Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Aix

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Archdiocese of Aix-en-Provence and Arles
Archidioecesis Aquensis in Gallia et Arelatensis
  • Archidiocèse d'Aix-en-Provence et Arles
  • Archidiocèsi de Ais de Provença e Arle
  • Archidioucèsi de z'Ais e Arle
Aix-en-Provence Cathedrale Saint-Sauveur 1 20061227.jpg
Location
Country  France
Ecclesiastical province Marseille
Metropolitan Archdiocese of Marseille
Statistics
Area 4,580 km2 (1,770 sq mi)
Population
- Total
- Catholics
(as of 2015)
879,000 (est.)
723,200 (est.) (82.3%)
Parishes 120
Information
Denomination Roman Catholic
Sui iuris church Latin Church
Rite Roman Rite
Established by 5th Century
Cathedral Aix Cathedral
Patron saint Saint Maximinus of Aix
Secular priests 128 (diocesan)
19 (Religious Orders)
23 Permanent Deacons
Current leadership
Pope Francis
Archbishop Christophe Dufour
Metropolitan Archbishop Georges Pontier
Emeritus Bishops Claude Feidt Archbishop Emeritus (1999–2010)
Website
Website of the Archdiocese
Location of Aix

The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Aix-en-Provence and Arles (Latin: Archidioecesis Aquensis in Gallia et Arelatensis; French: Archidiocèse d'Aix-en-Provence et Arles; Occitan Provençal: Archidiocèsi de Ais de Provença e Arle or Archidioucèsi de z'Ais e Arle) is an archdiocese of the Latin Rite of the Roman Catholic Church in France. The Archepiscopal see is located in the city of Aix-en-Provence. The diocese comprises the department of Bouches-du-Rhône (minus the arrondissement of Marseilles), in the Region of Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur. It is currently a suffragan of the Archdiocese of Marseilles and consequently the archbishop no longer wears the pallium.

After the Concordat,[which?] the Archdiocese gained the titles of Arles and Embrun (1822), becoming the Archdiocese of Aix (–Arles–Embrun) (Latin: Archidioecesis Aquensis in Gallia (–Arelatensis–Ebrodunensis); French: Archidiocèse d'Aix (–Arles–Embrun); Occitan Provençal: Archidiocèsi de Ais (–Arle–Ambrun) or Archidioucèsi de z'Ais (–Arle–Ambrun)). The dioceses of Fréjus and Toulon had been suppressed and parts of Toulon and Riez were attributed to Aix. But in the Concordat of 1817, Arles was reestablished as a metropolitanate (which lasted only until 1822, when it became suffragan to Aix), and the metropolitanate of Aix was assigned the suffragan dioceses of Fréjus (including Toulon, where its bishop now resides), Digne, and Gap. From 1838 to 1867 the diocese of Algiers was also suffragan (subordinate) to the Archbishop of Aix.[1]

In 2007, the name of the diocese was changed again to the Archdiocese of Aix (–Arles) (Latin: Archidioecesis Aquensis in Gallia (–Arelatensis); French: Archidiocèse d'Aix (–Arles); Occitan Provençal: Archidiocèsi de Ais (–Arle) or Archidioucèsi de z'Ais (–Arle)). In 2008, the title of Embrun was reattached to the Diocese of Gap by decision of Pope Benedict XVI.[2]

The current archbishop is Christophe Dufour.

History[edit]

Certain traditions make Saint Maximinus, one of the seventy-two Disciples and the companion of Mary Magdalen in Provence (for which there is no biblical justification), the first Bishop of Aix. Louis Duchesne seems to have proved that this saint, the object of a local cult, was not considered the first bishop of Aix, or connected with the life of Saint Mary Magdalen, except in later legends, devised towards the middle of the 11th century by the monks of Vézelay and by Bishop Rostan de Fos, who was seeking funds for the building of a cathedral.[3]

The Roman Empire[edit]

