List of World Chess Championships

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

The following is a list of World Chess Championships, including the hosting cities.

Before 1948, the matches were privately organised. After 1948, challengers were usually chosen by a Candidates Tournament.

List of World Chess Championships[edit]

Unofficial Championships (before 1886)[edit]

These matches and tournaments were not for the world championship, but retrospectively they have been fairly widely recognized as establishing the world's leading player at the time.

Year Host country Host city Winner Runner(s)-up Won (+) Lost (−) Draw (=) Format
1834  United Kingdom London Louis de La Bourdonnais Alexander McDonnell 45 27 13
1843  United Kingdom London Pierre Saint-Amant Howard Staunton 3 2 1
1843  France Paris Howard Staunton Pierre Saint-Amant 11 6 4
1846  United Kingdom London Howard Staunton (2) Bernhard Horwitz 14 7 3
1851  United Kingdom London Kingdom of Prussia Adolf Anderssen Marmaduke Wyvill 4 2 1 single-elimination tournament, best-of-7 final
1858  France Paris Paul Morphy Kingdom of Prussia Adolf Anderssen 7 2 2
1862  United Kingdom London Kingdom of Prussia Adolf Anderssen (2) Louis Paulsen 11 1 1 round robin tournament, 14 players
1866  United Kingdom London Austrian Empire Wilhelm Steinitz Adolf Anderssen 8 6 0
1872  United Kingdom London Austria-Hungary Wilhelm Steinitz (2) Johannes Zukertort 7 1 4
1876  United Kingdom London Austria-Hungary Wilhelm Steinitz (3) Joseph Henry Blackburne 7 0 0
1883  United Kingdom London Johannes Zukertort Austria-Hungary Wilhelm Steinitz 22 4 0 double round robin tournament, 14 players

pre-FIDE World Championships (1886–1946)[edit]

With Steinitz and Zukertort each having a claim to be the world's best player, the two played a match in 1886 for the first World Championship. From then until 1946, there was no formal system: matches were privately organized between the champion and challenger, and the challenger became the new World Champion if he won.

Year Host country Host city World champion Runner(s)-up Won (+) Lost (−) Draw (=) Format
1886  United States New York City
Saint Louis
New Orleans
Wilhelm Steinitz Johannes Zukertort 10 5 5 first-to-10 wins
1889  Spain Havana Wilhelm Steinitz (2) Mikhail Chigorin 10 6 1 best-of-20 + tiebreak
1891  United States New York City Wilhelm Steinitz (3) Isidor Gunsberg 6 4 9
1892  Spain Havana Wilhelm Steinitz (4) Mikhail Chigorin 8+2 8 4+1
1894  United States and
 Canada
New York City
Philadelphia
Montreal
Emanuel Lasker Wilhelm Steinitz 10 5 4 first-to-10 wins
1897  Russian Empire Moscow Emanuel Lasker (2) Wilhelm Steinitz 10 2 5
1907  United States Emanuel Lasker (3) Frank Marshall 8 0 7 first-to-8 wins
1908  German Empire Düsseldorf
Munich
Emanuel Lasker (4) Siegbert Tarrasch 8 3 5
1910  Austria-Hungary and
 German Empire
Vienna
Berlin
Emanuel Lasker (5) Carl Schlechter 1 1 8 best of 10; disputed whether challenger had to win by 1 or 2 points;[a][b]
1910  German Empire Berlin Emanuel Lasker (6) Dawid Janowski 8 0 3 first-to-8 wins
1921  Cuba Havana José Raúl Capablanca Emanuel Lasker 4 0 10 best-of-24;[a] Emanuel Lasker resigned after 14 games
1927  Argentina Buenos Aires Alexander Alekhine José Raúl Capablanca 6 3 25 first-to-6 wins
1929  Germany and
 Netherlands
Alexander Alekhine (2) Efim Bogoljubov 11 5 9 first-to-6 wins AND 15 points
1934  Nazi Germany Alexander Alekhine (3) Efim Bogoljubov 8 3 15
1935  Netherlands Max Euwe Alexander Alekhine 9 8 13
1937  Netherlands Alexander Alekhine (4) Max Euwe 10 4 11

FIDE World Championships (1948–1990)[edit]

Alexander Alekhine died in 1946 while still World Chess Champion, after which the International Chess Federation (FIDE) organized the World Championships. This began with a one-off tournament in 1948. After that there was a 3-year cycle, in which a series of tournaments was held to decide the challenger, who then played the champion in a match for the World Championship.

