# Algebraic notation (chess)

Algebraic notation is the standard method for recording and describing the moves in a game of chess. It is based on a system of coordinates to uniquely identify each square on the board.[1] It is now almost universally used by books, magazines, newspapers and software, and is the only form of notation recognized by FIDE, the international chess governing body.

An early form of algebraic notation was invented by the Syrian player Philip Stamma in the 18th century. In the 19th century, it came into general use in German chess literature, and was subsequently adopted in Russian chess literature. In English-speaking countries, the parallel method of descriptive notation was generally used in chess publications until the 1980s. Similar descriptive systems were in use in Spain and France. A few players still use descriptive notation, but it is no longer recognized by FIDE.

The term "algebraic notation" may be considered a misnomer, as the system is unrelated to algebra.[1]

## Naming the squares

Each square of the board is identified by a unique coordinate pair—a letter and a number—from White's point of view. The vertical columns of squares, called files, are labeled a through h from White's left (the queenside) to right (the kingside). The horizontal rows of squares, called ranks, are numbered 1 to 8 starting from White's side of the board. Thus each square has a unique identification of file letter followed by rank number. For example, the initial square of White's king is designated as "e1".

## Naming the pieces

Each piece type (other than pawns) is identified by an uppercase letter. English-speaking players use the letters K for king, Q for queen, R for rook, B for bishop, and N for knight. Different initial letters are used by other languages.

In modern chess literature, especially that intended for an international audience, the language-specific letters are usually replaced by universally recognized piece symbols; for example, ♞c6 in place of Nc6. This style is known as figurine algebraic notation. The Unicode Miscellaneous Symbols set includes all the symbols necessary for figurine algebraic notation.[2]

## Notation for moves

In standard (or short form) algebraic notation, each move of a piece is indicated by the piece's uppercase letter, plus the coordinates of the destination square. For example, Be5 (bishop moves to e5), Nf3 (knight moves to f3). For pawn moves, a letter indicating pawn is not used, only the destination square is given. For example, c5 (pawn moves to c5).

### Captures

When a piece makes a capture, an "x" is inserted immediately before the destination square. For example, Bxe5 (bishop captures the piece on e5). When a pawn makes a capture, the file from which the pawn departed is used to identify the pawn. For example, exd5 (pawn on the e-file captures the piece on d5).

En passant captures are indicated by specifying the capturing pawn's file of departure, the "x", the destination square (not the square of the captured pawn), and (optionally) the suffix "e.p." indicating the capture was en passant.[4] For example, exd6 e.p.

Sometimes a multiplication sign (×) or a colon (:) is used instead of "x", either in the middle (B:e5) or at the end (Be5:). Some publications, such as the Encyclopaedia of Chess Openings (ECO), omit any indication that a capture has been made; for example, Be5 instead of Bxe5; ed6 instead of exd6 or exd6 e.p.

When it is unambiguous to do so, a pawn capture is sometimes described by specifying only the files involved (exd or even ed). These shortened forms are sometimes called abbreviated algebraic notation or minimal algebraic notation.

### Disambiguating moves

 a b c d e f g h 8 8 7 7 6 6 5 5 4 4 3 3 2 2 1 1 a b c d e f g h
1) ...Rdf8, 2) R1a3, 3) Qh4e1

When two (or more) identical pieces can move to the same square, the moving piece is uniquely identified by specifying the piece's letter, followed by (in descending order of preference):

1. the file of departure (if they differ)
2. the rank of departure (if the files are the same but the ranks differ)

If neither file nor rank alone is sufficient to identify the piece, then both are specified.

In the diagram, both black rooks could legally move to f8, so the move of the d8-rook to f8 is disambiguated as Rdf8. For the white rooks on the a-file which could both move to a3, it is necessary to provide the rank of the moving piece, i.e., R1a3.

In the case of the white queen on h4 moving to e1, neither the rank nor file alone are sufficient to disambiguate from the other white queens. As such, this move is written Qh4e1.

As above, an "x" can be inserted to indicate a capture; for example, if the final case were a capture, it would be written as Qh4xe1.

