Philippine Revolutionary Army

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Philippine Revolutionary Army
Panghimagsikang Hukbong Katihan ng Pilipinas
Ejercito en la Republica de la Filipina
Philippine Army Seal 1897.jpg
Ejercito en la Republica de la Filipina Emblem, 1897
Founded March 22, 1897
Allegiance  Philippine Rebublic
Type Army
Role Military Force
Size 80,000 to 100,000 (1898)[1]
Nickname(s) "Republican Army"
Colors Blue, Red, Gold and White
Anniversaries March 22
Engagements Philippine Revolution
Spanish–American War
Philippine–American War
Commanders
Heneralisimo Emilio Aguinaldo
Notable
commanders
Artemio Ricarte
Antonio Luna
Pio del Pilar
Mariano Noriel
Gregorio del Pilar
Miguel Malvar
Marching Filipino soldiers during the inauguration of the First Philippine Republic in Malolos on January 23, 1899.

The Philippine Revolutionary Army (Filipino: Panghimagsikang Hukbong Katihan ng Pilipinas) or Ejercito en la Republica de la Filipina was founded on March 22, 1897 in Cavite. General Artemio Ricarte was designated as its first Captain General during the Tejeros Convention.[2] This armed force of General Emilio Aguinaldo's central revolutionary government replaced the Katipunan military.[3]

History[edit]

Regular soldiers of the Philippine army stand at attention for an inspection.

The revolutionary army used the 1896 edition of the Spanish regular army's Ordenanza del Ejercito to organize its forces and establish its character as a modern army. Rules and regulations were laid down for the reorganization of the army, along with the regulation of ranks and the adoption of new fighting methods, new rank insignias, and a standard uniform known as the rayadillo. Filipino artist Juan Luna is credited with this design.[4][5] His brother, General Antonio Luna commissioned him with the task.[6] Juan Luna also designed the collar insignia for the uniforms, distinguishing between the services: infantry, cavalry, artillery, sappers, and medics.[7] At least one researcher has postulated that Juan Luna may have patterned the tunic after the English Norfolk jacket, since the Filipino version is not a copy of any Spanish-pattern uniform.

Arsenal[edit]

The main weapon of the new Filipino army was the Spanish M93, also the standard infantry arm of the Spanish, and the Remington Spanish rifle.[3] Crew-served weapons of the Philippine military included lantakas, Krupp guns, Hontoria guns, an Ordóñez gun, Hotchkiss guns, Nordenfelt guns, Maxim guns, and Colt guns. Also, there were improvised artillery weapons made of water pipes reinforced with bamboo or timber, which can only fire once or twice.[3]

Orders and circulars were issued covering matters such as building trenches and fortifications, equipping every male aged 15 to 50 with bows and arrows (as well as bolo knives, though officers wielded European swords), enticing Filipino soldiers in the Spanish army to defect, collecting empty cartridges for refilling, prohibiting unplanned sorties, inventories of captured arms and ammunition, fundraising, purchasing of arms and supplies abroad, unification of military commands, and exhorting the rich to give aid to the soldiers.[3]

Aguinaldo, a month after he declared Philippine independence, created a pay scale for officers in the army: Following the board, a brigadier general would receive 600 pesos annually, and a sergeant 72 pesos.

When the Philippine–American War erupted on February 4, 1899, the Filipino army suffered heavy losses on every sector. Even Antonio Luna urged Apolinario Mabini, Aguinaldo's chief adviser, to convince the President that guerrilla warfare must be announced as early as April 1899. Aguinaldo adopted guerilla tactics on November 13, 1899, dissolving what remained of the regular army and after many of his crack units were decimated in set-piece battles.[8]

Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo, the Supreme Commander of the Philippine Revolutionary Army.