The city of Aix became a matter of controversy at the beginning of the fifth century. The Council of Nicaea, in its fourth canon, had decreed that each ecclesiastical province, which was coterminous with the Imperial Roman province, should have as its Metropolitan the bishop of the capital city of the province. Aix had been the capital of the Roman Imperial province of Gallia Narbonensis Secunda, one of the seventeen Roman provinces in Gaul. Gallia Narbonensis Secunda included the cities of Aix, Gap, Sisteron, Apt, Riez, Fréjus, Antibes and Nice.[4] By the end of the fourth century, certainly by the time of Theodosius the Great in 381,[5] however, the number of provinces had been reduced to fifteen, and Gallia Narbonensis Secunda had been combined with Gallia Narbonensis Prima.[6] Who, then, was the Metropolitan of the ecclesiastical province of Gallia Narbonensis Prima et Secunda? The Council of Turin, which met in September 401 (?),[7] was faced with competing claims, from the Metropolitan of Viennensis, the Metropolitan of Arles, and Proculus the Bishop of Marseille (who had been the delegate of the Gauls at the Council of Aquileia in 381). The decision of the Council was that the Bishop of Marseille had no claim to the metropolitan status over Gallia secunda, since it was not in his own province. Bishop Proculus could continue to hold the title of Metropolitan during his lifetime, but only out of respect for his personal qualities, not as a matter of principle. Thereafter, with regard to the claims of the Archbishops of Vienne and Arles, whichever of the two could prove his right to metropolitan status over Gallia secunda should be the Metropolitan.[8] There seems to have been no bishop of Aix present, nor even a representative, to speak for the city of Aix or present proof of its status.

The first historically known bishop of Aix, Lazarus, occupied this see about the beginning of the 5th century. He had been ordained by Bishop Proculus of Marseille, which caused a scandal and reproaches from Pope Zosimus, since he had been condemned at the Council of Turin as a calumnator.[9] He was ordained under the reign of the usurper Constantine, and on his fall in 411, Lazarus resigned.[10]

The issue of metropolitan status was settled by Pope Zosimus in a letter of 29 September 417 to the bishops of the Province of Vienne and the Province of Gallia Narbonensis Secunda, declaring that the Archbishop of Arles was the Metropolitan, not Proculus of Marseille or Simplicius of Vienne.[11] In a letter of May or June 514, Pope Symmachus (498–514) wrote to Archbishop Caesarius of Arles that, if the bishop of Aix, or any other bishop, should be summoned by the Metropolitan and he refuses to obey, he should be submitted to ecclesiastical discipline.[12]

Medieval Aix[edit]

In 737 the city of Aix was taken and sacked by the Saracens. The people fled to hilltop refuges, and the city was deserted.[13] The damage to the ecclesiastical system was so extensive that it called forth a letter from Pope Hadrian I to Archbishop Bertherius of Vienne on 1 January 774.[14] He advised the Archbishop that King Charles (Charlemagne) had visited Rome with reports of the devastation, and had promised to help in restoring things. The Pope therefore sent letters informing the metropolitans that the status of eighty years earlier should be maintained, and that the privileges of metropolitans should be maintained even if, at the request of the Frankish kings, the pallium should be bestowed on a suffragan (subordinate) bishop. The situation as it had been in the time of Pope Leo II (662–663) should be restored.[15]

Aix perhaps became an archbishopric only at the end of the 8th century; but it was a subordinate of the Metropolitan Archbishop of Arles.[16] The Council of Frankfort, in 796, was uncertain about the status of Aix, and decided to refer the matter to the pope.[17]

Up to the end of the eleventh century the cathedral of Aix was at Notre-Dame-de-la-Sed, which was situated to the west of the town, outside the walls.[18] The new Cathedral of Saint-Sauveur was begun ca. 1070, with the appeal for funds made by Archbishop Rostan de Fos (1056–1082). It was consecrated by Archbishop Petrus (III) (1101–1112) on 7 August 1103.[19] He was assisted by Archbishop Gibelinus of Arles, Joannes of Cavaillon, Berengar of Fréjus, and Augerius of Riez, as well as the dignitaries of Aix: the Provost, the Archdeacon, the Sacristan, two archpriests, and at least six Canons.[20] It is said that Bishop Foulques (c. 1115 – c. 1132) increased the number of Canons in the Cathedral Chapter from twelve to twenty, and that he obtained the sanction of Pope Honorius II (1124-1130) for his actions.[21] In 1693, and again in 1771, there were only two dignities and eighteen canons.[22]

On 6 November 1097, Pope Urban II removed the diocese of Aix from the province of Arles, and attached it as suffragan (subordinate) to the ecclesiastical province of Narbonne.[23] In 1099, shortly after his coronation, Pope Paschal II repeated this decision in a letter to Archbishop Bertrand of Narbonne.[24] Not content with that arrangement, the new Archbishop Pierre (III) (1101-1112) began a campaign to influence the papacy. He succeeded in obtaining the pallium from the new Pope Paschal II on 28 March 1104.[25] This was the first time that an Archbishop of Aix had ever been granted the use of the pallium.[26]

