Antiochus XII Dionysus
|Antiochus XII Dionysus|
|King of Syria|
|Predecessor||Demetrius III, Philip I|
|Successor||Philip I, Antiochus XIII, Cleopatra Selene|
|Born||between 125 and 111 BC|
Antiochus XII Dionysus Epiphanes Philopator Callinicus (Ancient Greek: Ἀντίοχος Διόνυσος Ἐπιφανής Φιλοπάτωρ Καλλίνικος; between 125 and 111 BC – 82 BC) was a Hellenistic Seleucid monarch who reigned as King of Syria between 87 and 82 BC. The youngest son of Antiochus VIII and, most likely, his Egyptian wife Tryphaena, Antiochus XII lived during a period of civil war between his father and his uncle Antiochus IX, which ended with the assassination of Antiochus VIII in 96 BC. Antiochus XII's four brothers laid claim to the throne, eliminated Antiochus IX as a claimant, and waged war against his heir Antiochus X.
By 87 BC, only two claimants remained, both brothers of Antiochus XII: Demetrius III and Philip I. The realm of Demetrius III was initially centered in Damascus but later extended over most of Syria. Demetrius III was defeated by Philip I and went into exile in Parthia, allowing Antiochus XII to gain control of Damascus while Philip I remained in the Syrian capital Antioch. Antiochus XII consolidated his territory within inner Syria and did not seek to expand into the territories of Philip I, who attempted to annex Damascus but was repulsed. Antiochus XII focused his attention on Syria's southern reaches into which the Judaeans and Nabataeans sought to expand.
Antiochus XII reinforced his southern frontier and warred with his neighbors, conducting two campaigns against Nabataea that included engagements with Judea. After several victories in his first campaign, Antiochus XII was killed towards the end of his second campaign against the Nabateans at the Battle of Cana in 82 BC. Damascus was captured by the forces of the Nabatean King Aretas III, and the Syrian throne was claimed by Antiochus X's widow Cleopatra Selene and her son Antiochus XIII.
Name and background
Antiochus, Greek for "resolute in contention", was a dynastic name borne by many Seleucid monarchs. The Seleucid dynasty's founder Seleucus I named the capital of Syria, Antioch, in honor of his father Antiochus. Antiochus XII was the fifth and youngest son of Antiochus VIII and his Ptolemaic Egyptian wife Tryphaena;[note 1] his brothers were Seleucus VI, Antiochus XI, Philip I and Demetrius III. They were born between 125 BC, the wedding year of their parents, and 111 BC, when Tryphaena was killed by Antiochus VIII's half-brother Antiochus IX, who fought with Antiochus VIII from 113 BC for the throne of Syria.
Following Antiochus VIII's assassination in 96 BC, his second wife, Tryphaena's sister Cleopatra Selene, married Antiochus IX and then his son Antiochus X, who fought with Antiochus XII's four brothers for the throne. By 88 BC, only Demetrius III and Philip I remained; Demetrius III was originally based in Damascus before extending his authority to most of Syria. He was defeated by Philip I and his Parthian allies in 87 BC and exiled to Parthia, where he died of an unknown illness. Philip I took control of the capital, while Cleopatra Selene, now a widow, took shelter in Ptolemais with her sons by Antiochus X.
The departure of Demetrius III left a power vacuum in Damascus that was filled by Antiochus XII. Coins minted during the reign of Demetrius III are dated to the Seleucid year (SE) 225 (88/87 BC),[note 2] while the earliest coins minted during the reign of Antiochus XII have the date 226 SE (87/86 BC), suggesting that there was a rapid assumption of power by Antiochus XII. Monarchs of the Hellenistic period did not use regnal numbers, which is a more modern practice, but instead used epithets to distinguish themselves from similarly named monarchs; Three of Antiochus XII's four epithets, Epiphanes (illustrious)–previously used by his father, Philopator (father-loving) and Callinicus (nobly victorious), served to emphasize the ancestry of his grandfather Demetrius II in contrast to the line of the latter's brother Antiochus VII, which was represented by Antiochus IX and his descendants; Callinicus may have been an echo of Demetrius II's epithet Nikator (victorious).[note 3] He likely used his other epithet Dionysus to associate himself with the Greek god of wine in his role as conqueror of the East.[note 4] Antiochus XII was depicted on coinage with an exaggerated hawked nose in the likeness of his father, as a means of strengthening the legitimacy of his succession.
Policies and territory
According to historian Alfred Bellinger, Antiochus XII may have received assistance from Ptolemaic Egypt to gain his throne. This view is reflected in Antiochus XII's policies, which were targeted at the south in Nabataea and Judaea, but not towards expansion within the kingdom of Syria. His dominion was limited to inner Syria, centered on Damascus, which served as his capital and primary mint.[note 5] Antiochus XII also ruled over the town of Gadara, governed by an official named Philotas. In 100 BC, Gadara had been conquered by the Hasmonean king of Judea Alexander Jannaeus, who partially destroyed its walls, but it was recaptured by the Seleucids in 93 BC.[note 6] Gadara held great strategic importance for Syria as it served as a major military hub for operations in the south. Controlling it was vital to the war effort against the Judaeans, which led Antiochus to rebuild the city's defenses in 228 SE (85/84 BC). Historian Aryeh Kasher suggested that Antiochus XII dug what the first-century historian Josephus called the "trench of Antiochus" (or valley of Antiochus) to protect Damascus from the Nabataeans; the trench was probably located in the Hula Valley.
