Began when ethnic groups from the Garm and Gorno-Badakhshan regions of Tajikistan, which were underrepresented in the ruling elite, rose up against the national government of PresidentRahmon Nabiyev, in which people from the Leninabad and Kulyab regions dominated. The war ended with the signing of the "General Agreement on the Establishment of Peace and National Accord in Tajikistan" and the "Moscow Protocol".
Transnistria, which is de facto independent from Moldova, has declared independence in 1990, due to its majority Russian-speaking population fearing union with Romania. A ceasefire between Transnistrian forces and Moldovan forces has been in place since 1992, enforced by the presence of Russian forces in Transnistria.
Civil unrest fueled by the perception of widespread government corruption, abuse of power and violation of human rights in Ukraine. The unrest eventually lead to the toppling of the Ukrainian government.