Renaissance[edit]

The University of Aix was founded in 1409 by Pope Alexander V, which was confirmed by Count Louis (II) of Provence on 30 December 1413. Additional privileges were granted by King Henri IV in 1603 (a refoundation, in fact, since the university had become moribund in the face of the Huguenot challenge); by Louis XIII in 1622; by Louis XIV in 1660 and 1689; and by Louis XV in 1719. The Archbishop of Aix was the Chancellor of the University, ex officio. The Rector of the University was elected. The University had faculties in theology, law, and medicine.[27]

Count Louis II also established a Parliament for Provence in Aix, on 14 August 1415. When Count Charles III of Provence, the nephew of René of Anjou, died in 1481, he named as his heir King Louis XI of France and his heirs. Louis XII established a full royal administrative apparatus in Province in 1501.[28]

In 1580 King Henri III of France established a network of seven Sovereign Ecclesiastical Chambers in France, to deal with legal matters arising from appeals concerning all taxes imposed by diocesan agencies, as well as appeals against decisions of the diocesan agencies. Aix was the center of one of these Chambers, which included the dioceses of Aix, Apt, Gap, Fréjus, Riez, Sisteron; Marseille, Toulon, Orange (suffragans of Arles); Digne, Glandèves, Grasse, Senez and Vence (suffragans of Embrun). The Archbishop of Aix was the President of the Chamber of Aix. The Sees of Avignon, Carpentras, Cavaillon and Vaison were directly dependent upon the pope, and did not come under the jurisdiction of the king of France. They were therefore exempt from the jurisdiction of the Ecclesiastical Chamber.[29]

Revolution[edit]

In 1790 the National Constituent Assembly decided to bring the French church under the control of the State. Civil government of the provinces was to be reorganized into new units called 'départements', originally intended to be 83 or 84 in number. The dioceses of the Roman Catholic Church were to be reduced in number, to coincide as much as possible with the new departments. Since there were more than 130 bishoprics at the time of the Revolution, more than fifty dioceses needed to be suppressed and their territories consolidated.[30] Clergy would need to take an oath of allegiance to the State and its Constitution, specified by the Civil Constitution of the Clergy, and they would become salaried officials of the State. Both bishops and priests would be elected by special 'electors' in each department. This meant schism, since bishops would no longer need to be approved (preconised) by the Papacy; the transfer of bishops, likewise, which had formerly been the exclusive prerogative of the pope in canon law, would be the privilege of the State; the election of bishops no longer lay with the Cathedral Chapters (which were all abolished), or other responsible clergy, or the Pope, but with electors who did not even have to be Catholics or Christians.[31] All monasteries, convents and religious orders in France were dissolved, and their members were released from their vows by order of the National Constituent Assembly (which was uncanonical); their property was confiscated "for the public good", and sold to pay the bills of the French government.[32] Cathedral Chapters were also dissolved.[33]

A protest against the Civil Constitution of the Clergy was drawn up by the Archbishop of Aix, Jean-de-Dieu-Raimond de Boisgelin de Cucé, and it was published on 30 August 1790 with the signatures of twenty-four bishops.[34]

A new civil department, called "Bouches du Rhône", was created by the French Legislative Assembly, as part of a new Metropolitanate called "Métropole des côtes de la Méditerranée". The old diocese of Aix was suppressed, and a new "Diocese of Bouches du Rhône" was created, with its center at Aix; the head of the new diocese was named the Metropolitan of the "Métropole des côtes de la Méditerranée". On 15 February 1791 the specially chosen Electors met at Aix, and on 23 February elected the curé of Eyragues, Charles-Benoît Roux, as their bishop, by a vote of 365 out of a total of 510 Electors. None of the Catholic bishops of the Midi had been willing to take the oath to the Constitution of 1790, and therefore Roux had to be consecrated in Paris, on 3 April, by the Constitutional Bishop of Paris, Jean-Baptiste Gobel.[35] The consecration was valid, but canonically irregular, schismatic, and blasphemous (as a parody of genuine Catholic sacraments). Roux attempted to carry out his episcopal duties, but when the people of the Midi rose up against the National Convention, which had sanctioned the execution of King Louis XVI, Roux supported the insurgents. He went into hiding, but was arrested on 20 September 1793. In prison he secretly made his retraction of his errors to a non-Constitutional priest. He was executed on 5 April 1794 at Marseille by order of a Revolutionary Tribunal. The National Convention presently abolished all Religion, and substituted the Goddess of Reason. In 1795, after the Terror, when Reason was deposed and Religion restored, Aix was served by one of the Vicars General of Constitutional Bishop Roux, Jean-Baptiste-Siméon Aubert, who was appointed Bishop of "Bouches du Rhône" on 29 April 1798.[36]