### Pawn promotion

When a pawn promotes, the piece promoted to is indicated at the end. For example, a pawn on e7 promoting to a queen on e8 may be variously rendered as e8Q, e8=Q, e8(Q), e8/Q etc.

### Draw offer

FIDE specifies draw offers to be recorded by an equals sign with parentheses "(=)" after the move on the score sheet.[5] This is not usually included in published game scores.

### Castling

Castling is indicated by the special notations 0-0 (for kingside castling) and 0-0-0 (queenside castling). O-O and O-O-O (letter O rather than digit 0) are also commonly used.[a]

### Check

A move that places the opponent's king in check usually has the symbol "+" appended. Alternatively, sometimes a dagger (†) or the abbreviation "ch" is used. Some publications indicate a discovered check with an abbreviation such as "dis ch", or with a specific symbol. Double check is usually indicated the same as check, but is sometimes represented specifically as "dbl ch" or "++", particularly in older chess literature. Some publications such as ECO omit any indication of check.

### Checkmate

Checkmate at the completion of moves is represented by the symbol "#" in standard FIDE notation and PGN. The word mate is commonly used instead; occasionally a double dagger () or a double plus sign (++) is used, although the double plus sign is also used to represent "double check" when a king is under attack by two enemy pieces simultaneously. A checkmate is represented by "" (the not equal sign) in the macOS chess application. In Russian and ex-USSR publications, where captures are indicated by ":", checkmate can also be represented by "X" or "x".

### End of game

The notation 1–0 at the completion of moves indicates that White won, 0–1 indicates that Black won, and ½–½ indicates a draw. In case of forfeit, the scores 0–0, ½–0, and 0–½ are also possible.[7][8] If player(s) lost by default, results are +/−, −/+, or −/−.

Often there is no indication regarding how a player won or lost (other than checkmate, see above), so simply 1–0 or 0–1 may be written to show that one player resigned or lost due to time control or forfeit. Similarly, there is more than one way for a game to end in a draw. Sometimes direct information is given by the words "White resigns" or "Black resigns", though this is not considered part of the notation but rather a return to the surrounding narrative text.

## Similar notations

Besides the standard (or short) algebraic notation already described, several similar systems have been used.

### Long algebraic notation

In long algebraic notation, also known as fully expanded algebraic notation, both the starting and ending squares are specified, for example: e2e4. Sometimes these are separated by a hyphen, e.g. Nb1-c3, while captures are indicated by an "x", e.g. Rd3xd7. Long algebraic notation takes more space and is no longer commonly used in print; however, it has the advantage of clarity. Both short and long algebraic notation are acceptable for keeping a record of the moves on a scoresheet, as is required in FIDE rated games.

A form of long algebraic notation (without piece names) is also used by the Universal Chess Interface (UCI) standard, which is a common way for graphical chess programs to communicate with chess engines, e.g. e2e4, e1g1 (castling), e7e8q (promotion).[9]

### ICCF numeric notation

In international correspondence chess the use of algebraic notation may cause confusion, since different languages employ different names (and therefore different initial letters) for the pieces, and some players may be unfamiliar with the Latin alphabet. Hence, the standard for transmitting moves by post or email is ICCF numeric notation, which identifies squares using numerical coordinates, and identifies both the departure and destination squares. For example, the move 1.e4 is rendered as 1.5254. In recent years, the majority of correspondence games have been played on on-line servers rather than by email or post, leading to a decline in the use of ICCF numeric notation.