Seleucid coins often had depictions of their Greek deities, but the silver coinage of Antiochus XII depicted the supreme Semitic god Hadad on the reverse, possibly in recognition of the shrinking borders of the kingdom, which convinced the monarch of the importance of the local cults. According to Bellinger, the use of Hadad indicated that Antiochus XII placed focus on his "intention of being first and foremost king of Damascus". During his reign, Demetrius III had also depicted a Semitic deity, Atargatis, on his currency. In the view of historian Kay Ehling, The change of coin imagery from Atargatis to Hadad probably served two goals: to imply that Antiochus XII had a different policy focus than his predecessor, and to demonstrate his intention of maintaining a good relationship with the Semitic population of Damascus, who comprised the majority of the inhabitants, to avoid tension with Greek settlers. Seleucid kings presented themselves as protectors of Hellenism and patronized intellectuals and philosophers, but Antiochus XII may have adopted a different attitude; he ordered the expulsion of such scholars.[note 7]
Early in his reign, Antiochus XII attacked the Nabataeans and the Judaeans, whose territories both lay to the south of his own. This conflict was recorded by Josephus, although he made no mention of the name of the Nabataean king. Josephus mentioned two campaigns against the Nabataeans, but did not explain the motives leading the Syrian King to attack them. Modern scholars presented several theories. In the view of Israel Shatzman, Antiochus XII may have feared the growing power of the Nabataeans, who were expanding into southern Syria. Zayn Bilkadi suggested that Antiochus XII wanted to take control over the Nabataeans' crude oil industry, while Alexander Fantalkin and Oren Tal suggested that the Nabataeans actively supported Philip I in his attempts to take control over Antiochus XII's realm.
First Nabataean campaign and the incursions of Philip I
Antiochus XII's first Nabataean campaign was launched in 87 BC, and might have included a battle near Motho, modern Imtan in the region of Hauran, as proposed by historian Hans Peter Roschinski, who drew on the writings of Stephanus of Byzantium. The Byzantine historian preserved in his book, Ethica, fragments from a lost work by historian Uranius of Apamea, who wrote a book titled Arabica, which has been dated to 300 AD. In the account of Uranius, King Antigonus I (r. 306–301 BC) is killed at Motho by a king of the Arabs named Rabbel. The name Motho could refer to a northern city in Hauran or a southern city in Moab.[note 8] The name of Antigonus was regularly "corrected" to Antiochus by different scholars who believed that Uranius was referring to Antiochus XII. Historian Józef Milik rejected the practice of correcting Uranius' work. Antigonus I was actually killed in 301 BC at the Battle of Ipsus; Milik believed that instead of Antigonus I or Antiochus XII, the passage refers to Athenaeus, an official of Antigonus who fought the Nabataeans. Roschinski considered it conceivable that Stephanus was conflating two events taking place during the reign of the Nabataean King Rabbel I: a battle of the first Nabataean campaign at Motho in the north, and the battle from the second Nabataean campaign in which Antiochus XII was killed. Shatzman, on the other hand, noted that nowhere in his work did Stephanus indicate that the battle of Motho took place in the north.
Taking advantage of his brother's absence, Philip I seized Damascus, aided by the governor of the city's citadel, Milesius, who opened the gates to him. According to Josephus, Milesius received no reward from Philip I, who attributed the betrayal to the general's fear, leading Milesius to betray Philip I, who had left the city to attend an event in the nearby hippodrome. The general closed the gates, locking Philip I out, and awaited the return of Antiochus XII, who had hastily ended his campaign when he heard of his brother's occupation of the city.[note 9] Modern scholars noted that Seleucid currency, struck during campaigns against a rival (or usurper), portrayed the King sporting a beard. During his first two years, Antiochus XII's visage appeared beardless, but this changed in 228 SE (85/84 BC). This is possibly related to Philip I's attack on Damascus, but this supposition has little support, as Antiochus XII failed to take any action against his brother. No coins were minted during the period that Philip I held Damascus, indicating only a brief occupation of the city.
Second Nabataean campaign, war in Judea and death
Although his territory directly abutted Nabataean territory, for his second Nabataean campaign Antiochus XII instead chose to march his forces through Judaea along the coast, probably to attack the Nabataean-dominated Negev, which would have cut off the port city of Gaza, threatened Nabataean Mediterranean trade, and curbed Nabataean ambitions in the Transjordan. This route would have allowed Antiochus XII to keep Alexander Jannaeus at bay. According to Josephus, the Judaean King feared Antiochus XII's intentions and ordered the "Yannai Line" to be built, which consisted of a trench that fronted a defensive wall dotted with wooden towers. The trench stretched 28 kilometres (17 mi) from Caphersaba to the sea near Joppa. Antiochus XII leveled the trench, burned the fortifications, and continued his march into Nabataean territory.