Church of the Concordat[edit]

After the signing of the Concordat of 1801 with First Consul Napoleon Bonaparte, Pope Pius VII demanded the resignation of all bishops in France, in order to leave no doubt as to who was a legitimate bishop and who was a Constitutional imposter.[37] He then immediately abolished all of the dioceses in France, for the same reason. Then he began to restore the old Ancien Régime dioceses, or most of them, though not with the same boundaries as before the Revolution. The diocese of Aix was revived by Pope Pius VII in his bull Qui Christi Domini of 29 November 1801.[38] A new Archbishop of Aix was appointed, Jérôme-Marie Champion de Cicé, and Constitutional Bishop Aubert made his submission to Cicé and then travelled to Rome and sought absolution from Pope Pius VII.[39] Under the Concordat, however, Bonaparte exercised the same privileges as had the kings of France, especially that of nominating bishops for vacant dioceses, with the approval of the Pope. The practice continued until the Restoration in 1815, when the privilege of nomination returned to the hands of the King of France.[40] On the occasion of the proclamation of the Empire in 1804, Archbishop de Cicé was made a member of the Legion of Honor and a Count of the Empire.[41]

In accordance with the Concordat between Pope Pius VII and King Louis XVIII, signed on 11 June 1817, the transfer of Bishop de Bausset of Vannes to the Archdiocese of Aix was preconised on 1 October 1817. The archdiocese of Embrun remained suppressed, and its title was transferred to the Archdiocese of Aix. The Archbishop of Aix-Embrun was Metropolitan of the dioceses of Fréjus, Digne, and Gap.[42] The Concordat, however, was never ratified by the French National Assembly, which had the reputation of being more royalist than the King, and therefore, ironically, Napoleonic legislation was never removed from the legal code (as agreed in the Concordat of 1817) and the terms of the Concordat of 1817 never became state law.

In 1881 and 1882, Jules Ferry was responsible for the enactment of the Jules Ferry Laws, establishing free primary education throughout France, and mandatory secular education. The five faculties of theology (at Paris, Bordeaux, Aix, Rouen, and Lyon), which had been supported financially by the State, were suppressed.[43]

In the 1890s the Archbishop of Aix, François Xavier Gouthe-Soulard, came into increasing disrepute, both with Paris and with the Vatican, because of his support for the extreme right-wing anti-republican Congregation of the Assumption (Assumptionists). A letter of support for their newspaper, La Croix, in which Gouthe-Soulard wrote, "We are not living under a Republic, we are living under Freemasonry," brought the Archbishop a penal condemnation from the French courts in 1892.[44] He was fined 3000 francs and had his salary suspended.[45] In 1896, La Croix founded an electoral committee, the Comité Justice-Égalité, with a view to opposing Jews, Masons, and Socialists at all levels in the electoral process. Pope Leo XIII and his Secretary of State Mariano Rampolla, who did not want to offend the republicans, while still supporting the Catholic faithful, tried to moderate the views of the Assumptionists, even to the point of sending messengers to the bishops of France to explain the Pope's electoral policy.[46] For the election cycle of 1898, Senator Pierre Waldeck-Rousseau, who was a Catholic, and a conservative, but a republican and far from being an anti-Semite, formed an electoral alliance between the Opportunists and the Rallié as he ran for President of the Republic. The Assumptionists and La Croix did everything they could to disrupt this conservative-moderate alliance, and in the superheated atmosphere following the Dreyfus Affair did considerable damage. Waldeck-Rousseau never forgave them, and began legal processes against the Assumptionists as an unauthorized congregation.[47] When they were convicted in January 1900, Archbishop-Gouthe-Soulard and five other bishops published letters in La Croix, sympathizing with the plight of the Assumptionists. Nonetheless they were ordered by the Pope to cease writing. Archbishop Gouthe-Soulard came to their defense, and criticized the Pope for cutting off the index finger of his own right hand.[48] Waldeck-Rousseau then struck against the Archbishop, sending each of the six bishops a notice on 30 January that their defiance of the law was unacceptable, and informing them that their payments from the Caisses du Trésor were suspended.[49] Gouthe-Soulard died on 9 September 1900, mooting any additional actions against him.

