Russo-Persian War (1722–23)

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Russo-Persian War (1722–1723)
Part of Russo-Persian Wars
Персидский поход Петра I.jpg
Map showing the route Peter and his army took upon disembarking from the port of Astrakhan, as well as the places and dates of battle during the war.
Date 18 June 1722 – 12 September 1723
Location North Caucasus, South Caucasus and North Iran
Result Russian Victory
Treaty of Saint Petersburg (1723)[7]
Territorial
changes
Russia gained Derbent, Baku, and the provinces of Shirvan, Gilan, Mazandaran, and Astrabad. All returned to Persia a few years later.
Belligerents

 Russian Empire

Знамено Картлі.gif Kingdom of Kartli[1]
Coat of arms of Gyulistan.jpg Melikdoms of Karabakh and Armenian rebels[2]
Kabarda3.gif Kabardia (lesser and greater)[3]
Kalmyk Khanate[3]
Shamkhalate of Tarki[4]

Tabasaran principality[5][6]
Flag of Shah Tahmasp I.svg Safavid Persian Empire
Ottoman Sultanate1453-1844.png Ottoman Empire
Flag of the Lak People v2.svg Gazikumukh Khanate
Lezgians
Commanders and leaders
Russia Peter the Great
Russia Fyodor Apraksin
Russia Mikhail Matyushkin
Russia Ivan Matveevich the Red Faced
Flag of the Cossack Hetmanat.svgDanylo Apostol
V6flag.JPG Vakhtang VI
Coat of arms of Gyulistan.jpg Davit Bek[2]
Armenian Apostolic Church logo.png Isaiah Hasan Jalalyan[2]
Kabarda3.gif Murza Cherkassky[3]
Kabarda3.gif Aslan-Bek[3]
Ayuka Khan[8]
Adil-Giray[4]
Rustam-Qadi[5][6]
Flag of Shah Tahmasp I.svg Shah Tahmasp II
Ottoman Sultanate1453-1844.png Ahmed III
Sultan Mahmoud Otemishsky
Ahmet Khan
Knyaz Aydemir
Knyaz Chopalav
Flag of the Lak People v2.svg Surkhay Garay Ibn Bey
Haji Davud Myushkyursky
Strength
Russian Army: 22,000
Cossacks: 22,000
Georgian-Armenian Army: 40,000
Total: 84,000
Gholam Regiments: 10,000
Safavid Tofangchian: 30,000
Topchi Brigade, Qizilbash Regiments:30,000
Casualties and losses
unknown unknown

Russo-Persian War, 1722–1723, known in Russian historiography as the Persian campaign of Peter the Great,[9] was a war between Russia and Persia (Safavid Iran), triggered by the tsar's attempt to expand Russian influence in the Caspian and Caucasus regions and to prevent its rival, Ottoman Empire, from territorial gains in the region at the expense of declining Safavid Iran.

The Russian victory ratified for Safavid Irans' cession of their territories in the Northern, Southern Caucasus and contemporary mainland Northern Iran, comprising the cities of Derbent (southern Dagestan) and Baku and their nearby surrounding lands, as well as the provinces of Gilan, Shirvan, Mazandaran, and Astrabad to Russia per the Treaty of Saint Petersburg (1723).[10]

Campaign[edit]

Preparations[edit]

Before the war the nominal Russian border was the Terek River. South of that the Khanates of Dagestan were nominal vassals of Persia. The ultimate cause of the war was Russia’s desire to expand to the southeast and the temporary weakness of Persia. At the start of the war the Persian capital was under siege. The immediate pretext was the plunder of some Russian merchants by mountaineers who were said to be subjects of the Shirvan Khanate, a Persian vassal. In 1714-20 several Russian sailors had mapped the Caspian. On 15 July 1722 Peter issued a manifesto in several local languages justifying the invasion drawn up by Dimitrie Cantemir. Peter gathered 22,000 infantry, 9,000 dragoons and 70,000 Cossacks, Kalmukhs and Tatars. For transport he created the Caspian Flotilla at Astrakhan under Fyodor Apraksin. The infantry, artillery and stores were to be shipped by sea to the mouth of the Sulak River while the cavalry went overland from Tsaritsyn and Mozdok.

Campaign[edit]

All dates old style since dates given only in months could not be converted. Add 11 days for the modern calendar.