The account of the campaign, written by Josephus, is subject to some debate; the historian wrote that Antiochus XII's forces defeated those of Alexander Jannaeus, but the eighth-century historian George Syncellus mentioned a defeat suffered by Antiochus XII at the hands of the Judaean king.[note 10] The existence of the Yannai Line has been questioned by several historians,[note 11] and Josephus' explanation of Alexander Jannaeus' attempt to stop the march of Antiochus XII, because of his fears of the latter's intentions, is unsatisfactory. Both the Nabataeans and Syrians were enemies of Judea and it would have been to Alexander Jannaeus' benefit if those two powers were in conflict. Syncellus may have been referring to an earlier confrontation between the Syrian king and Alexander Jannaeus. Thus the statement of Syncellus supports the notion that Antiochus XII's second Nabataean campaign was also aimed at Judea; perhaps Antiochus XII sought to annex the coastal cities of Alexander Jannaeus as a retribution for the defeat mentioned by Syncellus. Another objective would be subduing the Judaeans to keep them from attacking Syria while Antiochus XII was busy in Nabataea.
The final engagement between the forces of Antiochus XII and the Nabataeans occurred near the village of Cana,[note 12] the location of which is unknown, but is generally assumed by modern scholars to be southwest of the Dead Sea. Historian Siegfried Mittmann considered it to be synonymous with Qina, modern-day Horvat Uza, as mentioned by Josephus in Book 15 of his Antiquities. Details of the battle, as written by Josephus, spoke of the Nabataeans employing a feigned retreat, then counterattacking the Syrian forces before their ranks could be ordered. Antiochus XII managed to rally his troops and weathered the attack, but he fought in the front lines, jeopardizing his life, and he eventually fell. The year of Antiochus XII's death is debated, but his last coins struck in Damascus are dated to 230 SE (83/82 BC).
Aftermath and legacy
According to Josephus, the death of the King resulted in a rout of the Syrian forces, with many being killed in the field or during the retreat. Survivors of the rout sheltered in Cana, where most died of starvation. Antiochus XII was the last energetic Seleucid king. Little is recorded of Philip I after his attempt at annexing Damascus, which was left without a protector after the death of Antiochus XII. Fearing the Ituraean ruler, Ptolemy of Chalcis, the people of Damascus invited Aretas III of Nabataea to take the city.[note 13] The numismatist Oliver D. Hoover suggested that Aretas III did not hold Damascus for long before the city returned to Seleucid possession.
The identity of Antiochus XII's wife remains unknown, but according to the sixth-century historian John Malalas, whose work is considered generally unreliable by scholars, the King had two daughters, Cleopatra and Antiochis. Cleopatra Selene, who went into hiding after the death of Antiochus X in 224 SE (89/88 BC), took advantage of Antiochus XII's death and declared her son Antiochus XIII king with herself as queen regent and regnant. Coins struck during her regency show the marks of the Damascus mint. Archeologist Nicholas L. Wright suggested that Cleopatra Selene's takeover of Damascus took place after 80 BC. Josephus called Antiochus XII the last Seleucid king, and Malalas, according to the translation of historian Glanville Downey, followed suit; the last Seleucid king was in fact Antiochus XIII (dethroned in 64 BC).[note 14]
- Ancient sources do not mention the name of Antiochus XII's mother but it is generally assumed by modern scholars that she was Tryphaena, who was mentioned explicitly by Porphyry as the mother of Antiochus XII's older twin brothers, Antiochus XI and Philip I.
- Some dates in the article are given according to the Seleucid era. Each Seleucid year started in the late autumn of a Gregorian year; thus, a Seleucid year overlaps two Gregorian ones.
- It could also mean that he was portraying himself as an able warrior capable of defending his people against his enemies, the Nabataeans.
- Dionysus had many functions, including his role as a god of vegetation, which is probably not the reason why Antiochus XII invoked him in his epithet; several arguments were presented by modern scholars to explain the appearance of the epithet:
- Since both his mother and grandmother were Ptolemaic, it is also possible that he meant to emphasize his Ptolemaic descent since the epithet was used by Ptolemaic kings.
- The Syro-Phoenician religious complex was based on triads that include a supreme god, a supreme goddess, and their son; the deities taking those roles were diverse. It is possible that by 145 BC, Dionysus took the role of the son, a view rejected by the historian Jane L. Lightfoot. The numismatist Nicholas L. Wright presented the hypothesis that a Seleucid king appearing on his coins wearing a radiate crown indicated a ritual marriage between the king and Atargatis, Syria's supreme goddess. Hence, the king is considering himself the manifestation of Syria's supreme god. Antiochus VIII appeared with the radiate crown, and it is probable, in the view of Wright, that by assuming the epithet Dionysus, Antiochus XII was proclaiming that he was not just Antiochus VIII's political successor, but also his spiritual heir, being the son of the supreme god.
- Since both his mother and grandmother were Ptolemaic, it is also possible that he meant to emphasize his Ptolemaic descent since the epithet was used by Ptolemaic kings.
- Ernest Babelon attributed some of the King's coins to the mint of Ptolemais, based on the existence of the monogram , but this attribution was rejected by Edward Theodore Newell, which is the academic consensus. The monogram appeared on a minority of the coins issued in Ptolemais and it also appeared on coins issued in other cities, making the use of it to determine a certain mint futile.