### PGN

Portable Game Notation (PGN) is a text-based file format for storing chess games, which uses standard English algebraic notation and a small amount of markup.[10] PGN can be processed by almost all chess software, as well as being easily readable by humans. For example, the Game of the Century could be represented as follows in PGN:

```[Event "Third Rosenwald Trophy"]
[Site "New York, NY USA"]
[Date "1956.10.17"]
[EventDate "1956.10.07"]
[Round "8"]
[Result "0-1"]
[White "Donald Byrne"]
[Black "Robert James Fischer"]
[ECO "D92"]
[WhiteElo "?"]
[BlackElo "?"]
[PlyCount "82"]

1. Nf3 Nf6 2. c4 g6 3. Nc3 Bg7 4. d4 O-O 5. Bf4 d5 6. Qb3 dxc4 7. Qxc4 c6 8. e4 Nbd7 9. Rd1 Nb6 10. Qc5 Bg4 11. Bg5 Na4 12. Qa3 Nxc3 13. bxc3 Nxe4 14. Bxe7 Qb6 15. Bc4 Nxc3 16. Bc5 Rfe8+ 17. Kf1 Be6 18. Bxb6 Bxc4+ 19. Kg1 Ne2+ 20. Kf1 Nxd4+ 21. Kg1 Ne2+ 22. Kf1 Nc3+ 23. Kg1 axb6 24. Qb4 Ra4 25. Qxb6 Nxd1 26. h3 Rxa2 27. Kh2 Nxf2 28. Re1 Rxe1 29. Qd8+ Bf8 30. Nxe1 Bd5 31. Nf3 Ne4 32. Qb8 b5 33. h4 h5 34. Ne5 Kg7 35. Kg1 Bc5+ 36. Kf1 Ng3+ 37. Ke1 Bb4+ 38. Kd1 Bb3+ 39. Kc1 Ne2+ 40. Kb1 Nc3+ 41. Kc1 Rc2# 0-1
```

## Formatting

 a b c d e f g h 8 8 7 7 6 6 5 5 4 4 3 3 2 2 1 1 a b c d e f g h
Position after 1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.Bb5 a6

A game or series of moves is generally written in one of two ways; in two columns, as White/Black pairs, preceded by the move number and a period:

1. e4 e5
2. Nf3 Nc6
3. Bb5 a6

or horizontally:

1. e4 e5 2. Nf3 Nc6 3. Bb5 a6

Moves may be interspersed with commentary, called annotations. When the game score resumes with a Black move, an ellipsis (...) fills the position of the White move, for example:

1. e4 e5 2. Nf3
White attacks the black e-pawn.
2... Nc6
Black defends and develops simultaneously.
3. Bb5
White plays the Ruy Lopez.
3... a6
Black elects Morphy's Defence.

## Annotation symbols

Though not technically a part of algebraic notation, the following are some symbols commonly used by annotators, for example in publications Chess Informant and Encyclopaedia of Chess Openings, to give editorial comment on a move or position.

The symbol chosen is simply appended to the end of the move notation, for example, in the Soller Gambit: 1.d4 e5?! 2.dxe5 f6 3.e4! Nc6 4.Bc4+/−

### Moves

Symbol Meaning
!! A brilliant—and usually surprising—move
! A very good move
!? An interesting move that may not be the best
?! A dubious move that is not easily refutable
? A bad move; a mistake
?? A blunder
A better move than the one played
A forced move; the only reasonable move, or the only move available
TN or N A theoretical novelty

### Positions

Symbol Meaning
= Both players have equal chances.
+/= or White has a slight plus.
=/+ or Black has a slight plus.
+/− or ± White has a clear plus.
−/+ or Black has a clear plus.
+− White has a winning advantage.
−+ Black has a winning advantage.
It is unclear whether either side has an advantage; a "toss-up".
=/ or ⯹ Whoever is down in material has compensation for it.

## History

Descriptive notation was usual in the Middle Ages in Europe. A form of algebraic chess notation that seems to have been borrowed from Muslim chess, however, appeared in Europe in a 12th century manuscript referred to as "MS. Paris Fr. 1173 (PP.)". The files run from a to h, just as they do in the current standard algebraic notation. The ranks, however, are also designated by letters, with the exception of the 8th rank which is distinct because it has no letter. The ranks are lettered in reverse – from the 7th to the 1st: k, l, m, n, o, p, q.[11]

Another system of notation using only letters appears in a book of Mediaeval chess, Rechenmeister Jacob Köbel's Schachzabel Spiel of 1520.[11]

Algebraic notation exists in various forms and languages and is based on a system developed by Philipp Stamma in the 1730s. Stamma used the modern names of the squares (and may have been the first to number the ranks), but he used p for pawn moves and the capital original file of a piece (A through H) instead of the initial letter of the piece name as used now.[12] Piece letters were introduced in the 1780s by Moses Hirschel, and Johann Allgaier with Aaron Alexandre developed the modern castling notation in the 1810s.[13]

Algebraic notation was described in 1847 by Howard Staunton in his book The Chess-Player's Handbook. Staunton credits the idea to German authors, and in particular to "Alexandre, Jaenisch, and the Handbuch [des Schachspiels]."[14] While algebraic notation has been used in German and Russian chess literature since the 19th century, the Anglosphere was slow to adopt it, using descriptive notation for much of the 20th century. Beginning in the 1970s, algebraic notation gradually became more common in English language publications, and by 1980 it had become the prevalent notation. In 1981, FIDE stopped recognizing descriptive notation, and algebraic notation became the accepted international standard.

