Priyome

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Priyome[1] (Russian: приём, IPA: [prʲɪˈjɵm] (About this sound listen)) is a Russian noun that is used directly and generically in English to represent some sort of typical maneuver or technique in chess. For example, a typical defensive technique in rook endings is to use the king to attack the opponent's pawns.[2]

In Russian, приём is a common word with various meanings including "reception", "acceptance" and "gimmick", and is used in contexts as diverse as music, literature, computer science, and martial arts.[3] It is also very common in Russian chess literature to refer to typical maneuvers used in positions with certain pawn structures or other defining characteristics. Because the word does not have an exact equivalent in English—with "device", "technique", or "method" the closest translations—it has appeared untranslated in English-language chess literature, although this usage is not yet widespread.[4][5]


Examples[edit]

A Russian movie, Buket Na Priyome,[6] is a crime drama highlighting the technique as a theme and tactic. A famous game by Garry Kasparov in Nicaragua has been used by training academies[7] to illustrate the technique. After e4-e5 in the first diagram below, the d-file is potentially open, and thus a candidate to be controlled by White's rooks:

abcdefgh
8
Chessboard480.svg
e8 black knight
e7 black king
f7 black pawn
a6 black pawn
d6 black pawn
e6 black rook
h6 black pawn
a5 white pawn
b5 black rook
c5 black pawn
e5 white pawn
g5 black pawn
b4 black pawn
c4 white knight
b3 white pawn
f3 white pawn
h3 white pawn
c2 white pawn
d2 white rook
f2 white king
g2 white pawn
d1 white rook
8
77
66
55
44
33
22
11
abcdefgh
Moving the Rook to the d file is a priyome, or recommended response. In annotations, moves with exclamation points suggest priyomes.
Example of Black vs. White priyomes
Black to move
abcdefgh
8
Chessboard480.svg
a8 black rook
c8 black bishop
d8 black queen
f8 black rook
g8 black king
a7 black pawn
g7 black pawn
h7 black pawn
b6 black pawn
f6 black knight
g6 black pawn
c5 black pawn
d5 white pawn
e5 black pawn
a4 white pawn
c4 white pawn
e4 white pawn
c3 white pawn
d3 white bishop
e3 white bishop
g2 white pawn
h2 white pawn
a1 white rook
d1 white queen
f1 white rook
g1 white king
8
77
66
55
44
33
22
11
abcdefgh
In this famous 1972 Spassky-Fischer World Championship, Spassky played 1.a4, and Bobby answered with 1...a5!. This is a typical defensive technique (priyome) in similar positions, to fix the weakness of the a4 pawn.
White to move
abcdefgh
8
Chessboard480.svg
c8 black rook
e8 black king
g8 black rook
b7 black pawn
c7 black queen
e7 black bishop
f7 black pawn
g7 black pawn
h7 black pawn
a6 black pawn
c6 black bishop
d6 black pawn
f6 black knight
e5 black pawn
f5 white pawn
e4 white pawn
b3 white bishop
c3 white knight
e3 white bishop
g3 white queen
a2 white pawn
b2 white pawn
c2 white pawn
g2 white pawn
h2 white pawn
a1 white rook
f1 white rook
g1 white king
8
77
66
55
44
33
22
11
abcdefgh
In this Zsofia Polgar-Apol game from 1988, Polgar played the priyome with 1. Bg5! - again a typical maneuver in this pawn structure, to exchange the bishop for the f6 knight and gain control of the d5 square.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Also transliterated priem, prijóm, etc.
  2. ^ Uchebnik Endshpilya, Dvoretsky, 2006, p. 216 ISBN 5-88149-232-3
  3. ^ "• Запомни весь нескучный англо-русский словарь". Yxo.com. Retrieved 2012-10-16. 
  4. ^ Studying Chess Made Easy, Soltis, 2010, p. 88 ISBN 978-1-906388-67-6
  5. ^ Critical Moments in Chess, Gaprindashvili, 2010, p. 66 et al. ISBN 978-1-906388-65-2
  6. ^ "Buket na priyome (1977)". IMDb.com. Retrieved 2012-10-16. 
  7. ^ ": Academia De Ajedrez Julio Ramírez De Arellano :. - Priyome". Academiadeajedrezjulioramirezdearellano.com. Retrieved 2012-10-16. 

External links[edit]