- The Nabataean king Obodas I defeated the Judaeans at some point before 93 BC; this is deduced from the account of Josephus, who stated that following the defeat, Alexander Jannaeus was caught in a civil war that lasted for six years. Since this war ended only with the intervention of Demetrius III who lost his throne in 87 BC, then the year 93 BC is the terminus post quem for the defeat. Philotas commissioned an inscription, dated to 228 SE (85/84 BC), celebrating the reconstruction of Gadara's defensive walls. It seems that Gadara freed itself from Judea following the latter's defeat at the hands of the Nabataeans.
- A letter from a king named Antiochus, regarding the expulsion of all philosophers from the kingdom, is contained in the Deipnosophistae written by the second-century rhetorician Athenaeus. The king wanted the philosophers exiled for corrupting young men; the latter were to be hanged and their fathers investigated. There are indications in the document that this Antiochus ruled during the late Seleucid period; historian Edwyn Bevan, considering the general Seleucid patronage of philosophers, noted that those instructions are "incredible". According to Bevan, this attitude can be explained by the deteriorating fortunes of the kingdom during the late Seleucid period; cities in Syria and Cilicia were asserting their independence, and it would be logical for the king to move against philosophers if they showed signs of "republicanism". Another clue is that the king sent his letter to an official named "Phanias", who seems to have been the highest official in the realm, ordering him to expel the philosophers from the polis and chora (city and its territory).
Bevan did not believe that Antiochus wanted the philosophers expelled from the kingdom, but maybe from one city, perhaps Antioch. But, in the view of historian Jörg-Dieter Gauger, the polis and chora designate the whole kingdom since it would have made little sense if they designated one city and its region; the philosophers could have continued their "evil" business in other cities. If one official, Phanias, whom the letter's language indicates that only he had a higher command and was not a mere city commander, can execute the king's instructions in the whole county, then the kingdom's area is not substantial, indicating a period when the Seleucids ruled a contracted Syria. Bevan suggested Antiochus XIII (r. 82–64 BC), while Gauger suggested either Antiochus XII or Antiochus XIII as the king who ordered the philosophers banished.
Franz Altheim considered king Antiochus IV (r. 175–164 BC) to be the king who sent the letter. The document's authenticity is questioned: Ludwig Radermacher considered the letter a Jewish forgery to discredit their enemy Antiochus IV, while Michel Austin, ancient history senior lecturer at the University of St Andrews, did not comment on the historical setting of the letter but doubted its authenticity.
- In the Notitia Dignitatum, Motho is where the Roman Cohors I Augusta Thracum Equitata was stationed. The city of Mu'tah in Moab, where the Equites Scutarii Illyriciani was stationed, is named Motha in the Notitia Dignitatum.
- The citadel is called "akra" by Josephus; a word that indicates a garrisoned fortified camp located in the outskirts of a city. Josephus also implied that the citadel was close to the hippodrome of Damascus, whose remains are located under the Dahdah cemetery just outside the ancient city.
- It seems that Syncellus did not rely only on Josephus and had access to other sources; Heinrich Gelzer suggested that Syncellus used the account of Justus of Tiberias. It is possible that Josephus deliberately ignored the victories of Alexander Jannaeus; this can be explained by Josephus' reliance on the first century BC historian Nicolaus of Damascus, whose treatment of the Hasmonean dynasty is hostile due to the latter's role in destroying many Hellenistic centres.
- The trench of Alexander Jannaeus was named the "Yannai Line" by Jacob Kaplan in the 1950s. Kaplan interpreted archeological remains from Bnei Brak and Tel Aviv as parts of that line and his conclusions were generally accepted by the majority of scholars. Bezalel Bar-Kochva raised questions regarding the line, noting that it would have taken Antiochus XII ten to fifteen days to march from Damascus to the Sharon plain where the line purportedly stood, which would not be sufficient time for such a project to be constructed. Kenneth Atkinson suggested that Alexander Jannaeus constructed the Yannai Line after defeating Antiochus XII, in anticipation of Antiochus XII's return. Bar-Kochva suggested that the line was erected earlier than Antiochus XII's invasion, perhaps to fend off a different enemy. He suggested that the plain stretching 4 kilometres (2.5 mi) between western Samaria and Tel Afek east of the Yarkon River's source was the location of the line. The archeological remains interpreted by Kaplan as evidence for the line do not fit the time frame of Antiochus XII's invasion and may belong to non-military civilian establishments.
- If the account of Uranius is accepted, and if he meant Antiochus XII instead of Antigonus I, then the last battle took place near Motho in Moab.
- It is not known if it was Aretas III who defeated Antiochus XII. The identity of the Syrian king's Nabataean enemy is much debated. Albert Kammerer and Philip C. Hammond used the account of Uranius and asserted that it was Rabbel I. Jean Starcky argued that the Nabataean monarch was Obodas I, whom Maurice Sartre preferred and concluded that he probably did not survive long after his battle with Antiochus XII.
- The most complete surviving copy of Malalas' work, who wrote in the sixth century, is the Baroccianus Graecus manuscript from the eleventh century, which includes many abbreviations and missing words. Malalas himself used vernacular Greek, making his language sometimes difficult to understand. Different scholars presented their reading of Malalas' chronicles:
- The reading of Glanville Downey have "Antiochus Dionysus the Leper, father of Cleopatra and Antiochis". Downey noted that Malalas conflated Antiochus XII with his successor Antiochus XIII, who surrendered to the Romans in 64 BC; the Byzantine historian attributed the act of surrender to Antiochus XII. The Greek version of Malalas' work has the name "Antiochus Dionikous" while the older Church Slavonic version has "Antiochus Dionysos". The German translation by Johannes Thurn and Mischa Meier matched Downey's English reading.