The hostile anti-republicanism of the Catholic right, however, continued to fuel anticlericalism. In 1904, two French bishops, Pierre Geay of Laval and Albert Le Nordez of Dijon,[50] dared to announce that they were republicans, and they urged a reconciliation with the French Republic. They were ordered by Pope Pius X to resign (Le Nordez had been denounced as a freemason), and the French Chamber of Deputies replied by voting to sever diplomatic relations with the Vatican. Similarly, in 1904, as part of the liquidation of the Salesian Fathers in France, who did not have the status of an authorized congregation according to the law of 1 July 1901, the Archbishop of Aix, François-Joseph Bonnefoy, had to appear in a court in Marseille to be granted title to the domaine de Saint-Pierre-de-Canon, which had been given the Salesians as a legacy; otherwise the property would have been confiscated by the State.[51]

The high point came in 1905, with the Law on the Separation of the Churches and the State. This meant, among other things, the end of financial support on the part of the French government and all of its subdivisions of any religious group. An inventory was ordered of all places of worship that had received subsidies from the State, and all property not legally subject to a pious foundation was to be confiscated to the State. That was a violation of the Concordat of 1801. In addition the State demanded repayment of all loans and subsidies given the Churches during the term of the Concordat. On 11 February 1906, Pope Pius X responded with the encyclical Vehementer Nos, which condemned the Law of 1905 as a unilateral abrogation of the Concordat. He wrote, "That the State must be separated from the Church is a thesis absolutely false, a most pernicious error."[52] Diplomatic relations were broken, and did not resume until 1921.[53]

Bishops and Archbishops[edit]

To 1000[edit]

45? : Saint Maximin
80? : Saint Sidoine
[ca. 394–ca. 401: Triferius][54]
[439?–475: Auxanius][56]
  • 475–494: Basilius[57]
  • [5th century: Menelphalus][58]
  • c. 524–c. 541: Maximus[59]
  • c. 549–c. 554: Avolus[60]
  • c. 566: Franco[61]
  • 581–585: Pientius[62]
  • 596 [–636]: Protasius[63]
  • ...
  • 794 Ignotus[64]
  • ...
  • 828: Benedictus[65]
867?: Honoratus[66]
  • 878–879: Robert (I)[67]
  • 887: Matfridus[68]
  • 928–947: Odolricus[69]
  • 949: Israel[70]
  • 966?–979: Silvester[71]
  • c. 991–1018: Amalric I[72]

1000 to 1300[edit]

  • c. 1019: Pons (I.) (de Châteaurenard)[73]
  • 10xx?–1032: Amalric (II)[74]
  • 1032–ca. 1050: Petrus (I)[75]
  • c. 1050 – 1056: Pons (II.) de Châteaurenard[76]
  • 1056–1082: Rostan de Fos[77]
  • 1082–1101: Petrus (II) Gaufridi[78]
  • 1101–c. 1112: Petrus (III)[79]
  • 1115?–1131/1132: Fouques[80]
  • 1132–1157: Pons de Lubières
  • 1162–1165: Peter (IV)
  • 1165–1174: Hugues de Montlaur
  • 1178–1180: Bertrand de Roquevaire
  • 1180–1186: Henri
  • 1186–1212: Gui de Fos
  • 1212–1223: Bermond Cornut[81]
  • 1123–1251: Raimond Audibert[82]
  • 1251–1257: Philip I[83]
  • 1257–1273: Vicedomino de Vicedominis[84]
  • 1274–1282: Grimier Vicedominus[85]
  • 1283–1311: Rostan de Noves[86]

1300 to 1500[edit]

  • 1311–1312: Guillaume de Mandagot[87]
  • 1313–1318: Robert de Mauvoisin[88]
  • 1318–1320: Pierre des Prés[89]
  • 1321–1322: Pierre Auriol, O.Min.[90]
  • 1322–1329: Jacques de Concos, O.P.[91]
  • 1329–1348: Armand de Narcès[92]
  • 1348–1361: Arnaud de Pireto[93]
  • 1361–1368: Jean Peissoni[94]
  • 1368–1379: Giraud de Pousillac[95]
  • 1379–1395: Jean d'Agout (Avignon Obedience)[96]
  • 1396–1420: Thomas de Puppio (Avignon Obedience)[97]
1395?–1405: Jacques (Roman Obedience)[98]
  • 1420–1421: Guillaume Fillastre
  • 1422–1443: Avignon Nicolaï
  • 1443–1447: Robert Roger
  • 1447–1460: Robert Damiani
  • 1460–1484: Olivier de Pennart
  • 1484–1499: Philippe Herbert

