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Peanut stew

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Alternative namesGroundnut stew
Place of originSenegal, Mali
Region or stateWest Africa
Main ingredientsMeat (lamb, beef, or chicken), tomatoes, onions, garlic, cabbage, leaf or root vegetables, peanuts

Peanut stew or groundnut stew, also known as maafe (Wolof, mafé, maffé, maffe), sauce d'arachide (French) or tigadèguèna is a stew that is a staple food in Western Africa.[1] While maafe is a dish originating in Senegal,[2] tigadéguéna originates from the Mandinka and Bambara people of Mali.[3]

The proper name for it in the Mandinka language is domodah or tigadegena (lit. 'peanut butter sauce,' where tige is 'peanut,' dege is 'paste,' and na is 'sauce') in Bamanankan.[4]

Domodah is a sauce also used by Gambians, whose name has been borrowed from the Mandinka language.[5][6] In Senegal domodah or domoda refers to flour-thickened soup or stew, which is different from maafe that uses peanut paste.[7]

Tigadéguéna is often used synonymously with maafe, although the two are historically different and stem from different areas. Tigadéguéna is traditionally prepared with peanuts, which are known as Bambara peanuts, it is served with millet dough. Maafe on the other hand, is prepared with peanut butter and tomatoes. Peanuts as we know them today were first introduced in the 16th century in Senegal, tomato in the 19th century;[8] and in Mali during the 20th century.[9] Maafe is traditionally served with rice. It is a favorite dish among several Senegalese and Gambian ethnic groups, it has become the national dish in Mali as well as a popular dish across West Africa, even outside West Africa such as in Cameroon and France.[10]

Variants of Senegalese maafe appear in the cuisine of nations throughout West Africa and Central Africa. It is very similar to groundnut soup. It may be prepared with lamb, beef, chicken, or without meat.[11][12][1][13] In Ghana, this stew is usually eaten with fufu.[13]


Senegalese maafe with vegetables
Senegalese maafe with vegetables

Recipes for the stew vary widely, but commonly include chicken, tomato, onion, garlic, cabbage, and leaf or root vegetables. Other versions include okra, corn, carrots, cinnamon, hot peppers, paprika, black pepper, turmeric, cumin, and other spices. Maafe is traditionally served with white rice (in Senegal, Mauritania, Guinea-Bissau and Gambia), fonio or to (millet dough) in Mali, tuwo or omo tuo (rice or millet dough) in Northern Nigeria, Niger, and Northern Ghana, couscous (as West Africa meets the Sahara, in Sahelian countries), or fufu and sweet potatoes in the more tropical areas, such as the Ivory Coast. Um'bido is a variation using greens, while Ghanaian maafe is cooked with boiled eggs.[14] "Virginia peanut soup", a variation of Senegalese maafe even traveled with enslaved Africans to North America.[15]

Senegalese maafe[edit]

Maafe or mafé was improved from bassi guerte, a peanut butter sauce served with chere a Senegalese couscous on millet basis.[16] Malian tigadèguèna and Senegalese maafe being in taste and consistency different.[17] Unlike Malian tigadèguèna, which is traditionally more watery and prepared with unrefined shea butter, the type of maafe prepared and consumed in Senegal is a rice-based dish with a creamy peanut paste sauce, tomato, oil, meat, onion, garlic, vegetables and spices which give it a particular flavor. Senegalese maafe is not only the national dish in Mali and Gambia, it is also prepared in various countries in West Africa as well as outside the African continent. In The Gambia, it is called domodah.[18]

The Gambia[edit]

Domoda is a type of groundnut stew found in The Gambia.[19] Domoda is prepared using ground peanuts or peanut butter, meat, onion, tomato, garlic, seasonal vegetables and spices.[19][20] It has been described as one of the national dishes of The Gambia.[20] Domoda is typically served over rice, and is also sometimes served over findi, a grain that is similar to couscous in consistency.[20]


See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b Collective, The Moosewood; Scherer, J. (2013). Moosewood Restaurant Favorites. St. Martin's Press. p. 127. ISBN 978-1-250-00625-7. Retrieved September 9, 2016.
  2. ^ Bonnardel, Regine (1985). Saint-Louis du Senegal; mort ou naissance?. p. 91.
  3. ^ James McCann. Stirring the pot: a history of African cuisine, p132. Ohio University Press, 2009ISBN 0-89680-272-8
  4. ^ "The Hirshon Malian Peanut Stew – Tigadegena". ✮ The Food Dictator ✮. 2016-09-22. Retrieved 2020-05-29.
  5. ^ James McCann. Stirring the pot: a history of African cuisine, p132. Ohio University Press, 2009. ISBN 0-89680-272-8
  6. ^ Emma Gregg, Richard Trillo. Rough guide to the Gambia, p39. Rough Guides, 2003. ISBN 1-84353-083-X
  7. ^ Saine, Abdoulaye (2012). Culture and customs of Gambia. Greenwood. ISBN 978-0-313-35911-8. OCLC 881315512.
  8. ^ Bonnardel, Regine (1985). Saint-Louis du Senegal; mort ou naissance?. p. 91.
  9. ^ "Tomato history in Mali".
  10. ^ Crenn, Jeylin (1983). The African cuisine cookbook.
  11. ^ Dorinda Hafner. "Maafe - Chicken And Peanut Stew - Mali". Chef2Chef culinary portal. Archived from the original on 2007-02-03. Retrieved 2007-03-03.
  12. ^ Ester Goody (2012). "Ghanaian Groundnut Stew". In Jessica Kuper (ed.). The Anthropologist'S Cookbook. Taylor & Francis. pp. 81–83. ISBN 978-1-136-16789-8.
  13. ^ a b Wright, C.A. (2012). "Groundnut Stew from Ghana". Best Stews in the World: 300 Satisfying One-Dish Dinners, from Chilis and Gumbos to Curries and Cassoulet. Harvard Common Press. p. 408. ISBN 978-1-55832-787-0.
  14. ^ Um'bido (greens & Peanuts) Recipe Archived 2016-03-03 at the Wayback Machine
    Ghanaian Maafe: My Changing Memories of Mafe
  15. ^ Where Settlers, Slaves and Natives Converged, a Way of Eating Was Born, By Geneva Collins, Washington Post Staff Writer, Wednesday, May 9, 2007; Page F01.
  16. ^ François Sigaut, Hélène Franconie, Monique Chastanet (2010). Couscous, boulgour et polenta transformer et consommer les céréales dans le monde. p. 161.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  17. ^ N'Diaye Haas, Joséphine. Cuisine sénégalaise.
  18. ^ Niang, Cheikh (2022). Cuisine d'Afrique et d'ailleurs.
  19. ^ a b Jacob, J.; Ashkenazi, M. (2014). "The Gambia". The World Cookbook: The Greatest Recipes from Around the Globe, 2nd Edition: The Greatest Recipes from Around the Globe. Vol. 1. ABC-CLIO. p. 481. ISBN 978-1-61069-469-8.
  20. ^ a b c Saine, Abdoulaye (2012). Culture and Customs of Gambia. Culture and customs of Africa. Greenwood. p. 95. ISBN 978-0-313-35910-1.

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