- In the translation of Elizabeth Jeffreys (et al.), the passage reads: "Antiochus, the son of Dionikes the leper, father of Cleopatra and Antiochis." According to this translation, Malalas did not consider Antiochus XII the last Seleucid king, and his "Antiochus, the son of Dionikes" was identified with Antiochus XIII.
- Ross 1968, p. 47.
- Hallo 1996, p. 142.
- Taylor 2013, p. 163.
- Downey 2015, p. 68.
- Bennett 2002, p. notes 11, 9.
- Kosmin 2014, p. 24.
- Ogden 1999, p. 153.
- Kosmin 2014, p. 23.
- Dumitru 2016, p. 260.
- Dumitru 2016, p. 258.
- Dumitru 2016, pp. 260, 263.
- Kosmin 2014, p. 243.
- Hoover 2007, p. 295.
- Dąbrowa 2010, p. 177.
- Houghton 1987, p. 81.
- Whitehorne 1994, p. 169.
- Retso 2003, p. 342.
- Biers 1992, p. 13.
- McGing 2010, p. 247.
- Hoover, Houghton & Veselý 2008, p. 212.
- Hoover, Houghton & Veselý 2008, p. 213.
- Ehling 2008, p. 247.
- Wright 2005, pp. 77, 78.
- Wright 2005, p. 81.
- Wright 2011, p. 46.
- Bellinger 1949, p. 77.
- Newell 1939, p. 90.
- Schürer 1973, p. 124.
- Kindler 1978, p. 53.
- Newell 1939, pp. 90, 91.
- Mittmann 2006, pp. 25, 33.
- Fitzgerald 2004, p. 361, 362.
- Bar-Kochva 1996, p. 138.
- Mittmann 2006, p. 25.
- Fitzgerald 2004, p. 363.
- Mittmann 2006, p. 33.
- Mittmann 2006, p. 28, 33.
- Kasher 1988, p. 95.
- Avi-Yonah 2002, p. 69.
- Wright 2010, pp. 193, 199.
- Wright 2010, p. 198.
- Ceccarelli 2011, p. 171.
- Bevan 1902, p. 277.
- Gauger 2000, p. 190.
- Bevan 1902, p. 278.
- Ceccarelli 2011, p. 172.
- Roschinski 1980, p. 143.
- Shatzman 1991, p. 119.
- Bilkadi 1996, p. 107.
- Fantalkin & Tal 2003, p. 109.
- Roschinski 1980, p. 144.
- Retso 2003, p. 491.
- Sartre 2005, p. 19.
- Chaniotis et al. 2007, p. 551.
- Bowersock 1971, p. 226.
- Green 2008, p. 37.
- Hoover, Houghton & Veselý 2008, p. 214.
- Dąbrowa 2003, p. 51.
- Josephus 1833, p. 422.
- Lorber & Iossif 2009, p. 112.
- Lorber & Iossif 2009, p. 104.
- Mittmann 2006, p. 31.
- Fantalkin & Tal 2003, p. 108.
- Stern 1981, p. 44.
- Stern 1987, p. 113.
- Atkinson 2012, p. 150.
- Fantalkin & Tal 2003, p. 119.
- Atkinson 2011, p. 19.
- Leeming & Leeming 2003, p. 122.
- Mittmann 2006, p. 32.
- Shatzman 1991, p. 124.
- Shatzman 1991, p. 120.
- Starcky 1966, p. 906.
- Hoover 2005, p. 99.
- Ogden 1999, p. 158.
- Scott 2017, p. 76.
- Malalas 1940, p. 19.
- Hoover 2011, p. 260.
- Hoover 2007, p. 294.
- Wright 2012, p. 33.
- Burgess 2004, p. 21.
- Houghton, Lorber & Hoover 2008, p. 616.
- Burgess 2004, p. 24.
- Sievers 2005, p. 35.
- Whitby 1988, p. 270.
- Malalas 2017, p. xxiv.
- Downey 1938, p. 112.
- Downey 1951, p. 161.
- Malalas 2009, p. 218.
- Malalas 2017, p. 109.
- Jeffreys 2017, p. 137.
- Atkinson, Kenneth (2011). "The Historical Chronology of the Hasmonean Period in the War and Antiquities of Flavius Josephus: Separating Fact from Fiction". In Pastor, Jack; Stern, Pnina; Mor, Menaḥem. Flavius Josephus. Interpretation and History. Supplements to the Journal for the Study of Judaism. 146. Brill. ISBN 978-9-004-19126-6. ISSN 1384-2161.
- Atkinson, Kenneth (2012). Queen Salome: Jerusalem’s Warrior Monarch of the First Century B.C.E. McFarland&Company. ISBN 978-0-786-49073-8.
- Avi-Yonah, Mikhaʼel (2002) . Rainey, Anson Frank, ed. The Holy Land: a Historical Geography from the Persian to the Arab Conquest (536 B.C. to A.D. 640) (revised ed.). Carta. ISBN 978-9-652-20502-5.
