Philippine Revolutionary Army

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Philippine Revolutionary Army
Panghimagsikang Hukbong Katihan ng Pilipinas
Ejército Revolucionario Filipino
Philippine Army Seal 1897.jpg
Ejercito en la República dela Filipina Emblem, 1897
Founded March 22, 1897
Country First Philippine Republic Philippine Republic
Type Army
Role Military Force
Size 80,000 to 100,000 (1898)[1]
Garrison/HQ Kawit, Cavite
Nickname(s) "Republican Army"
"Philippine Army"
Colors Blue, Red, Gold and White
Anniversaries March 22
Engagements Philippine Revolution
Spanish–American War
Philippine–American War
Commanders
Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces of the Philippines President General Emilio Aguinaldo
Notable
commanders
Artemio Ricarte
Antonio Luna
Pío del Pilar
Mariano Noriel
Gregorio del Pilar
Miguel Malvar
Marching Filipino soldiers during the inauguration of the First Philippine Republic in Malolos on January 23, 1899.

The Philippine Revolutionary Army (Filipino: Panghimagsikang Hukbong Katihan ng Pilipinas; Spanish: Ejército Revolucionario Filipino) was founded on March 22, 1897 in Cavite. General Artemio Ricarte was designated as its first Captain General during the Tejeros Convention.[2] This armed force of General Emilio Aguinaldo's central revolutionary government replaced the Katipunan militia.[3]

History[edit]

The Army's uniforms were patterned after the Norfolk jacket.
Regular soldiers of the Philippine Revolutionary Army stand at attention for an inspection.

The revolutionary army used the 1896 edition of the Spanish regular army's Ordenanza del Ejército to organize its forces and establish its character as a modern army.[citation needed] Rules and regulations were laid down for the reorganization of the army, along with the regulation of ranks and the adoption of new fighting methods, new rank insignias,[citation needed] and a new standard uniform known as the rayadillo. Filipino artist Juan Luna is credited with this design.[4][5] His brother, General Antonio Luna commissioned him with the task and personally paid for the new uniforms.[6] Juan Luna also designed the collar insignia for the uniforms, distinguishing between the services: infantry, cavalry, artillery, sappers, and medics.[7] At least one researcher has postulated that Juan Luna may have patterned the tunic after the English Norfolk jacket, since the Filipino version is not a copy of any Spanish-pattern uniform.[8] Infantry officers wore blue pants with a black stripe down the side, while Cavalry officers wore red trousers with black stripes.[9][10]

Orders and circulars were issued covering matters such as building trenches and fortifications, equipping every male aged 15 to 50 with bows and arrows (as well as bolo knives, though officers wielded European swords), enticing Filipino soldiers in the Spanish army to defect, collecting empty cartridges for refilling, prohibiting unplanned sorties, inventories of captured arms and ammunition, fundraising, purchasing of arms and supplies abroad, unification of military commands, and exhorting the rich to give aid to the soldiers.[3]

Aguinaldo, a month after he declared Philippine independence, created a pay scale for officers in the army: Following the board, a brigadier general would receive 600 pesos annually, and a sergeant 72 pesos.

When the Philippine–American War erupted on February 4, 1899, the Filipino army suffered heavy losses on every sector. Even Antonio Luna urged Apolinario Mabini, Aguinaldo's chief adviser, to convince the President that guerrilla warfare must be announced as early as April 1899. Aguinaldo adopted guerilla tactics on November 13, 1899, dissolving what remained of the regular army and after many of his crack units were decimated in set-piece battles.[11]

Arsenal[edit]

The main weapon of the new Filipino army was the Spanish M93, also the standard infantry arm of the Spanish, and the Remington Spanish rifle.[3] Crew-served weapons of the Philippine military included lantakas, Krupp guns, Hontoria guns, an Ordóñez gun, Hotchkiss guns, Nordenfelt guns, Maxim guns, and Colt guns. Also, there were improvised artillery weapons made of water pipes reinforced with bamboo or timber, which can only fire once or twice.[3]

Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo, the Supreme Commander of the Philippine Revolutionary Army.
Group showing General Manuel Tinio (seated, center), General Benito Natividad (seated, 2nd from right), Lt. Col. Jose Alejandrino (seated, 2nd from left), and their aides-de-camp.

Ranks/hierarchy[edit]

Antonio Luna, notable Chief Commander of the Philippine Revolutionary Army.
Artemio Ricarte, the Commander of the Philippine Revolutionary Army.
General Gregorio del Pilar, and his troops around 1898.
Soldiers of the army stationed near the Barasoain church during a session of the congress.

The evolution of Philippine revolutionary insignia can be divided into three basic periods; early Katipunan, late Katipunan and the Republican army.