## Piece names in various languages

The table contains names for all the pieces as well as the words for chess, check, and checkmate in several languages.[15] Several languages use the Arabic loanword alfil for the piece called bishop in English; in this context it is a chess-specific term which no longer has its original meaning of "elephant".

Overview of chess piece names
Language King Queen Rook Bishop Knight Pawn Chess Check Checkmate/Mate
figure ♔ ♚ ♕ ♛ ♖ ♜ ♗ ♝ ♘ ♞ ♙ ♟ n/a + or # or ++ or
Afrikaans K Koning
king
D Dame
T Toring
tower
L Loper
runner
R Ruiter
rider
(P) Pion
Skaak Skaak Skaakmat
Albanian M Mbreti
king
D Dama / Mbretëresha
T Torra
tower
F Fili / Oficeri
elephant / officer
K Kali
horse
(U) Ushtari
soldier
Shahu Shah Shah mat
Arabic م مَلِك (malik)
king
و وزير (wazïr)
vizier
ر رخ / طابية (rukhkh / ṭābiya)
fortress / castle
ف فيل (fīl)
elephant
ح حصان (ħiṣān)
horse
ب بيدق / عسكري (baidaq / `askarī)
pawn / soldier
شطرنج (shaṭranj) كِش مَلِك (kish malik) كِش مات (kish māt)
Azerbaijani Ş Şah
shah
V Vəzir
vizier
T Top
cannon
F Fil
elephant
A At
horse
foot soldier
Şahmat şah
shah
mat
mat
Armenian Ա Արքա (Ark῾a)
king
Թ Թագուհի (T῾agowhi)
queen
Ն Նավակ (Navak)
ship
Փ Փիղ (P῾ił)
elephant
Ձ Ձի (Dzi)
horse
Զ Զինվոր (Zinvor)
soldier
Շախմատ (Šaxmat)
Ճատրակ (Čatrak)
Շախ (Šax) Մատ (Mat)
Basque E Erregea
king
D Dama
G Gaztelua
castle
A Alfila
Z Zalduna
knight
(P) Peoia
pawn
Xake Xake Xake mate
Belarusian (Taraškievica) К кароль
king
Вз візыр
vizier
Лд ладзьдзя
boat
А афіцэр
officer
В вершнік
rider
(Л) латнік
pawn
Шахматы Шах Мат
Bengali R রাজা (rājā)
King
M মন্ত্রী (montri)
Minister
N নৌকা (noukā)
Boat
H গজ / হাতি (gôj / hāti)
Elephant
G ঘোড়া (ghoṛā)
Horse
B বোড়ে / সৈন্য (boṛe / śoinno)
Walker / Troop
দাবা (dābā) কিস্তি (kisti)
Check
কিস্তিমাত (kistimāt)
Checkmate
Bulgarian Ц цар
tsar
Д дама / царица
Т топ
cannon
О офицер
officer
К кон
horse
(П) пешка
foot soldier
Шахмат / Шах Шах (Шах и) мат
Catalan R rei
D dama / reina
T torre
tower
A alfil
C cavall
horse
(P) peó
Escacs Escac / Xec Escac i mat
Chinese K (wáng)
king
Q (hòu)
queen
R (jū)
chariot
B (xiàng)
elephant
N (mǎ)
horse
(P) (bīng)
soldier