Year Host country Host city World champion Runner(s)-up Won (+) Lost (−) Draw (=) Format
1948  Netherlands and
 Soviet Union
The Hague
Moscow
Mikhail Botvinnik Vasily Smyslov 14 points out of 20 5-player, 5-cycle round-robin tournament
1951  Soviet Union Moscow Mikhail Botvinnik (2) David Bronstein 5 5 14 best-of-24[a]
1954  Soviet Union Moscow Mikhail Botvinnik (3) Vasily Smyslov 7 7 10
1957  Soviet Union Moscow Vasily Smyslov Mikhail Botvinnik 6 3 13
1958  Soviet Union Moscow Mikhail Botvinnik (4) Vasily Smyslov 7 5 11
1960  Soviet Union Moscow Mikhail Tal Mikhail Botvinnik 6 2 13
1961  Soviet Union Moscow Mikhail Botvinnik (5) Mikhail Tal 10 5 6
1963  Soviet Union Moscow Tigran Petrosian Mikhail Botvinnik 5 2 15
1966  Soviet Union Moscow Tigran Petrosian (2) Boris Spassky 4 3 17
1969  Soviet Union Moscow Boris Spassky Tigran Petrosian 6 4 13
1972  Iceland Reykjavík Bobby Fischer Boris Spassky 7 3 11
1975  Philippines Manila Anatoly Karpov Bobby Fischer by default first-to-10 wins
1978  Philippines Baguio Anatoly Karpov (2) Viktor Korchnoi 6 5 21 first-to-6 wins
1981  Italy Kurhaus
Merano
Anatoly Karpov (3) Viktor Korchnoi 6 2 10
1984  Soviet Union Moscow No winner Anatoly Karpov / Garry Kasparov 5 3 40 first-to-6 wins; unfinished match
1985  Soviet Union Moscow Garry Kasparov Anatoly Karpov 5 3 16 best-of-24[a]
1986  United Kingdom and
 Soviet Union
London
Leningrad
Garry Kasparov (2) Anatoly Karpov 5 4 15
1987  Spain Seville Garry Kasparov (3) Anatoly Karpov 4 4 16
1990  United States and
 France
New York City
Lyon
Garry Kasparov (4) Anatoly Karpov 4 3 17

Split title (1993–2006)[edit]

In 1993, World Chess Champion Garry Kasparov and challenger Nigel Short split from FIDE, and played their title match under the auspices of the Professional Chess Association. In response, FIDE stripped Kasparov of his title and arranged its own World Championship match between former champion Anatoly Karpov and Candidates finalist Jan Timman. For the next 13 years there were two rival world titles.

Beginning with the FIDE World Chess Championship 1996, FIDE changed its rules and the incumbent World Champion was no longer automatically qualified for the final match; but this tradition was maintained for the Classical title.

Year Host country Host city World champion Runner(s)-up Won (+) Lost (−) Draw (=) Format
Classical World Chess Championships (1993–2006)
1993  United Kingdom London Garry Kasparov (5) United Kingdom Nigel Short 6 1 13 best-of-24[a]
1995  United States New York City Garry Kasparov (6) Viswanathan Anand 4 1 13 best-of-20[a]
2000  United Kingdom London Vladimir Kramnik Garry Kasparov 2 0 13 best-of-16[a]
2004   Switzerland Brissago Vladimir Kramnik (2) Peter Leko 2 2 10 best-of-14[a]
FIDE World Chess Championships (1993–2006)
1993  Netherlands and
 Indonesia
Zwolle
Arnhem
Amsterdam
Jakarta
Anatoly Karpov (4) Jan Timman 6 2 13 best-of-24[a]
1996  Russia Elista Anatoly Karpov (5) Gata Kamsky 6 3 9 best-of-20[a]
1998  Netherlands and
  Switzerland
Groningen
Lausanne
Anatoly Karpov (6) Viswanathan Anand 2+2 2 2 single-elimination tournament with finals best-of-6 + tiebreaks
1999  United States Las Vegas Alexander Khalifman Vladimir Akopian 2 1 3
2000  India and
 Iran
New Delhi
Tehran
Viswanathan Anand Alexei Shirov 3 0 1
2002  Russia Moscow Ruslan Ponomariov Vasyl Ivanchuk 2 0 5 single-elimination tournament with finals best-of-8 + tiebreaks
2004  Libya Tripoli Rustam Kasimdzhanov Michael Adams 2+1 2 2+1 single-elimination tournament with finals best-of-6 + tiebreaks
2005  Argentina Potrero de los Funes
San Luis
Veselin Topalov Viswanathan Anand
Peter Svidler
10 points out of 14 8-player double round-robin tournament