Image Rank/Insignia (Tagalog and Spanish Equivalent Rank(s) in English Image Rank/Insignia Equivalent Rank(s) in English
Ministrong Mariskal
Ministro Mariscal
Minister Marshal
Marshal
Tenyente Koronel
Teniente Coronel
Lieutenant Colonel
Kapitán Heneral
Capitán General
Captain General
Admiral
Komandante
Comandante
Major
Tenyente Heneral
Teniente General
Lieutenant General Kapitán
Capitán
Captain
Magat Heneral
Mayor General
Major General Tenyente
Teniente
Lieutenant
Brigadyer Heneral
Brigadier General
Brigadier General Sarhento
Sargento
Sergeant
Koronel
Coronel
Colonel Kabo
Cabo
Corporal

Recruitment and conscription[edit]

During the revolution against Spain, the Katipunan gave leaflets to the people to encourage them to join the revolution. Since the revolutionaries had become regular soldiers at the time of Emilio Aguinaldo, they started to recruit males and some females aged 15 and above as a form of national service. A few Spanish and Filipino enlisted personnel and officers of the Spanish Army and Spanish Navy defected to the Revolutionary Army, as well as a number of foreign individuals and American defectors who volunteered to join during the course of the revolution.

Conscription in the revolutionary army was in effect in the Philippines and military service was mandatory at that time by the order of Gen. Antonio Luna, the Chief Commander of the Army during the Philippine–American War.[12]

Flags and early banners of the revolution[edit]

General officers[edit]

During the existence of the Revolutionary Army, over 100 individuals were appointed to General Officer grades. For details, see the List of Filipino generals in the Philippine Revolution and the Philippine–American War article.

Other notable officers[edit]

Manuel L. Quezon, a former president of the Philippines, rose to the rank of Major in the Army.
Francisco "Paco" Román – Aide to Lieutenant General Antonio Luna.
  • Colonel Agapito Bonzón
  • Colonel Felipe Salvador – Commander of the Santa Iglesia faction.
  • Colonel Apolinar Vélez
  • Colonel Alejandro Avecilla
  • Colonel Francisco "Paco" Román – Aide to Lieutenant General Antonio Luna.
  • Colonel Manuel Bernal – Aide to Lieutenant General Antonio Luna.
  • Colonel Pablo Tecson – Leader, Battle of Quingua.
  • Colonel Alipio Tecson – Supreme Military Commander of Tarlac in 1900 and exiled to Guam.
  • Colonel Simón Tecson – Leader of Siege of Baler; signatory of the Biak-na-Bato Constitution.
  • Colonel Simeón Villa
  • Colonel Luciano San Miguel
  • Colonel José Tagle – Known for his role in the Battle of Imus.
  • Lieutenant Colonel Lázaro Macapagal – Commanding officer in-charge at the execution of Andrés and Procopio Bonifacio brothers.
  • Lieutenant Colonel José Torres Bugallón – Hero of the Battle of La Loma.
  • Lieutenant Colonel Regino Díaz Relova – Fought as one of the heads of columns under General Juan Cailles in the Laguna province.
  • Captain José Bernal – Aide to Lieutenant General Antonio Luna.
  • Captain Eduardo Rusca – Aide to Lieutenant General Antonio Luna.
  • Captain Pedro Janolino – Commanding Officer of the Kawit Battalion.
  • Captain Vicente Roa
  • Captain Serapio Narváez – Officer of the 4th Company, Morong Battalion.
  • Major Manuel Quezon – Aide to President Emilio Aguinaldo. Eventually succeeded him as the second President of the Philippines under the United States-sponsored Commonwealth.
  • Major Juan Arce
  • Lieutenant García (given name not specified) – one of Gen. Luna's favorite sharpshooters of the Black Guard units.
  • Corporal Anastacio Félix – 4th Company, Morong Battalion the first Filipino casualty of the Philippine–American War.[13]

Foreign officers and servicemen[edit]