Ranks/hierarchy[edit]

Group showing General Manuel Tinio (seated, center), General Benito Natividad (seated, 2nd from right), Lt. Col. Jose Alejandrino (seated, 2nd from left), and their aides-de-camp.
Antonio Luna, notable Chief Commander of the Philippine Revolutionary Army.
Artemio Ricarte, the Commander of the Philippine Revolutionary Army.

The evolution of Philippine revolutionary insignia can be divided into three basic periods; early Katipunan, late Katipunan and the Republican army.

Image Rank/Insignia Equivalent Rank(s) in English Image Rank/Insignia Equivalent Rank(s) in English
Ministro.jpg Ministro Minister
Marshal
Tiniente Koronel.jpg Tiniente Koronel Lieutenant Colonel
Kapitan Heneral.jpg Kapitan Heneral Captain General
Admiral
Kumandante.jpg Komandante Major
Tenyente Heneral.jpg Tiniente Heneral Lieutenant General Kapitan (Pilipinas).jpg Kapitan Captain
Gial de Dvision.jpg Gial De Division Major General Philippine Revolutionary Army rank.jpg Tiniente Lieutenant
Gial de Brigada.jpg Gial De Brigada Brigadier General Sarhento.jpg Sarhento Sergeant
Koronel.jpg Koronel Colonel OOOOOO.jpg Kabo Corporal

Recruitment and conscription[edit]

During the revolution against Spain, the Katipunan gave leaflets to the people to encourage them to join the revolution. Since the revolutionaries had become regular soldiers at the time of Emilio Aguinaldo, they started to recruit males and some females aged 15 and above as a form of national service.

Conscription in the revolutionary army was in effect in the Philippines and military service was mandatory at that time by the order of Gen. Antonio Luna, the Chief Commander of the Army during the Philippine-American War.[9]

Flags and Banners[edit]

General officers[edit]

During the existence of the Revolutionary Army, over 100 individuals were appointed to General Officer grades. For details, see the List of Filipino generals in the Philippine Revolution and the Philippine–American War article.

Other notable officers[edit]

Foreign officers and servicemen[edit]