FIDE World Championships (2006—present)[edit]

The Classical and FIDE titles were unified with the 2006 match between Classical champion Vladimir Kramnik and FIDE champion Veselin Topalov. All subsequent championships have been administered by FIDE. Since 2008, FIDE has returned to the format of an incumbent champion playing a challenger.

Year Host country Host city World champion Runner(s)-up Won (+) Lost (−) Draw (=) Format
2006  Russia Elista Vladimir Kramnik (3) Veselin Topalov 3+2 3+1 6+1 best-of-12 + tiebreaks
2007  Mexico Mexico City Viswanathan Anand (2) Vladimir Kramnik
Boris Gelfand
9 points out of 14 8-player double round-robin tournament
2008  Germany Bonn Viswanathan Anand (3) Vladimir Kramnik 3 1 7 best-of-12 + tiebreaks
2010  Bulgaria Sofia Viswanathan Anand (4) Veselin Topalov 3 2 7
2012  Russia Moscow Viswanathan Anand (5) Boris Gelfand 1+1 1 10+3
2013  India Chennai Magnus Carlsen Viswanathan Anand 3 0 7
2014  Russia Sochi Magnus Carlsen (2) Viswanathan Anand 3 1 7
2016  United States New York City Magnus Carlsen (3) Sergey Karjakin 1+2 1 10+2
2018  United Kingdom London Magnus Carlsen (4) Fabiano Caruana 0+3 0 12
2021  United Arab Emirates Dubai Magnus Carlsen (3) Ian Nepomniachtchi[c] 5 best-of-14 + tiebreaks

Other[edit]

Year Host country Host city Winner Runner(s)-up Won (+) Lost (−) Draw (=) Format
Non-recognized World Chess Championship
1992  FR Yugoslavia Sveti Stefan and Belgrade Bobby Fischer Boris Spassky 10 5 15 First to reach 10 wins, draws not counting. Fischer claimed this was a world championship.[2]

Multiple times champions[edit]

Unofficial championships are not counted.

Titles Player Country
6 Emanuel Lasker German Empire German Empire
Anatoly Karpov (3 when split) Soviet Union Soviet Union
Russia Russia
Garry Kasparov (2 when split) Soviet Union Soviet Union
Russia Russia
5 Mikhail Botvinnik Soviet Union Soviet Union
Viswanathan Anand (1 when split) India India
4 Wilhelm Steinitz Austria-Hungary Austro-Hungarian Empire
United States United States
Alexander Alekhine France France
Magnus Carlsen Norway Norway
3 Vladimir Kramnik (2 when split) Russia Russia
2 Tigran Petrosian Soviet Union Soviet Union

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j In the case of a tie, the title defender retains the world championship.
  2. ^ There is dispute over whether Lasker would keep the title in the case of a 1 point with to Schlechter, and even question over whether the match was for the world championship. See World Chess Championship 1910 (Lasker–Schlechter) for discussion.
  3. ^ Nepomniachtchi is Russian, but will compete as a neutral competitor under the Chess Federation of Russia flag, due to WADA sanctions against Russia.[1]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Nepomniachtchi Can't Play Carlsen Under Russian Flag, Peter Doggers, chess.com, April 30 2021.}}
  2. ^ "World Chess Championship : 1992 Fischer – Spassky Rematch". Mark-weeks.com. Retrieved 1 February 2014.

Further reading[edit]

  • Davidson, Henry A. (1949, 1981). A Short History of Chess. McKay. ISBN 0-679-14550-8.
  • Barcza, Alföldy, Kapu: Die Weltmeister des Schachspiels. Hamburg 1975
  • Jens Enevoldsen: Verdens bedste Skak, Politiken (Denmark) 1966