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Paddleboarding participants are propelled by a swimming motion using their arms while lying or kneeling on a paddleboard or surfboard in the ocean. This article refers to traditional prone or kneeling paddleboarding. A derivative of paddleboarding is stand up paddle surfing and stand up paddleboarding. Paddleboarding is usually performed in the open ocean, with the participant paddling and surfing unbroken swells to cross between islands or journey from one coastal area to another. Champion paddlers can stroke for hours and a 20-mile (32 km) race is only a warm-up for a well-trained waterman.
Ships Artist, John Webber, accompanied Captain James Cook to The Sandwich Islands in 1778, and in the lower left foreground of his 1781 engraving is depicted a Paddleboarder/Surfer Rider.
Thomas Edward Blake
Thomas Edward Blake is credited as the pioneer in paddleboard construction in the early 1930s.
While restoring historic Hawaiian boards in 1926 for the Bernice P. Bishop Museum, Blake built a replica of the previously ignored olo surfboard ridden by ancient Hawaiian aliʻi (kings). He lightened his redwood replica (olo were traditionally made from wiliwili wood) by drilling it full of holes, which he then covered, thus creating the first hollow board, which led to creation of the modern paddleboard. Two years later, using this same 16 ft (4.9 m), 120 lb (54 kg) board, Blake won the Pacific Coast Surfriding Championship, first Mainland event integrating both surfing and paddling. Blake then returned to Hawaii to break virtually every established paddling record available, setting 1⁄2 mi (800 m) and 100 yd (91 m) records that stood until 1955.
In 1932, using his drastically modified chambered hollow board, now weighing roughly 60 lb (27 kg), which over the next decade he would tirelessly promote as a lifeguarding rescue tool, Blake out-paddled top California watermen Pete Peterson and Wally Burton in the first Mainland to Catalina crossing race—29 mi (47 km) in 5 hours, 53 minutes. During the 1930s, Blake-influenced hollow boards (called “cigar boards” by reporters and later “kook boxes” by surfers) would be used in roughly equal proportion to solid plank boards for both paddling and surfing until the new Hot Curl boards led wave-riding in a new direction. For paddleboarding, however, the basic principles of Blake’s 1926 design remain relevant even today.
Paddleboarding experienced a renaissance in the early 1980s after Los Angeles County lifeguard Rabbi Norm Shifren’s “Waterman Race”—22 mi (35 km) from Point Dume to Malibu—inspired surf journalist Craig Lockwood to begin production on a high quality stock paddleboard—known as the "Waterman." Its design, that has arguably won more races than any other stock paddleboard, remains a popular choice today. Shortly after, L.A, surfboard shaper Joe Bark and San Diego shaper Mike Eaton began production, and soon with Brian Szymanski's North County Paddleboards (NCP) became three of the largest U.S. paddleboard makers, eventually producing nearly half of the estimated 3–400 paddleboards made each year in the U.S. today. L.A. lifeguards Gibby Gibson and Buddy Bohn revived the Catalina Classic event in 1982 for a field of 10 competitors. Concurrently in Hawaii, the annual Independence Day Paddleboard Race from Sunset to Waimea was drawing a few hundred competitors, many using surfboards due to lack of proper paddleboards on the Islands. As paddlers began ordering boards from the Mainland, local surfboard shapers like Dennis Pang (now one of Hawaii’s largest paddleboard makers) moved quickly to fill the local niche. On both fronts, paddleboarding has been consistently gaining momentum and popularity.
In 1996 the sport of paddleboarding was making a comeback. Once the domain of only dedicated watermen and big wave riders in the 50’s and 60’s, the sport found a new set of acolytes on the North Shore of Oahu and in Honolulu at the Outrigger Canoe Club. At that time Hawaii’s top paddler was Dawson Jones. After completing the 32 mi (51 km) Catalina Classic, from Catalina Island to Manhattan Beach, Jones returned to Hawaii inspired to establish a race across the Ka’iwi Channel. In 1997, the race that is now known as the Molokai-2-Oahu Paddleboard World Championships was born. Today the race sells out with both prone and stand up paddleboarders (SUP) from around the world who compete in solo and team divisions.
Paddleboards are divided by length into three classes: Stock, 14 Foot, and Unlimited. Stock boards are 12 ft (3.7 m) long, and best for paddlers around 180 lb (82 kg) or less. Stock boards are easy to accelerate and fast in choppy water. But with their short waterline, they lack the calm water top speed of 14 foot or Unlimited boards.
