieved 2014-06-12. 
  16. ^ "Are Psychics for Real?" CNN.com transcripts, March 6, 2001
  17. ^ King, Larry (September 3, 2001). "Are Psychics Real?". CNN/Larry King Live. Retrieved 2006-08-18. 
  18. ^ "The Sylvia Browne Clock". Randi.org. Retrieved 2010-05-13. 
  19. ^ Spiritual Medium Versus Paranormal Skeptic (Rosemary Altea versus James Randi) on Larry King Live June 5, 2001
  20. ^ "Good Morning TV Clip". 
  21. ^ Catherine, Leigh. "Twitter Account". 
  22. ^ Marcus Rosenlund. "En hederlig lögnare". yle.fi. 
  23. ^ a b "Rejection of Yellow Bamboo's claim". Randi.org. 2003-10-03. Archived from the original on 2010-04-23. Retrieved 2009-06-15. 
  24. ^ "Yellow Bamboo may have used a stun gun to achieve his results". Randi.org. 2003-10-17. Archived from the original on 2010-06-16. Retrieved 2009-06-15. 
  25. ^ Higginbotham, Adam. "The Unbelievable Skepticism of the Amazing Randi". New York Times Magazine. Retrieved 2014-11-10. 
  26. ^ Hutchinson, Lee. "STAFF / FROM THE MINDS OF ARS To the audiophile, this $10,000 Ethernet cable apparently makes sense In reality, one-way silver cable does nothing but make "audiophools" poorer.". Ars Technica. Retrieved July 25, 2015. 
  27. ^ "The audiophile’s dilemma: strangers can’t identify $340 cables, either". Retrieved 2015-07-31. 
  28. ^ "The $100,000 Challenge". Australian Skeptics Inc. 

External links[edit]