Panzerfaust 3

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Panzerfaust 3
Panzerfaust3.jpg
Combat-ready Panzerfaust 3
Type

Anti-tank rocket launcher

Rocket-propelled grenade
Place of origin West Germany
Service history
In service 1992–present
Used by See Users
Production history
Designer Dynamit Nobel AG
Designed 1978–85
Manufacturer Dynamit Nobel AG
IHI Aerospace - Licensed[1]
Variants Panzerfaust 3-T, Panzerfaust 3-IT600, Panzerfaust 3LW, Panzerfaust 3LW-HESH, Bunkerfaust, 110 mm anti-tank weapon
Specifications
Weight

Configuration:

Length 950 mm (3 ft 1 in)

Caliber 60 mm (2.4 in) barrel, 110 mm (4.3 in) warhead
Muzzle velocity 115.0 m/s (377 ft/s)
Maximum firing range 920.0 m (3,018.4 ft) (automatic self-destructs once beyond the range)
Sights UP-7V Telescopic sight

The Panzerfaust 3 (lit. "armor fist" or "tank fist") is a modern disposable recoilless anti-tank weapon, which was developed between 1978 and 1985 and put into service by the Bundeswehr in 1992. It was first ordered in 1973 to provide West German infantry with an effective weapon against contemporary Soviet armour, thereby replacing West Germany's aging PzF 44 Light Lanze launchers and the heavy Carl Gustaf 84 mm anti-tank recoilless rifle manufactured in Sweden. The Panzerfaust 3 is operated by at least 11 countries and has been employed in Afghanistan.

History[edit]

The Panzerfaust 3's name dates back to the Panzerfaust used by the German army in World War II, which consisted of a small, disposable preloaded launch tube firing a high explosive anti-tank warhead, operated by a single soldier.

The introduction of reactive and active armours on combat vehicles of the then Warsaw Pact countries started a development in the technology of the capability of the warheads, the effective range and the optical sights of anti-tank recoilless rifles were therefore improved substantially. Despite these technological improvements, the primary role of the recoilless firing system as the most effective weapon against armoured tanks — at a distance up to 600 metres — remained the most important to infantrymen until the late 1990s.[2]

After the formation of the Bundeswehr in 1956, one task of all troop formations was „fighting armoured vehicles and tanks“. The Bundeswehr at time was equpiped with the aging Panzerfaust 44 and the heavy Carl Gustaf 84 mm anti-tank rifle. These infantry weapon systems equipped with an armour piercing shaped charge warhead would have fought not only tanks but also machine gun nests, anti-tank positions, bunkers or field positions, etc. in open terrain. However, during the 70's new conceptional and tactical considerations were made in order to balance the constantly progressing development in tank technology.

Timetable Panzerfaust 3.jpg

In 1979 Dynamite Nobel AG received a development order, the first troop test began in 1986, and in 1992 Panzerfaust 3 was officially introduced. The improved PzF 3-T replaced the original model in the late 1990s, introducing a dual hollow charge "tandem" warhead to defeat explosive reactive armour. This means that the spike projecting from the warhead itself also contains an explosive charge to set off reactive armour and free the path to the main armour for the secondary warhead. The latest incarnation of the Panzerfaust 3, the PzF 3-IT-600, can be fired from ranges up to 600 metres thanks to an advanced computer-assisted sighting and targeting mechanism.

As of 2005, there were two additional models in the development or testing stage, both relying on smaller, and therefore lighter, warheads. These were the Rückstoßfreie Granatwaffe RGW (Recoilless Grenade Weapon) in calibres 60 and 90 millimetres. Both new weapons are expected to help facilitate the transition in German military doctrine from preparation for major tank battles to urban and low-level warfare.

Principle[edit]

A JGSDF soldier in winter gear prepares to fire an IHI Aerospace 110mm anti-tank weapon in Forest Light 2004.

The Panzerfaust 3 series of launchers is a compact, lightweight, shoulder-fired, unguided antitank weapon series. It consists of a disposable canister with a 110-mm warhead and reusable firing and sighting device. The DM12 and DM12A1 projectile consists of a shaped-charge warhead and is filled with Octol 7030, while the tandem DM22 warheads are made of PBX octogene (ca. 95% β-HMX) including the propulsion unit. The penetration performance of the Panzerfaust 3 is due to the shaped charge principle and the quick response of the percussion fuze; the effect on the target does not depend on the impact velocity.