José Ignacio Paua, a Pure-blooded Chinese general.
ARMY
  • General Juan Cailles – Franco-Indian mestizo who led Filipino forces in Laguna[14]
  • General José Valesy Nazaraire – Spanish.[14]
  • Brigadier General José Ignacio Paua – Full-blooded Chinese general in the Army.[15]
  • Brigadier General B. Natividad – Brigade Acting Commander in Vigan under General Tinio.[16]
  • Colonel Manuel Sityar – Half-Spanish Director of Academía Militar de Malolos. A former captain in the Spanish colonial army who defected to the Filipino side.[17]
  • Colonel Sebastian de Castro – Spanish director of the military hospital at Malasiqui, Pangasinan.[14]
  • Colonel Dámaso Ybarra y Thomas – Spanish.[14]
  • Lieutenant Colonel Potenciano Andrade – Spanish.[14]
  • Estaquio Castellor – French mestizo who led a battalion of sharpshooters.[14]
  • Major Candido Reyes – Instructor at the Academía Militar de Malolos. Former sergeant in the Spanish Army.[18]
  • Major José Reyes – Instructor at the Academía Militar de Malolos. Former sergeant in the Spanish Army.[18]
  • Major José Torres Bugallón – Spanish officer who served under General Luna.[14]
  • Captain Antonio Costosa – Former officer in the Spanish Army.
  • Captain Chizuno Iwamoto - Japanese officer who served on Emilio Aguinaldo's staff.[19] Returned to Japan after Aguinaldo's capture.[19]
  • Captain David Fagen – An African-American Captain who served under Brigadier General Urbano Lacuna. A former Corporal in United States Army 24th Colored Regiment.[20][21][22]
  • Captain Francisco Espina – Spanish.[16]
  • Captain Estanislao de los Reyes – Spanish aide-de-camp to General Tinio.[16]
  • Captain Feliciano Ramoso – Spanish aide-de-camp to General Tinio.[16]
  • Captain Mariano Queri – Spanish officer who served under General Luna as an instructor in the Academía Militar de Malolos and later as the director-general of the staff of the war department.[14]
  • Captain Camillo Richairdi – Italian.[14]
  • Captain Telesforo Centeno – Spanish.[14]
  • Captain Arthur Howard – American deserter from the 1st California Volunteers.[22]
  • Captain Glen Morgan – American who organized insurgent forces in central Mindanao.[22]
  • Captain John Miller – American who organized insurgent forces in central Mindanao.[22]
  • Captain Russel – American deserter from the 10th Infantry.[22]
  • Lieutenant Danfort – American deserter from the 10th Infantry.[22]
  • Lieutenant Maximino Lazo – Spanish.[14]
  • Lieutenant Gabriel Badelly Méndez – Cuban.[14]
  • 2nd Lieutenant Segundo Paz – Spanish.[14]
  • Lieutenant Alejandro Quirulgico – Spanish.[16]
  • Lieutenant Rafael Madina – Spanish.[16]
  • Lieutenant Arsenio Romero – Spanish.[16]
  • Private John Allane – United States Army.[23]
  • Private Harry Dennis – United States Army.[23]
  • Private William Hyer – United States Army.[24]
  • Private Meeks (given name not specified) – United States Army.[23]
  • Private George Raymond – 41st Infantry, United States Army.[citation needed]
  • Private Maurice Sibley – 16th Infantry, United States Army.[25]
  • Private John Wagner – United States Army.[23]
  • Private Edward Walpole – United States Army.[23]
  • Henry Richter – American deserter from the 9th Cavalry.[22]
  • Gorth Shores – American deserter from the 9th Cavalry.[22]
  • Fred Hunter – American deserter from the 9th Cavalry.[22]
  • William Denten – American deserter who joined General Lukban in Samar.[22]
  • Enrique Warren – American deserter who served under Francisco Makabulos in Tarlac.[22]
  • Antonio Prisco – Spanish.[14]
  • Manuel Alberto – Spanish.[14]
  • Eugenia Plona – Spanish aide-de-camp to Baldermo Aguinaldo.[14]
  • Alexander MacIntosh – English.[22]
  • William McAllister – English.[22]
  • Charles MacKinley – Englishman who served in Laoag.[22]
  • James O'Brian – English.[22]
NAVY

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Deady 2005, p. 55 (page 3 of the PDF)
  2. ^ "The Philippine Army History". Archived from the original on December 25, 2013. Retrieved 2014-01-09. 
  3. ^ a b c d "Philippine-American War, 1899-1902". http://philippineamericanwar.webs.com. Retrieved 2012-01-28.  External link in |publisher= (help)
  4. ^ Alejandrino, Jose (1949). The Price of Freedom. 
  5. ^ Opiña, Rimaliza (2004-11-14). "Military academy sheds West Point look". Sun.Star Baguio. Retrieved 2008-05-19. 
  6. ^ Jose, Vivencio R. (1986). The Rise and Fall of Antonio Luna. Solar Publishing. p. 106. 
  7. ^ "Uniformology II". Retrieved 2008-05-20. 
  8. ^ Combs, William K. "Filipino Rayadillo Norfolk-pattern Tunic". Retrieved 2008-05-18. 
  9. ^ "Filipino Rayadillo Norfolk Pattern Tunic". Retrieved 18 October 2015. 
  10. ^ "Uniformology I". Retrieved 2008-05-20. 
  11. ^ Linn 2000a, pp. 186–187
  12. ^ Gregorio F. Zaide (1968). The Philippine Revolution. Modern Book Company. p. 279. 
  13. ^ "FIL-AM WAR BREAKS OUT". http://philippineamericanwar.webs.com.  External link in |publisher= (help)
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Tan 2002, p. 249.
  15. ^ Linn 2000b, p. 97.
  16. ^ a b c d e f g Tan 2002, p. 108.
  17. ^ Tan 2002, pp. 108, 249.
  18. ^ a b Halili 2004, p. 169.
  19. ^ a b Ambeth R. Ocampo. "Japanese with a different face". inquirer.net. 
  20. ^ Bowers, Hammond & MacGarrigle 1997, p. 12.
  21. ^ Fantina 2006, p. 88.
  22. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Tan 2002, p. 250.
  23. ^ a b c d e Scott 1986, pp. 36–37
  24. ^ Scott 1986, pp. 36–37, 195
  25. ^ Hurley, Vic (2011-06-14). Jungle Patrol, the Story of the Philippine Constabulary (1901-1936). Cerberus Books. p. 169. ISBN 978-0-9834756-2-0. 

Bibliography[edit]

In popular media[edit]

The Philippine revolutionary army has been mentioned in several Books and movies.

books[edit]

Films[edit]

External links[edit]