Philoxenus Anicetus

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For other personalities with the same name, see Philoxenus.
Philoxenus
Indo-Greek king
Coin of Philoxenos.jpg
Silver tetradrachm of king Philoxenus.
Obv: Helmetted, diademed and draped bust of Philoxenus. Greek legend BASILEOS ANIKETOU PHILOXENOU "Of the Invincible King Philoxenus"
Rev: King on prancing horse in military dress. Kharoshti legend MAHARAJASA APADIHATASA PHILASINASA "Undefeatable King Philoxenus".
Reign 100–95 BCE
Coin of Philoxenus, making a blessing gesture with his right hand. Kharoshti legend MAHARAJASA APADIHATASA PHILASINASA "Invincible King Philoxenus". British Museum.

Philoxenus Anicetus (Greek: Φιλόξενος ὁ Ἀνίκητος; epithet means "the Invincible") was an Indo-Greek king who ruled in the region spanning the Paropamisade to Punjab. Philoxenus seems to have been quite an important king who might briefly have ruled most of the Indo-Greek territory. Bopearachchi dates Philoxenus to c. 100–95 BCE and R. C. Senior to c. 125–110 BCE.

Historians have not yet connected Philoxenus with any dynasty, but he could have been the father of the princess Kalliope, who was married to the king Hermaeus.

Coins of Philoxenos[edit]

Philoxenus struck several series of bilingual Indian silver coins, with a reverse of a mounted king, a type previously used as obverse by Antimachus II sixty years earlier and as reverse on rare types of Nicias. Whether the horseman was a dynastic emblem or a portrait of the king as a cavalleryman is unclear. Several Saka kings used similar horsemen on their coinage.

His drachms were square, another feature that was rare among Indo-Greeks but standard for Sakas, and this indicates that Philoxenus had connections with the nomads that had conquered Bactria.

Philoxenus struck bronzes with female deity/bull, or Helios/Nike.

Philoxenus also minted some Attic-type tetradrachms (with Greek legend only), meant for circulation in Bactria.

Overstrikes[edit]

One overstrike is known, of Epander over Philoxenus.

Other coins[edit]

Indo-Greek Kings and their territories
Based on Bopearachchi (1991)
Territories/
dates
Paropamisade
Arachosia Gandhara Western Punjab Eastern Punjab
200–190 BCE Demetrius I DemetriusCoin.jpg
190–180 BCE Agathocles AgathoclesWithAlexander.jpg PantaleonCoin of Greco-Baktrian Kingdom king Pantaleon.jpg
185–170 BCE Antimachus IAntimachusMedaille.jpg
180–160 BCE Apollodotus ICoin of Indo-Greek king Apollodotos I.jpg
175–170 BCE Demetrius II Coin of the Baktrian king Demetrios II.jpg
170–145 BCE EucratidesTetradrachm Eukratides.jpg
160–155 BCE Antimachus IICoin of Antimachus II.jpg
155–130 BCE Menander IMenander Alexandria-Kapisa.jpg
130–120 BCE Zoilos IZoilosI-525.jpg AgathokleiaCoin of Agathokleia.jpg
120–110 BCE Lysias Lysias-150.jpg Strato ICoin of Agathokleia & Strato.jpg
110–100 BCE AntialcidasCoin of Antialcidas.jpg Heliokles IICoin of Heliocles II.jpg
100 BCE PolyxenosCoin of Indo-Greek king Polyxenos.jpg Demetrius IIIDemetrius Aniketou.jpg
100–95 BCE PhiloxenusCoin of Philoxenos.jpg
95–90 BCE DiomedesCoin of Diomedes Soter.jpg Amyntas Coin of Amyntas Nicator.jpg EpanderCoin of Epander.jpg
90 BCE Theophilos Theophilos-634.jpg PeukolaosPeukolaos coin.jpg Thraso
90–85 BCE NiciasCoin of Indo-Greek king Nikias Soter.jpg Menander IICoin of Menander Dikaiou.jpg ArtemidorosCoin of Artimedoros.jpg
90–70 BCE HermaeusHermaeusCoin.jpg ArchebiusCoin of Indo-Greek king Archebios.jpg
Yuezhi tribes Maues (Indo-Scythian)
75–70 BCE Telephos Coin of Telephos.jpg Apollodotus IICoin of Appollodotos II.jpg
65–55 BCE HippostratosCoin of Hippostratos.jpg DionysiosDyonisos coin.jpg
55–35 BCE Azes I (Indo-Scythian) Zoilos IIZoilosIICoin.JPG
55–35 BCE ApollophanesCoin of Apollophanes.jpg
25 BCE – 10 CE Strato II and IIICoin of Strato II.jpg
Rajuvula (Indo-Scythian)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  • The Greeks in Bactria and India, W. W. Tarn, Cambridge University Press.

External links[edit]

Preceded by:
(In the Paropamisade, Arachosia and Gandhara)
Antialcidas

(In Punjab)
Demetrius III or Polyxenios
Indo-Greek Ruler
(Paropamisade, Arachosia, Gandhara and Punjab)
(100–95 BCE)
Succeeded by:
(In the Paropamisade)
Diomedes

(In Arachosia and Gandhara)
Amyntas

(In Punjab)
Epander