international chess

Czech K král
king
D dáma
V věž
tower
S střelec
shooter
J jezdec
rider
(P) pěšec
foot soldier
Šachy Šach Mat
Danish K konge
king
D dronning
queen
T tårn
tower
L løber
runner
S springer
jumper
(B) bonde
peasant
Skak Skak Skakmat
Dutch K koning
king
D dame / koningin
T toren / kasteel
tower / castle
runner / counsellor
P paard
horse
(pi) pion
Schaken Schaak Mat / Schaakmat
English K king
Q queen
R rook, castle
B bishop
N knight
(P) pawn
Chess Check Checkmate / Mate
Esperanto R reĝo
king
D damo
T turo
tower
K kuriero
courier
Ĉ ĉevalo
horse
(P) peono
Ŝako Ŝak Ŝakmato
Estonian[16] K kuningas
king
L lipp
flag
V vanker
chariot / carriage
O oda
spear
R ratsu
riding horse
(E) ettur
forwarder
Male
after malev
Tuli / Šahh
fire
Matt
Finnish K kuningas
king
D daami / kuningatar
T torni
tower
L lähetti
messenger
R ratsu
ride
(S) sotilas
soldier
Shakki Shakki Matti / Shakkimatti
French R roi
king
D dame
T tour
tower
F fou
jester
C cavalier
rider
(P) pion
Échecs Échec Échec et mat
Galician R rei
king
D dama / raíña
T torre
tower
B bispo
bishop
C cabalo
horse
(P) peón
foot soldier
Georgian მფ მეფე (mep'e)
king
ლაზიერი (lazieri)
queen
ეტლი (etli)
chariot
კუ (ku)
tortoise
მხედარი (mkhedari)
rider
პაიკი (paiki)
pawn
ჭადრაკი (Čadraki) ქიში (K'ishi) შამათი (Shamat'i)
German[17] K König
king
D Dame
T Turm
tower
L Läufer
runner
S Springer
jumper
(B) Bauer
peasant / farmer
Schach Schach Matt / Schachmatt
Greek Ρ βασιλιάς (vasiliás)
king
Β βασίλισσα (vasílissa)
queen
Π πύργος (pýrgos)
tower
Α αξιωματικός (axiomatikós)
officer
Ι ίππος (íppos)
horse
(Σ) πιόνι (pióni)
pawn
Σκάκι (Skáki) Σαχ (Sach) / Ρουά (Rouá) Mατ (Mat)
Hindi R राजा (rājā)
king
V वज़ीर / रानी (vazīr / rānī)
vizier / queen
H हाथी (hāthī)
elephant
O ऊँट (ūṁṭ)
camel
G घोड़ा (ghoṛā)
horse
(P) प्यादा (pyādā)
infantryman
शतरंज (śatrañj) शह (Shah) शहमात (Shahmāt)
Hebrew מ מלך (Melech)
king
מה מלכה (Malka)
queen
צ צריח (Tzariach)
tower
ר רץ (Ratz)
runner
פ פרש (Parash)
horseman
רגלי (Regli)
foot soldier
שחמט (Shakhmat) שח (Shakh) מט (Mat)
Hausa S sarki
king
Q sarauniya
queen
R sansanin
fortress
G giwa
elephant
J jarumi
mounted warrior
(P) soja
soldier
ces ceki ceki mat
Hungarian K király
king
V vezér / királynő
B bástya
bastion
F futó
runner
H huszár / ló
hussar / horse
(Gy) gyalog / paraszt
footman / peasant
Sakk Sakk Matt / Sakk-matt
Icelandic K kóngur
king
D drottning
queen
H hrókur
rook
B biskup
bishop
R riddari
knight
(P) peð
pawn
Skák Skák Skák og mát
Ido R rejo
king
D damo
T turmo
tower
E episkopo
bishop
K kavalo
horse
(P) piono
Shakoludo Shako Shakmato
Indonesian R raja
king
M menteri
minister / vizier
B benteng
castle / fortress
G gajah
elephant
K kuda
horse
(P) pion
Catur Sekak / Ster Sekakmat
Interslavic K kralj
king
C carica / dama
Z zamok / věža
castle / tower
L lovec
hunter
J jezdec / konj
rider / horse
(P) pěšak
infantryman
Šahy Šah Mat
Irish R
king
B banríon
queen
C caiseal
bulwark
E easpag
bishop
D ridire
knight
(F) fichillín / ceithearnach
little chess piece / kern
Ficheall Sáinn Marbhsháinn
Italian R re
king
D donna / regina
T torre
tower
A alfiere
standard-bearer
C cavallo
horse
(P) pedone
foot soldier
Scacchi Scacco Scacco matto
Japanese K キング (kingu)
Q クイーン (kuīn)
R ルーク (rūku)
B ビショップ (bishoppu)
N ナイト (naito)
(P) ポーン (pōn)
チェス (chesu) 王手 (ōte) /
チェック (chekku)