14 foot class boards are arguably the best all around board. At 14 ft (4.3 m) in length, they combine many of the best characteristics of stock boards with nearly the calm water speed of Unlimited boards. Only about half of all races have a 14 foot class.
Unlimited boards are the fastest boards afloat. Their speed comes from their long waterline and this also gives them a longer glide per stroke. Though usually 17 to 18 ft (5.2 to 5.5 m) long, the class is defined as "anything that floats" and boards over 20 ft (6.1 m) have been built. They can be difficult to handle in choppy water and their length makes them harder to transport and store. Modern Unlimited boards have rudders that are steered by a tiller between the paddler's feet.
There is an additional board class, the 10' 6". These boards are not used in the long ocean races that are run with the Stock, 14 Foot and Unlimited boards, but are used in surf and sprint races. 10' 6" class boards are known by several names: Ten-Six, Sprint Board, Surf Racer, or Racing Mal.
Paddleboarding can also be done on various pieces of equipment, including surfboards. Paddleboards are made of fiberglass, epoxy, and/or carbon fibre and are generally quite large, ranging from 8 ft (2.4 m) to 21 to 18 ft (6.4 to 5.5 m). An emerging paddleboard technology is an epoxy surfboard, which are stronger and lighter than traditional fiberglass. Cost of new boards range from $1,500 to $3,500 for custom boards. Used boards that have been well kept are in high demand and can be sold fairly easily on paddleboard listing web sites.
- Molokai-2-Oahu Paddleboard World Championships – 32 mi (51 km) from Kaluakoi, Molokai to Muanalua Bay, Oahu
- Santa Monica Pier Paddleboard Race and Ocean Festival – 6 mi (9.7 km) and 2 mi (3.2 km)
- Catalina Classic – 32 mi (51 km) from Catalina to Manhattan Beach
- Hennessey's International Paddleboard Championship – 12 mi (19 km)
- Maui International Paddleboard Race – 9 mi (14 km)
- Hamilton Island Cup, Australia – 8 km (5 mi)
- "Full Moon" paddles from Cuba to the USA – 105 mi (169 km)
Famous paddleboarding spots
Some of the best known surf breaks:
- Coronado, California
- Hermosa Beach, California
- Laguna Beach, California
- Manhattan Beach, California
- Cardiff Reef, California
- Santa Monica Pier
- Jamie Mitchell - 10 Time Winner of Molokai-2-Oahu Paddleboard World Championships, more than 100 other paddleboard races won around the world
- Kanesa Duncan Seraphin - 8-time winner of Molokai-2-Oahu Paddleboard World Championships, winner of over 50 paddleboard races around the world, Sponsored by Bark Paddleboards
- Kyle Daniels - Only man to beat Jamie Mitchell, Catalina Classic Winner, Manhattan Beach Ocean Lifeguard Specialist, Sponsored by Bark Paddleboards
- Thomas Michael O'Shaughnessy, Jr. - Guinness World Record paddleboarding the English Channel (4); created the East Coast Paddleboard Championships held yearly in Ponce Inlet, Florida
- Brian Murphy - Many Stock Division Wins, Many National Lifeguard Championship medals, sponsored by Force Field
- Chris Owens - The first person, since Gene "Tarzan" Smith in 1940, to paddleboard from Oahu to Kauai who remains the only living person to do so.
- Annabel Anderson, the reigning Stand Up Paddling World Champion, became the first woman to paddleboard across New Zealand's Cook Strait
- Robert Cunliffe and Arron Ford - The 'Panama paddlers' hold the world record (unofficial) for the longest prone paddleboarding journey, the pair paddled unsupported for 379.8 miles along the coastline of Panama searching for undiscovered populations of Antillean Manatee, discovering two previously unknown populations, and raising awareness of the work of Seacology.
- Brian Szymanski - Multiple Stock Division Wins and Record holder at the Catalina Classic and other races. Owner of North County Paddleboards (NCP) and chief designer for Lahui Kai race board division.
- Dixon, Peter. The Complete Guide to Surfing.Guilford: The Lyons Press, 2001. Print.
- "1930's Era Hollow-core Surfboards & Paddleboards; Thomas Edward Blake: March 8, 1902 - May 5, 1994". Vintage Wooden Surfboards. Retrieved 2010-12-12.
- "Anderson paddles into history". Radio New Zealand. 3 April 2014. Retrieved 3 April 2014.