ARMY
  • General Juan Cailles – French/Indian mestizo who led Filipino forces in Laguna[10]
  • General Jose Valesy Nazaraire – Spanish.[10]
  • Brigadier General Jose Ignacio Paua – Full-blooded Chinese general in the army.[11]
  • Brigadier General B. Natividad – Brigade Acting Commander in Vigan under General Tinio.[12]
  • Colonel Manuel Sitjar – Director of Academia Militar de Malolos (former captain in the Spanish colonial army)[13]
  • Colonel Sebastian de Castro – Spanish director of the military hospital at Malasiqui, Pangasinan.[10]
  • Colonel Damaso Ybarra y Thomas – Spanish.[10]
  • Lieutenant Colonel Potenciano Andrade – Spanish.[10]
  • Estaquio Castellor – French mestizo who led a battalion of sharpshooters.[10]
  • Major Candido Reyes – Instructor at the Academia Militar de Malolos (former sergeant in the Spanish colonial army).[14]
  • Major Jose Reyes – Instructor at the Academia Militar de Malolos (former sergeant in the Spanish colonial army).[14]
  • Major Jose Torres Bugallon – Spanish officer who served under General Luna.[10]
  • Captain Antonio Costosa – Former officer in the Spanish colonial army.
  • Captain David Fagen – Captain who served under Brigadier General Urbano Lacuna. (Black American Corporal in U.S. Army 24th Colored Regiment).[15][16][17]
  • Captain Francisco Espina – Spanish.[12]
  • Captain Estanislao de Los Reyes – Spanish aide-de-camp to General Tinio.[12]
  • Captain Feliciano Ramoso – Spanish aide-de-camp to General Tinio.[12]
  • Captain Mariano Queri – Spanish officer who served under General Luna as an instructor in the military academy and later as the director general of the staff of the war department.[10]
  • Captain Camillo Richairdi – Italian.[10]
  • Captain Telesforo Centeno – Spanish.[10]
  • Captain Arthur Howard – American deserter from the 1st California Volunteers.[17]
  • Captain Glen Morgan – American who organized insurgent forces in central Mindanao.[17]
  • Captain John Miller – American who organized insurgent forces in central Mindanao.[17]
  • Captain Russel – American deserter from the 10th Infantry.[17]
  • Lieutenant Danfort – American deserter from the 10th Infantry.[17]
  • Lieutenant Maximino Lazo – Spanish.[10]
  • Lieutenant Gabriel Badelly Mendez – Cuban.[10]
  • 2nd Lieutenant Segundo Paz – Spanish.[10]
  • Lieutenant Alejandro Quirulgico – Spanish.[12]
  • Lieutenant Rafael Madina – Spanish.[12]
  • Lieutenant Arsenio Romero – Spanish.[12]
  • Lieutenant Rafael Madina – Spanish.[12]
  • Private John AllaneUnited States Army.[18]
  • Private Harry Dennis – United States Army.[18]
  • Private William Hyer – United States Army.[19]
  • Private Meeks (given name not specified) – United States Army.[18]
  • Private George Raymond – 41st Infantry, United States Army.[citation needed]
  • Private Maurice Sibley – 16th Infantry, United States Army.[20]
  • Private John Wagner – United States Army.[18]
  • Private Edward Walpole – United States Army.[18]
  • Henry Richter – American deserter from the 9th Cavalry.[17]
  • Gorth Shores – American deserter from the 9th Cavalry.[17]
  • Fred Hunter – American deserter from the 9th Cavalry.[17]
  • William Denten – American deserter who joined General Lukban in Samar.[17]
  • Enrique Warren – American deserter who served under Francisco Makabulos in Tarlac.[17]
  • Antonio Prisco – Spanish.[10]
  • Manuel Alberto – Spanish.[10]
  • Eugenia Plona – Spanish aide-de-camp to Baldermo Aguinaldo.[10]
  • Alexander MacIntosh – English.[17]
  • William McAllister – English.[17]
  • Charles MacKinley – Englishman who served in Laoag.[17]
  • James O'Brian – English.[17]
NAVY
  • Captain Vicente Catalan – Chief of the Philippine Navy (former crewmember at the Spanish colonial navy).

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Deady 2005, p. 55 (page 3 of the PDF)
  2. ^ "The Philippine Army History". Retrieved 2014-01-09. [dead link]
  3. ^ a b c d "Philippine-American War, 1899-1902". Retrieved 2012-01-28. 
  4. ^ Alejandrino, Jose (1949). The Price of Freedom. 
  5. ^ Opiña, Rimaliza (2004-11-14). "Military academy sheds West Point look". Sun.Star Baguio. Retrieved 2008-05-19. 
  6. ^ Jose, Vivencio R. (1986). The Rise and Fall of Antonio Luna. Solar Publishing. p. 106. 
  7. ^ "Uniformology II". Retrieved 2008-05-20. 
  8. ^ Linn 2000a, pp. 186–187
  9. ^ Gregorio F. Zaide (1968). The Philippine Revolution. Modern Book Company. p. 279. 
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Tan 2002, p. 249.
  11. ^ Linn 2000b, p. 97.
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h Tan 2002, p. 108.
  13. ^ Tan 2002, pp. 108, 249.
  14. ^ a b Halili 2004, p. 169.
  15. ^ Bowers, Hammond & MacGarrigle 1997, p. 12.
  16. ^ Fantina 2006, p. 88.
  17. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Tan 2002, p. 250.
  18. ^ a b c d e Scott 1986, pp. 36–37
  19. ^ Scott 1986, pp. 36–37, 195
  20. ^ Vic Hurley (2011-06-14). Jungle Patrol, the Story of the Philippine Constabulary (1901-1936). Cerberus Books. p. 169. ISBN 978-0-9834756-2-0. 

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]