チェックメイト (chekkumeito)
Javanese R raja
king
Q ratu / perdhana mentri
queen / prime minister
B bèntèng
fortress
M mentri
minister
K jaran
horse
(P) pion
sekak
king
ಮಂತ್ರಿ (mantri)
minister
ಆನೆ (aane)
elephant
ರಥ (ratha)
chariot
ಕು ಕುದುರೆ (kudure)
horse
foot soldier
Kazakh Кр патша (patşa)
king
У уәзір (uäzır)
vizier
Т тура (tura)
tower
П піл (pıl)
elephant
А ат (at)
horse
(П) пешка (peşka) / (С) сарбаз (sarbaz)
foot soldier / warrior
шахмат (şahmat) шах (şah) мат (mat)
Korean K 킹 (king)
Q 퀸 (kwin)
R 룩 (rug)
B 비숍 (bi syob)
N 나이트 (na i teu)
(P) 폰 (pon)
체스 (che seu) 체크 (che keu) 체크메이트 (che keu me i teu)
Latin R rex
king
M regina
queen
T turris / elephas
tower / elephant[18]
A signifer / cursor / stultus / alphinus
standard-bearer / messenger / fool[18]
E eques
knight
(P) pedes / pedo
foot soldier
Scacci Scaccus Mattus
Latvian K karalis
king
D dāma
T tornis
tower
L laidnis
Z zirgs
horse
(B) bandinieks
peasant
Šahs Šahs Šahs un mats
Lithuanian K karalius
king
V valdovė
queen
B bokštas
tower
R rikis
Lithuanian military commander
Ž žirgas
horse
(P) pėstininkas
pawn
Šachmatai Šach Matas
Lojban Na noltrunau
king
Ni noltruni'u
queen
S slanydi'u
castle
X xanto
elephant
Xi xirma
horse
(S) sonci
soldier
caxmati gunta
attack
lo nolraitru cu morsi
Luxembourgish K Kinnek
king
D Damm
T Tuerm
tower
L Leefer
runner
P Päerd
horse
(B) Bauer
farmer
Schach Schach Schachmatt
Macedonian K крал
king
D кралица / дама
T топ
cannon
L ловец
hunter
S коњ / скокач
horse / jumper
P пешак / пион
infantryman / pawn
шах шах мат
Malayalam K രാജാവ് (raajavu)
king
Q മന്ത്രി (manthri)
minister
R തേര് (therú)
chariot
B ആന (aana)
elephant
N/Kt കുതിര (kuthira)
horse
(P) കാലാള്‍ / പടയാളി
foot soldier
ചതുരംഗം (chathurangam) ചെക്ക്
ചെക്ക് മേറ്റ്
Marathi R राजा (rājā)
king
V वजीर (vajīr)
vizier
H हत्ती (hātti)
elephant
O उंट (Unṭ)
camel
G घोडा (ghoḍā)
horse
(P) प्यादे (pyāde)
foot soldier
बुद्धिबळ (buddhibal) शह (shah) शहमात (shahmāt)
Mongolian Н ноён
noyan
Б бэрс (fers)
vizier
т тэрэг (tereg)
chariot
Т тэмээ (temee)
camel
М морь (mor)
horse
(Х) хүү (hüü)
boy
Шатар шаг / дуг / цод мад
Norwegian Bokmål K konge
king
D dronning
queen
T tårn
tower
L løper
runner
S springer
jumper
(B) bonde
peasant
Sjakk Sjakk Sjakkmatt
Norwegian Nynorsk K konge
king
D dronning
queen
T tårn
tower
L løpar
runner
S springar
jumper
(B) bonde
peasant
Sjakk Sjakk Sjakkmatt
Odia K ରଜା (rôja)
king
Q ରାଣୀ (raṇi)
queen
R ଡଙ୍ଗା (ḍôṅga)
boat
B ହାତୀ (hati)
elephant
N ଘୋଡ଼ା (ghoṛa)
horse
P ସୈନିକ (sôinikô)
soldier
ଚେସ୍/ଶତରଞ୍ଜ (chess/śôtôrôñjô) ଚେକ୍ (check) ଚେକମେଟ୍ (checkmate)
Oromo M Mootii
Mt Mootittii
G Gidaara, masaraa
A abuunii
N namkabajaa
Cheezii Mirkaneeffannaa Waayila / Mate
Persian ش شاه
king
و وزیر
vizier / minister
ق/ر قلعه/رخ
castle
ف فیل
elephant
ا اسب
horse
س/پ سرباز/پیاده
soldier
شطرنج (shatranj) کیش (kish) مات (mat)
Polish K król
king
H hetman / królowa
general (hist.) / queen
W wieża
tower
G goniec / laufer
courier / (ger. derived)
S skoczek / koń
jumper / horse
(P) pion / pionek
pawn
Szachy szach mat / szach-mat
Portuguese R rei
king