- Bar-Kochva, Bezalel (1996). Pseudo Hecataeus, "On the Jews": Legitimizing the Jewish Diaspora. Hellenistic Culture and Society. 21. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-26884-5.
- Bellinger, Alfred R. (1949). "The End of the Seleucids". Transactions of the Connecticut Academy of Arts and Sciences. Connecticut Academy of Arts and Sciences. 38. OCLC 4520682.
- Bennett, Christopher J. (2002). "Tryphaena". C. J. Bennett. The Egyptian Royal Genealogy Project hosted by the Tyndale House Website. Retrieved October 25, 2018.
- Bevan, Edwyn Robert (1902). The House of Seleucus. II. London: Edward Arnold. OCLC 499314408.
- Biers, William R. (1992). Art, Artefacts and Chronology in Classical Archaeology. Approaching the Ancient World. 2. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-06319-7.
- Bilkadi, Zayn (1996). Babylon to Baku. Stanhope-Seta. ISBN 978-0-952-88160-5.
- Bowersock, Glen Warren (1971). "A Report on Arabia Provincia". The Journal of Roman Studies. Society for the Promotion of Roman Studies. 61. doi:10.2307/300018. ISSN 0075-4358. JSTOR 300018.
- Burgess, Michael Roy (2004). "The Moon Is A Harsh Mistress– The Rise and Fall of Cleopatra II Selene, Seleukid Queen of Syria". The Celator. Kerry K. Wetterstrom. 18 (3). ISSN 1048-0986.
- Ceccarelli, Paola (2011). "Kings, Philosophers and Drunkards: Athenaeus' Information on the Seleucids". In Erickson, Kyle; Ramsey, Gillian. Seleucid Dissolution. The Sinking of the Anchor. Harrassowitz Verlag. ISBN 978-3-447-06588-7. ISSN 1613-5628.
- Chaniotis, Angelos; Corsten, Thomas; Stroud, Ronald S.; Tybout, Rolf A., eds. (2007). "1907. Petra. Rock-Cut Dedication by a Panegyriarch (?), Late 2nd/3rd Cent. A.D.". Supplementum Epigraphicum Graecum. Brill. LIII. ISBN 978-9-004-15630-2. ISSN 0920-8399.
- Dąbrowa, Edward (2003). The Roman Near East and Armenia. Electrum: Journal of Ancient History. 7. Instytut Historii. Uniwersytet Jagielloński (Department of Ancient History at the Jagiellonian University). ISBN 978-8-323-31792-0. ISSN 1897-3426.
- Dąbrowa, Edward (2010). "Demetrius III in Judea". Electrum. Instytut Historii. Uniwersytet Jagielloński. 18. ISSN 1897-3426.
- Downey, Glanville (1938). "Seleucid Chronology in Malalas". American Journal of Archaeology. Archaeological Institute of America. 42 (1). ISSN 0002-9114.
- Downey, Glanville (1951). "The Occupation of Syria by the Romans". Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Association. The Johns Hopkins University Press. 82. doi:10.2307/283427. ISSN 2325-9213. JSTOR 283427.
- Downey, Robert Emory Glanville (2015) . A History of Antioch in Syria from Seleucus to the Arab Conquest. Princeton University Pres. ISBN 978-1-400-87773-7.
- Dumitru, Adrian (2016). "Kleopatra Selene: A Look at the Moon and Her Bright Side". In Coşkun, Altay; McAuley, Alex. Seleukid Royal Women: Creation, Representation and Distortion of Hellenistic Queenship in the Seleukid Empire. Historia – Einzelschriften. 240. Franz Steiner Verlag. ISBN 978-3-515-11295-6. ISSN 0071-7665.
- Ehling, Kay (2008). Untersuchungen Zur Geschichte Der Späten Seleukiden (164-63 v. Chr.) Vom Tode Antiochos IV. Bis Zur Einrichtung Der Provinz Syria Unter Pompeius. Historia – Einzelschriften (in German). 196. Franz Steiner Verlag. ISBN 978-3-515-09035-3. ISSN 0071-7665.
- Fantalkin, Alexander; Tal, Oren (2003). "The 'Yannai Line' ( BJ I, 99-100; AJ XIII, 390–91): Reality or Fiction?". Palestine Exploration Quarterly. Routlege: on behalf of the Palestine Exploration Fund. 135 (2). ISSN 0031-0328.
- Fitzgerald, John Thomas (2004). "Gadara: Philodemus' Native City". In Fitzgerald, John Thomas; Obbink, Dirk D.; Holland, Glenn Stanfield. Philodemus and the New Testament World. Supplements to Novum Testamentum. 111. Brill. ISBN 978-9-004-11460-9. ISSN 0167-9732.
- Gauger, Jörg-Dieter (2000). Authentizität und Methode: Untersuchungen zum Historischen Wert des Persisch-Griechischen Herrscherbriefs in Literarischer Tradition. Studien zur Geschichtsforschung des Altertums (in German). 6. Verlag dr Kovač. ISBN 978-3-830-00107-2. ISSN 1435-6600.
- Green, Peter (2008) . The Hellenistic Age (Paperback ed.). Modern Library. ISBN 978-1-588-36706-8.
- Hallo, William W. (1996). Origins. The Ancient Near Eastern Background of Some Modern Western Institutions. Studies in the History and Culture of the Ancient Near East. 6. Brill. ISBN 978-90-04-10328-3. ISSN 0169-9024.
