Siege of Basra

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Siege of Basra
Operation Karbala-5
Part of the Iran–Iraq War
Operation Karbala 5 map.svg
Date 8 January-26 February 1987
Location Basra Governorate
Result

Strategic stalemate

  • Iranians seized 3 defence lines east of Basrah[1]
  • Iraqis hold Basrah, Tannumah and Abu al-Khasib[1]
  • Iranians continue shelling Basra with artillery
Territorial
changes
Iran crossed the border and captured east part of Basra Governorate[1]
Belligerents
 Iraq  Iran
Commanders and leaders

Iraq Saddam Hussein

Iraq Gen. al-Rashid[2]
Iraq Lt. Gen. Dhia ul-Din Jamal[3]
Iraq Maj. Gen. Khalil al-Dhouri
Iraq Brig. Gen. Abdul-Wahid Shannan ar-Ribat[4]
Iraq Brig. Gen. Riyadh Taha[4]
Iraq Brig. Gen. Hassan Yusuf[4]
Iraq Brig. Gen. Ibrahim Ismail[disambiguation needed][4]
Iraq Brig. Gen. Hamid Salman[4]
Iran Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani[5]
Iran Mohsen Rezaee[5]
Iran Hossein Kharrazi 
Iran Col. Ali Sayyad Shirazi
Units involved

3rd Corps

6th Corps
7th Corps[6]
National Defense Battalions

Basij and Revolutionary Guards (70%):
Najaf Corps
Quds Corps
Karbala Corps
Nouh Corps

Regular Army (30%) with some artillery and armour
Strength
300,000 (four armies) 150,000–200,000 (six divisions from army & rest from the Basij militia)
Casualties and losses
20,000 casualties [7]
45 aircraft[7]
65,000 casualties[7]
Unknown loss of materiel
≈2 million civilians displaced

The Siege of Basra, code-named Operation Karbala-5 (Persian: عملیات کربلای 5‎‎), was an offensive operation carried out by Iran in an effort to capture the Iraqi port city of Basra in early 1987. This battle, known for its extensive casualties and ferocious conditions, was the biggest battle of the war and proved to be the beginning of the end of the Iran–Iraq War.

Bibliography[edit]

  1. The Great War for Civilisation: The Conquest of the Middle East, by Robert Fisk, Knopf Books, 2005
  2. "The Gulf Iran Strikes on Two Fronts", by William E. Smith, Time, 26 January 1987
  3. "The Gulf", Time, 2 February 1987
  4. "The Gulf Life Among Smoldering Ruins", by Dean Fischer, Time, 30 March 1987
  5. In The Name of God: The Khomeini Decade, by Robin Wright, Simon and Schuster, 1989
  6. Essential Histories: The Iran–Iraq War, 1980–1988, by Efraim Karsh, Osprey Publishing, 2002
  7. Journey to Heading 270 Degrees, by Ahmad Dihqan and Paul Sprachman, Mazda Publishers, 2006
  8. The Longest War, by Dilip Hiro, Routlage Chapman & Hall, 1991.
  9. http://csis.org/files/media/csis/pubs/9005lessonsiraniraqii-chap08.pdf
  10. https://books.google.com/books?id=dUHhTPdJ6yIC&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_atb#v=onepage&q&f=false

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Colonel Jafari, Mojtaba (2006). "Chapter 6: Sixth year, Seizing Faw". Atlas of Unforgettable Battles. Tehran: Operations Holy Defence Research Center. p. 133. ISBN 964-06-5515-5. 
  2. ^ Pelletiere, Stephen C (10 December 1990). Lessons Learned: Iran–Iraq War. Marine Corps Historical Publication. p. 40. 
  3. ^ Hoffpauir, Michael E. (June 1991). "Tactical Evolution in the Iraqi Army: The Abadan Island and Fish Lake campaigns of the Iran-Iraq War" (PDF). Ft. Leavenworth, Kansas: U.S. Army Command and General Staff College: 104. Retrieved 5 September 2012. 
  4. ^ a b c d e Woods, Kevin M. (2011) [2010]. Saddam's Generals: Perspectives of the Iran–Iraq War. 4850 Mark Center Drive, Alexandria, Virginia: Institute for Defense Analyses. p. 73. 
  5. ^ a b "/خاطره اختصاصی محسن رضایی از کربلای ۵/". خبرگزاری فارس. 
  6. ^ Hoffpauir, Michael E. (June 1991). "Tactical Evolution in the Iraqi Army: The Abadan Island and Fish Lake campaigns of the Iran–Iraq War" (PDF). Ft. Leavenworth, Kansas: U.S. Army Command and General Staff College: 94. Retrieved 5 September 2012. 
  7. ^ a b c John Pike. "Iran-Iraq War (1980-1988)". 

External links[edit]


Coordinates: 30°30′00″N 47°48′00″E / 30.5000°N 47.8000°E / 30.5000; 47.8000