The Panzerfaust 3 is light enough to be carried and fired by one person. It can be fired from enclosures since it does not have a significant backblast; the rear of the tube, filled with plastic granulate, minimises the blast effect by the so-called recoilless countermass principle. The booster propellant for the projectile in its tube is ignited by a bolt via a spring mechanism. Once ejected from the launcher, the projectile coasts a safe distance and then the rocket motor is ignited, boosting it to its maximum speed, after which it coasts until impact. The gunner carries at least two rounds while the assistant grenadier carries an additional three rounds.

The ergonomic design of the controls such as handles, launcher, barrel shape and optical sight, is predefined standard. All controls are easy to handle in all shooting positions (lying, kneeling or standing).[2] After the weapon is fired, the firing mechanism with the attached optical sight is removed and the barrel thrown away, the firing mechanism is reusable. The effective combat range of Panzerfaust 3 is between 15 and 300 metres against moving and 400 and 600 metres against static targets. An optical sight with line pattern fixed to the reusable firing mechanism enables to engage moving or static targets. To ensure night combat capability, a night-vision device or residual light amplifier can be set up in front of the optical sight.[2]

As safety precautions, the built-in fuse for the warhead is released by a safety mechanism. This arms the warhead after a flight distance of approximately five meters. Once armed, the warhead will detonate on impact, and as a safety when the rocket's propellant runs out. This safeguards against live ammunition staying around and causing hazards to all in the future. The Panzerfaust 3 is distributed in a special package including spare parts and a cleaning kit. The package contains a launcher, ejector and spring, extractor, dummy extractor plug, bolt-head retaining pin, plastic cleaning rod with brass tip, bore and chamber brushes, camel's hair brush and a prismatic bore scope. It takes several minutes to assemble and load the launcher.

Further development[edit]

A new sight called Dynarange is currently being procured as part of the German Infantryman of the Future project. Essentially this is a computer controlled aiming sight with range finder. It is meant to cope with the fact that some soldiers have had difficulties with the regular sight, as its scope is quite complex to the untrained eye. It would increases the weapon's effective range to 600 m (2,000 ft) against moving and stationary targets. Dynarange is already in service with the Royal Netherlands Marine Corps and the Dutch Army.[3]

Variants[edit]

Data used from "Worldwide Equipment Guide, Volume 1: Ground Systems, December 2011"

  • Panzerfaust 3 (Pzf 3) :
    • Original system with 110-mm HEAT grenade (nose probe for 700 mm penetration).
    • Optical day sight limits range to 300 m moving, 400 stationary.
  • Panzerfaust 3-T :
    • Upgrade with 3-T tandem HEAT grenade and original day sight.
    • It is effective against targets to 300m stationary, 400m moving.
    • Night sight is optional.
  • Panzerfaust 3-T600 :
    • Upgrade adds the IS2000 computer laser day sight with range of out to 600 m for moving targets.
    • Advanced tripod mount with a SIRA sensor package uses acoustic detection and IR sensor triggering.
    • It uses the Simrad KN250 series II night sight.
    • Acquisition-to-firing time is 3-4 seconds
  • Panzerfaust 3-IT600 :
    • Capability upgrade adds more recent 3-IT grenade which penetrates 900+ mm armor behind ERA (equals 1,150 mm vs armor without ERA).
    • Pzf-3-LR/RS, PzF-N version avaible.
    • Pzf-3-LR semi-active laser homing (SAL-H) system and requires a CO2 laser guidance unit and SAL-H grenade.
    • Pzf-N designed to compete for UK NLAW.
  • Panzerfaust 3LTW :
    • Light-weight launcher weighing less than 10 kg.
  • Panzerfaust 3LR :
    • Long-range semi-active laser homing (SAL-H) system and requires CO2 laser guidance unit and SAL-H grenade.
    • Range-800 m, armor penetration-700 mm.
  • Fire Salamander:
    • 4 x Pzf-3 series launchers on tripod with remote controlled TV camera and other sensors, also auto-launch.
    • Fire Salamander and SIRA can be used with IT600.