D dama / rainha
T torre
tower
B bispo
bishop
C cavalo
horse
(P) peão
foot soldier
Romanian R rege
king
D damă / regină
T turn / tură
tower
N nebun
fool
C cal
horse
(P) pion
Șah Șah Mat / Șah mat
Russian Кр король (korol')
king
Ф ферзь / королева (ferz' / koroleva)
vizier / queen
boat
С слон (slon)
elephant
К конь (kon')
horse
(П) пешка (peshka)
шахматы (shakhmaty) шах (shakh) мат (mat)
Scottish Gaelic R righ
king
B bànrigh
queen
T tùr
tower
E easbaig
bishop
D ridir
knight
(P) pàn
pawn
feòirne casg tul-chasg
Serbo-Croatian K kralj (К краљ)
king
D kraljica / dama (Д краљицa / дама)
T top / kula (Т топ / кула)
cannon / tower
L lovac / strijelac / laufer (Л ловац / стрелац / лауфер)
hunter / archer / runner
S skakač / konj (С скaкaч / коњ)
jumper / horse
(P) pješak / pion / pijun ((П) пешак / пион / пијун)
footman / pawn
Šah (Шах) Šah (Шах) Mat (Мат)
Northern Sotho К Kgoši
N Ntlosebô / Moshate
Mp Mopišopo
M Mogale
S Seitšhireletšo
Tšhêšê Check Checkmate
Sicilian R re
king
D riggina
queen
T turru
tower
A alferu
S scecc[h]u
donkey
(P) pidinu
foot soldier
Scacchi
Slovak K kráľ
king
D dáma
V veža
tower
S strelec
shooter
J jazdec
rider
(P) pešiak
infantryman / pawn
Šach Šach Mat / Šachmat
Slovene K kralj
king
D dama
T trdnjava
castle
L lovec
hunter
S skakač
jumper
(P) kmet
farmer
Šah Šah Mat / Šahmat
Spanish R rey
king
D dama / reina
T torre
tower
A alfil
C caballo
horse
(P) peón
foot soldier
Ajedrez Jaque Jaque mate
Swedish K kung
king
D dam / drottning
T torn
tower
L löpare
runner
H springare / riddare
horse/knight
(B) bonde
peasant
Schack Schack Schack matt
Tamil K அரசன் (arasaṉ)
king
Q அரசி (araci)
queen
R கோட்டை (kōṭṭai)
castle
B அமைச்சர் / மந்திரி (amaicchar / manthiri)
minister
N/Kt குதிரை (kutirai)
horse
(P) காலாள் / சிப்பாய் (kālāḷ / cippāy)
foot soldier / sepoy
சதுரங்கம் (sathurankam) முற்றுகை (muṟṟukai) இறுதி முற்றுகை (iṟuti muṟṟukai)
Telugu రాజు (rāju)
king
మంత్రి (maṃtri)
minister
ఏనుగు (ēnugu)
elephant
శకటు (śakaţu)
గుర్రం (gurraṃ)
horse
బంటు (baṃţu)
soldier
చదరంగం (cadaraṃgaṃ) దాడి (dāḍi) కట్టు (kaţţu)
Thai ขุน (khun)
king
เม็ด / ตรี / มนตรี (met / tri / montri)
counselor
เรือ (ruea)
ship
โคน (khon)
ม้า (ma)
horse
(บ) เบี้ย (bia)
menial
หมากรุก (makruk) รุก (ruk) จน (chon)
Turkish Ş/K şah / kral
shah / king
V vezir
vizier
K kale
castle
F fil
elephant
A at
horse
(P) er / piyon
soldier / pawn
Satranç Şah Mat
Ukrainian король (korol)
king
Ф ферзь (ferz)
vizier
T тура (tura)
tower
C слон (slon)
elephant
K кінь (kin)
horse
(П) пішак / пішка (pishak / pishka)
foot soldier
Шахи (shakhi) Шах (shakh) Мат (mat)
Urdu بادشاہ (bādshāh)
وزیر (vazīr)
رخ (rukh)
فيلہ (fiyalah)
گھوڑا (ghōṛā)
پیادہ (pyādah)
شطرنج (šaṭranj) شہ (sheh) شہمات (shehmāt)
Vietnamese V vua
king
H hậu
queen
X xe
chariot
T tượng / tịnh / voi
elephant
M mã / ngựa
horse
tốt / chốt / binh
soldier
Cờ vua Chiếu / Chiếu tướng Chiếu bí / Chiếu hết / Sát cục / Tuyệt sát
Welsh T teyrn / brenin
lord / king
B brenhines
queen
C castell
castle
E esgob
bishop
M marchog
rider
(G) gwerinwr
peasant
Gwyddbwyll Siach Siachmat