- Hoover, Oliver D. (2005). "Dethroning Seleucus VII Philometor (Cybiosactes): Epigraphical Arguments Against a Late Seleucid Monarch". Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik. Dr. Rudolf Habelt GmbH. 151. ISSN 0084-5388.
- Hoover, Oliver D. (2007). "A Revised Chronology for the Late Seleucids at Antioch (121/0-64 BC)". Historia: Zeitschrift für Alte Geschichte. Franz Steiner Verlag. 56 (3). ISSN 0018-2311.
- Hoover, Oliver D.; Houghton, Arthur; Veselý, Petr (2008). "The Silver Mint of Damascus under Demetrius III and Antiochus XII (97/6 BC-83/2 BC)". American Journal of Numismatics. second. American Numismatic Society. 20. ISBN 978-0-89722-305-8. ISSN 1053-8356.
- Hoover, Oliver D. (2011). "A Second Look at Production Quantification and Chronology in the Late Seleucid Period". In de Callataÿ, François. Time is money? Quantifying Monetary Supplies in Greco-Roman Times. Pragmateiai. 19. Edipuglia. ISBN 978-8-872-28599-2. ISSN 2531-5390.
- Houghton, Arthur (1987). "The Double Portrait Coins of Antiochus XI and Philip I: a Seleucid Mint at Beroea?". Schweizerische Numismatische Rundschau. Schweizerischen Numismatischen Gesellschaft. 66. ISSN 0035-4163.
- Houghton, Arthur; Lorber, Catherine; Hoover, Oliver D. (2008). Seleucid Coins, A Comprehensive Guide: Part 2, Seleucus IV through Antiochus XIII. 1. The American Numismatic Society. ISBN 978-0-980-23872-3.
- Jeffreys, Elizabeth (2017) . "Chronological Structures in Malalas' Chronicle". In Jeffreys, Elizabeth; Croke, Brian; Scott, Roger. Studies in John Malalas. Byzantina Australiensia. 6. Brill. ISBN 978-9-004-34462-4.
- Josephus (1833) [c. 94]. Burder, Samuel, ed. The Genuine Works of Flavius Josephus, the Jewish Historian. Translated by Whiston, William. Kimber & Sharpless. OCLC 970897884.
- Kasher, Aryeh (1988). Jews, Idumaeans, and Ancient Arabs: Relations of the Jews in Eretz-Israel with the Nations of the Frontier and the Desert During the Hellenistic and Roman Era (332 BCE-70 CE). Texte und Studien zum Antiken Judentum. 18. J.C.B. Mohr (Paul Siebeck). ISBN 978-3-161-45240-6. ISSN 0721-8753.
- Kindler, Arie (1978). "Akko, A City of Many Names". Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research. The American Schools of Oriental Research. 231. doi:10.2307/1356745. ISSN 0003-097X. JSTOR 1356745.
- Kosmin, Paul J. (2014). The Land of the Elephant Kings: Space, Territory, and Ideology in the Seleucid Empire. Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-72882-0.
- Leeming, Henry; Leeming, Kate, eds. (2003). "Synoptic Comparison". Josephus' Jewish War and Its Slavonic Version: A Synoptic Comparison of the English Translation by H. St. J. Thackeray with the Critical Edition by N.A. Meščerskij of the Slavonic Version in the Vilna Manuscript Translated Into English by H. Leeming and L. Osinkina. Arbeiten Zur Geschichte Des Antiken Judentums Und Des Urchristentums. 46. Brill. ISBN 978-9-004-11438-8. ISSN 0169-734X.
- Lorber, Catharine C.; Iossif, Panagiotis (2009). "Seleucid Campaign Beards". L'Antiquité Classique. l’asbl L’Antiquité Classique. 78. ISSN 0770-2817.
- Malalas, John (1940) [c. 565]. Chronicle of John Malalas, Books VIII–XVIII. Translated from the Church Slavonic. Translated by Spinka, Matthew; Downey, Glanville. University of Chicago Press. OCLC 601122856.
- Malalas, John (2009). Meier, Mischa; Drosihn, Claudia; Priwitzer, Stefan; Enderle, Katharina, eds. Johannes Malalas: Weltchronik. Bibliothek der Griechischen Literatur (in German). 69. Translated by Thurn, Johannes; Meier, Mischa. Anton Hiersemann Verlag. ISBN 978-3-777-20911-1.
- Malalas, John (2017) . Jeffreys, Elizabeth; Jeffreys, Michael; Scott, Roger, eds. The Chronicle of John Malalas. Byzantina Australiensia. 4. Translated by Jeffreys, Elizabeth; Jeffreys, Michael; Scott, Roger; Croke, Brian; Ferber, Jenny; Franklin, Simon; James, Alan; Kelly, Douglas; Moffatt, Ann; Nixon, Ann; Parker, Brian; Witaboski, Witold. Brill. ISBN 978-0-959-36362-3.
- McGing, Brian C. (2010). Polybius' Histories. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-199-71867-2.
- Mittmann, Siegfried (2006). "Die Hellenistische Mauerinschrift von Gadara (Umm Qēs) und die Seleukidisch Dynastische Toponymie Palästinas". Journal of Northwest Semitic Languages (in German). Department of Ancient Studies: Stellenbosch University. 32 (2). ISSN 0259-0131.