Specifications[edit]

Different PzF3 models in service with the German Feldjäger (military police)

PzF 3[edit]

Standard Anti-tank version with hollow charge warhead

  • Calibre:
    • Launcher: 60 mm (2.4 in)
    • warhead: 110 mm (4.3 in)
  • Weight:
    • fire-ready weapon: 15.2 kg (33 lb 8 oz)
    • warhead: 3.9 kg (8 lb 10 oz)
    • spare rounds: 12.9 kg (28 lb 7 oz)
  • Length: 1,200 mm (3 ft 11 in)
  • Muzzle velocity: 160.0 m/s (525 ft/s)
  • Highest possible speed: 243.0 m/s (797 ft/s)
  • Sights: telescope sights (can be reused)
  • Maximum effective range:
    • Stationary targets: 400.0 m (1,312.3 ft)
    • Moving targets: 300.0 m (984.3 ft)
  • Minimum effective range: 20.0 m (65.6 ft)
  • Penetration capability:

PzF 3-IT[edit]

Improved Anti-tank version with tandem hollow charge warhead (designed to penetrate reactive armour)

  • Calibre:
    • Launcher: 60 mm (2.4 in)
    • warhead: 110 mm (4.3 in)
  • Weight:
    • fire-ready weapon: 15.6 kg (34 lb 6 oz)
    • warhead: 3.9 kg (8 lb 10 oz)
    • spare rounds: 13.3 kg (29 lb 5 oz)
  • Length: 1,200 mm (3 ft 11 in)
  • Muzzle velocity: 152.0 m/s (499 ft/s)
  • Highest possible speed: 220.0 m/s (722 ft/s)
  • Sights: telescope sights (can be reused)
  • Maximum effective range:
    • Stationary targets: 400.0 m (1,312.3 ft)
    • Moving targets: 300.0 m (984.3 ft) (600.0 m (1,968.5 ft) with DYNARANGE sight)
  • Minimum effective range: 20.0 m (65.6 ft)
  • Penetration capability:
    • RHA: 900 mm (35 in)

PzF 3 Bunkerfaust[edit]

Designed for use against hardened bunkers, lightly armoured vehicles & soft targets

  • Calibre:
    • Launcher: 60 mm (2.4 in)
    • warhead: 110 mm (4.3 in)
  • Weight:
    • fire-ready weapon: 15.6 kg (34 lb 6 oz)
    • warhead: 3.9 kg (8 lb 10 oz)
    • spare rounds: 13.3 kg (29 lb 5 oz)
  • Length: 1,200 mm (3 ft 11 in)
  • Muzzle velocity: 149.0 m/s (489 ft/s)
  • Highest possible speed: 212.0 m/s (696 ft/s)
  • Sights: telescope sights (can be reused)
  • Maximum effective range: 300.0 m (984.3 ft)
  • Minimum effective range: 20.0 m (65.6 ft)
  • Manufacturer: Dynamit-Nobel, Germany
  • Penetration capacity:
    • RHA: 110 mm (4.3 in)
    • Concrete: 360 mm (14 in)
    • Sandbags: 1,300 mm (4 ft 3 in)

Ammunition[edit]

  • PzF 3 :
    • HEAT -125, HEAT-90, HESH, MZ-110 (Multipurpose-Frag), Illumination, IR Smoke, Smoke. Penetration: 600m/800+ mm
    • 3LW-HESH, 3LWD Multipurpose PZF-3 (110mm HEAT-original rd), BASTEG Bunker Busters. Penetration: 300-400m/700+ mm
  • PzF 3-IT :
    • Pzf-N (Tandem HEAT). Penetration: 600m/900+mm
    • Pzf-3-LR (Tandem SAL-H). Penetration: 800m/700+mm
    • Other munitions as noted above.

Operators[edit]

Map with Panzerfaust 3 operators in blue

Current operators[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Notes
  1. ^ "Exhibition of Equipments". JP: PLALA. 2003-03-16. Retrieved 2009-11-04. 
  2. ^ a b c European Security and Defence
  3. ^ a b "Short-range Panzerfaust antitank weapon". Dutch Ministry of Defence. Retrieved 16 August 2010. 
  4. ^ a b Jones, Richard D. Jane's Infantry Weapons 2009/2010. Jane's Information Group; 35 edition (January 27, 2009). ISBN 978-0-7106-2869-5.
  5. ^ Belgium selects Spike missile and Panzerfaust 3 - Armyrecognition.com, January 3, 2013
  6. ^ http://esdocs.org/docs/index-27867.html
  7. ^ "110mm 個人携帯対戦車弾" (in Japanese). Retrieved 2009-11-04. 
  8. ^ http://www.janes.com/article/25700/peru-receives-displays-new-anti-tank-weapons
  9. ^ 팬저파우스트3 대전차로켓 발사! (in Korean). Retrieved 2011-04-19. 
  10. ^ "110mm Swiss Raid". Retrieved 2010-11-02. 

External links[edit]