## Notes

1. ^ The main differences from standard Algebraic are that there is both a dot and a space after each move number, and an upper case "O" is used, instead of a zero, in the notation for castling. Presumably these were initially just one individual's personal foible (or error) in the early days of chess on the Internet, but the standard is now established. — Burgess (1997)[6]

## References

1. ^ a b Hooper, David; Whyld, Kenneth (1996) [First pub. 1992]. "standard notation". The Oxford Companion to Chess (2nd ed.). Oxford University Press. p. 389. ISBN 0-19-280049-3.
2. ^
3. ^ a b "FIDE Laws of Chess taking effect from 1 January 2018". FIDE. 2018-01-01. Retrieved 12 July 2020.
4. ^ see FIDE Laws of Chess[3]: Apdx C.9.3 .
5. ^ Article 9.1.2.2 in FIDE Laws of Chess[3]
6. ^ Burgess, Graham (2000) [1997]. The Mammoth Book of Chess. Carroll & Graph. p. 517. ISBN 0-7867-0725-9.
7. ^ User's Manual for Vega Chess Pairing Software (FIDE-approved), p. 16.
8. ^ Geurt Gijssen, An Arbiter's Notebook, no. 164.
9. ^ "UCI protocol". wbec-ridderkerk.nl. Retrieved 2018-06-14.
10. ^
11. ^ a b Murray, Harold James Ruthven (1913). A History of Chess. Oxford, UK: Clarendon Press. pp. 469–470.
12. ^ Davidson, Henry (1981). A Short History of Chess. David McKay. pp. 152–153. ISBN 978-0679145509.
13. ^ Wall, Bill. "Chess Notation".
14. ^ Staunton, Howard (1866). The Chess-Player's Handbook (Second, revised ed.). London, UK: Bell & Daldy. p. 501 – via Google Books. A popular and scientific introduction to the game of chess, exemplified in games actually played by the greatest masters, and illustrated by numerous diagrams of original and remarkable positions.
15. ^ Sources for this section include Wikipedia articles in various languages. Archived 2009-10-25.
16. ^ The Estonian chess terms were coined by Ado Grenzstein.
17. ^ "Handbook". www.fide.com. Retrieved 22 March 2019. The pieces bear the names: Koenig, Dame, Turm, Laeufer, Springer, Bauer
18. ^ a b H. J. R. Murray, A History of Chess, ch. 11.