- Newell, Edward Theodore (1939). Late Seleucid Mints in Ake-Ptolemais and Damascus. Numismatic Notes & Monographs. 84. American Numismatic Society. OCLC 2461409.
- Ogden, Daniel (1999). Polygamy, Prostitutes and Death: The Hellenistic Dynasties. Duckworth with the Classical Press of Wales. ISBN 978-0-715-62930-7.
- Retso, Jan (2003). The Arabs in Antiquity: Their History from the Assyrians to the Umayyads. RoutledgeCurzon. ISBN 978-1-136-87282-2.
- Roschinski, Hans Peter (1980). "Geschichte der Nabatäer". Bonner Jahrbücher (in German). Rheinland-Verlag Köln. In Kommission bei Rudolf Habelt Verlag GmbH Bonn. In Verbindung mit Verlag Butzon & Bercker Kevelaer Rhld. und Böhlau Verlag Köln-Wien. 180. ISSN 0938-9334.
- Ross, Alan S. C. (1968). "Aldrediana XX: Notes on the Preterite-Present Verbs". English Philological Studies. W. Heffer & Sons, Ltd for the University of Birmingham. 11. ISSN 0308-0129.
- Sartre, Maurice (2005). The Middle East Under Rome. Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-01683-5.
- Schürer, Emil (1973) . Vermes, Geza; Millar, Fergus; Black, Matthew, eds. The History of the Jewish People in the Age of Jesus Christ (175 B.C.-A.D. 135). II (2014 ed.). Bloomsbury T&T Clark. ISBN 978-0-567-29891-1.
- Scott, Roger (2017) . "Malalas and his Contemporaries". In Jeffreys, Elizabeth; Croke, Brian; Scott, Roger. Studies in John Malalas. Byzantina Australiensia. 6. Brill. ISBN 978-9-004-34462-4.
- Shatzman, Israel (1991). The Armies of the Hasmoneans and Herod: From Hellenistic to Roman Frameworks. Texte und Studien zum Antiken Judentum. 25. J.C.B. Mohr (Paul Siebeck). ISBN 978-3-161-45617-6. ISSN 0721-8753.
- Sievers, Joseph (2005). "What's in a Name? Antiochus in Josephus' Bellum Judaicum". The Journal of Jewish Studies. Oxford Centre for Hebrew and Jewish Studies. 56 (1). ISSN 0022-2097.
- Starcky, Jean (1966). "Pétra et la Nabatène". Supplément au Dictionnaire de la Bible (in French). Editions-Librairie Letouzey & Ané. 7. OCLC 1010909134.
- Stern, Menaḥem (1981). "Judea and her Neighbors in the Days of Alexander Jannaeus". The Jerusalem Cathedra: Studies in the History, Archaeology, Geography and Ethnography of the Land of Israel. Wayne State University Press. 1. ISSN 0333-7618.
- Stern, Menaḥem (1987) . "The Jews in Greek and Latin Literature". In Safrai, Shmuel; Stern, Menaḥem; Flusser, David; van Unnik, Willem Cornelis. The Jewish People in the First Century, Volume 2. Historical Geography, Political History, Social, Cultural and Religious Life and Institutions. Compendia Rerum Iudaicarum ad Novum Testamentum. 2. Van Gorcum. ISBN 978-9-023-21436-6. ISSN 1877-4970.
- Taylor, Michael J. (2013). Antiochus the Great. Pen and Sword. ISBN 978-1-848-84463-6.
- Whitby, Michael (1988). "Malalas. The Chronicle of John Malalas. Trans. E. Jeffreys [and others]. (Byzantina Australiensia, 4.) Sydney: Australian Association for Byzantine Studies (with Melbourne University), 1986. Pp. xli + 371. A$27.00". The Journal of Hellenic Studies. The Society for the Promotion of Hellenic Studies. 108. ISSN 0075-4269.
- Whitehorne, John (1994). Cleopatras. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-05806-3.
- Wright, Nicholas L. (2005). "Seleucid Royal Cult, Indigenous Religious Traditions and Radiate Crowns: The Numismatic Evidence". Mediterranean Archaeology. Sydney University Press. 18. ISSN 1030-8482.
- Wright, Nicholas L. (2010). "Non-Greek Religious Iconography on the Coinage of Seleucid Syria". Mediterranean Archaeology. Sydney University Press. 22/23. ISSN 1030-8482.
- Wright, Nicholas L. (2011). "The Iconography of Succession Under the Late Seleukids". In Wright, Nicholas L. Coins from Asia Minor and the East: Selections from the Colin E. Pitchfork Collection. The Numismatic Association of Australia. ISBN 978-0-646-55051-0.
- Wright, Nicholas L. (2012). Divine Kings and Sacred Spaces: Power and Religion in Hellenistic Syria (301-64 BC). British Archaeological Reports (BAR) International Series. 2450. Archaeopress. ISBN 978-1-407-31054-1.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Antiochus XII.|
- The biography of Antiochus XII in the website of the numismatist Petr Veselý.
- A collection of Antiochus XII's coins in the website of the numismatist Petr Veselý.
Antiochus XII DionysusBorn: Unknown Died: 82 BC
| King of Syria
with Philip I (87-82 BC)