Phase One 1722: The flotilla arrived at the mouth of the Sulak on 27 July 1722 and Peter, carried ashore by four boatmen, was the first to disembark. Here he learned that some of his cavalry had been defeated by the Chechens at Enderey – the first time the two peoples had fought. Peter responded with a punitive expedition using Kalmukh troops. He went south and camped at what later became Petrovsk. On 12 August he made a state entry into Tarki, the capital of the Shamkhalate of Tarki, where the ruler received him as a friend. Next day he headed south to Derbent, the flotilla following coastwise. He sent envoys to the next major ruler, the Utsmi of Karakaitag. The Utsmi killed the envoys and gathered 16000 men at Utemish to bar the way. The mountaineers fought valiantly but could not withstand disciplined infantry. Utemish was burned and all the prisoners hanged in revenge for the murder of the envoys. On learning of this the Khan of Derbent offered Peter the keys to the city (23 August). Derbent is at a narrow point on the coastal plain and has long been considered the northern gateway to Persia. While in Derbent he learned that the flotilla had been caught in a storm and most of the supplies lost. Since there was no possibility of resupply this late in the season he left a strong garrison at Derbent, marched back to the Terek River, took ship to Astrakhan and on 13 December made a triumphal entry into Moscow.

Phase Two 1722/23: Vakhtang VI of Kartli (central Georgia) was a vassal of Persia and had been their captive for seven years. Given Persian weakness he made an arrangement with Russia. In September 1722 he advanced on the Ganja Khanate. When the Russians did not join him he returned to Tbilisi (November). This provocation of Persia led to a disastrous invasion of his country.

Before leaving Astrakhan Peter, on 6 November, sent Colonel Shipov and two battalions south to occupy the Persian city of Rasht at the southwest corner of the Caspian. The locals wanted help against the Afghans but quickly changed their minds. 15000 men were gathered, Shah Tamasp ordered the Russians out (February) and towards the end of March the Russians defeated the Persians.

In 1723 General Matyushkin took Baku (25 July) and soon the Shirvan Khanate to the west and then the three Persian provinces on the south coast of the Caspian – Gilan Province, Mazandaran Province and Astarabad. On 12 September the Russians and Persians made a treaty in which the Russians would drive out the Afghans and restore Shah Tamasp to the throne in return for the cession of Derbent, Baku and the three south coast provinces. Next year Prince Meshchersky went to Persia but was unable to secure ratification and was almost killed. {The readily available English sources do not explain what happened in the occupied area for the next ten years.}

The war was formally concluded by the Treaty of Saint Petersburg (1723), which recognized the Russian annexation of the west and south coasts of the Caspian. By the Treaty of Constantinople (1724) Russia recognized Turkish control of nearly everything west of what they had captured, thereby partitioning the Trans-Caucasus between the two powers. The Russians lost many soldiers to disease. Nadir Shah restored Persian power. In 1732, by the Treaty of Resht, Russia withdrew to, approximately, the current Iranian border. In 1735, by the Treaty of Ganja, Russia withdrew to its former border along the Terek River.

Aftermath and consequences[edit]

In 1732, on the eve of the Russo-Turkish War, the government of Empress Anna Ioannovna returned many of the annexed territories to Persia as a part of the Treaty of Resht, to construct an alliance with the Safavids against the Ottoman Empire.[11] By the Treaty of Ganja, the remaining territories were returned, such as Derbent, Baku, Tarki, etc. by which now Iran was in full possession of its territories in the North and South Caucasus again, as well as northern mainland Iran.

The sequel was disastrous for the Georgian rulers who had supported Peter's venture. In eastern Georgia, Vakhtang VI of Kartli lost his throne and sought protection of the Russian court in 1724. In western Georgia, Alexander V of Imereti had to accept an Ottoman suzerainty on more stringent terms. The Ottomans, further, alarmed by the Russian intervention, strengthened their hold along the Caucasian coastline.[12]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Template:Из
  2. ^ a b c МЕЛИКСТВА ХАМСЫ
  3. ^ a b c d "722". Retrieved 9 June 2015. 
  4. ^ a b "Кумыкский мир". Retrieved 9 June 2015. 
  5. ^ a b "lekia.ru". Retrieved 9 June 2015. 
  6. ^ a b Официальный сайт администрации Табасаранского района Населенные пункты
  7. ^ Treaty of St Petersburg (1723), Alexander Mikaberidze, Conflict and Conquest in the Islamic World: A Historical Encyclopedia, Vol. I, ed. Alexander Mikaberidze, (ABC-CLIO, 2011), 850.
  8. ^ Konstantin Nikolaevich Maksimov. Kalmykia in Russia's Past and Present National Policies and Administrative System Central European University Press, 2008 ISBN 9639776173 p 86
  9. ^ Elena Andreeva, Russia and Iran in the Great Game: Travelogues and Orientalism, (Routledge, 2007), 38.
  10. ^ William Bayne Fisher, P. Avery, G. R. G. Hambly, C. Melville. The Cambridge History of Iran, Volume 7 Cambridge University Press, 10 okt. 1991 ISBN 0521200954 p 319
  11. ^ A Global Chronology of Conflict: From the Ancient World to the Modern Middle East, Vol. II, ed. Spencer C. Tucker, (ABC-CLIO, 2010), 729.
  12. ^ Allen, W.E.D. (1950). "Two Georgian Maps of the First Half of the Eighteenth Century". Imago Mundi, Vol. 10: 99.

See also[edit]

References[edit]