1500 to 1800[edit]

  • 1500–1503: Christophe de Brillac[99]
  • 1503–1506: François de Brillac[100]
  • 1506–1541: Pierre Filleul[101]
  • 1541–1550: Antoine Filleul[102]
  • 1551–1566: Jean de Saint-Chamond[103]
  • 1568–1571: Lorenzo Strozzi[104]
  • 1574–1576: Julien de Médicis[105]
  • 1576–1591: Alexandre Canigiani[106]
  • 1591–1597: Gilbert Genebrard
  • 1599–1624: Paul Hurault de L'Hôpital[107]
  • 1624–1625: Gui Hurault de L'Hôpital[108]
  • 1626–1628: Alphonse de Richelieu, O.Cist.[109]
Sede vacante (1628–1631)[110]
  • 1791–1794: Charles-Benoît Roux (Constitutional Bishop)[116]
  • 1798–1801: Jean-Baptiste-Siméon Aubert (Constitutional Bishop)[117]

From 1800[edit]

  • Jérôme-Marie Champion de Cicé (9 Apr 1802 - 22 Aug 1810)[118]
Sede vacante (1810–1817)[119]

See also[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^ Fisquet, p. 7.
  2. ^ Diocese of Gap: Letter of Cardinal Re of the Congregation of Bishops
  3. ^ Duchesne, pp. 321-359.
  4. ^ Albanés, pp. 17-18. Nice presents something of a problem, since it was not a city, but only a port and a colony of Marseille.
  5. ^ Jacques Sirmond (1789). Conciliorum Galliae tam editorum quam ineditorum collectio, temporum ordine digesta (in Latin). Tomus primus. Paris: P. Didot. pp. 291–304. , at 291.
  6. ^ The acts of the Council of Aquileia (381), contain a letter written to the bishops of Narbonensis prima et secunda. Albanes, pp. 15-16.
  7. ^ Remy Ceillier (1742). Histoire générale des auteurs sacrés et écclésiastiques (in French). Tome X. Paris: Veuve Pierres. pp. 706–708.  The date of the Council of Turin is controversial, perhaps as early as 398, perhaps as late as 417, perhaps actually two councils. Marcos Mar, p. 162 note 16, in: Fear, Andrew; Urbiña, José Fernández; Marcos Sanchez, Mar (edd.) (2013). The Role of the Bishop in Late Antiquity: Conflict and Compromise. London: A&C Black/Bloomsbury Group. pp. 145–166. ISBN 978-1-78093-217-0. 
  8. ^ Karl Joseph von Hefele (1876). A History of the Councils of the Church: A.D. 326 to A.D. 429. Vol. II. Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark. pp. 426–427. 
  9. ^ Albanés, p. 27
  10. ^ Fisquet, pp. 13-15. Duchesne, pp. 279-280 no. 1.
  11. ^ Philipp Jaffé (1885). Regesta pontificum Romanorum: ab condita Ecclesia ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII (in Latin). Tomus I (altera ed.). Leipzig: Veit. pp. 49, no. 334. 
  12. ^ Monumenta Germaniae Historica: Epistolae. Mreowingici et Carolini aevi I (in Latin). Tomus III. Berlin: Weidmann. 1892. p. 42.  Albanés, pp. 15-16.
  13. ^ Constantin, pp. 75-76.
  14. ^ J. P. Migne, ed. (1862). Patrologiae cursus completus ...: Series latina (in Latin). Tomus XCVI (96). Paris: apud Garnier fratres. pp. 1215–1216. 
  15. ^ Albanés, pp. 15-16. It must be noted that this letter does not add any powers, rights, or privileges to those already existing, nor does it grant new privileges. The diocese of Aix is not mentioned, either as a metropolitan or as a suffragan.
  16. ^ Palanque, pp. 28-29.
  17. ^ Jacques Sirmond (1629). Concilia antiqua Galliae tres in tomos ordine digesta (in Latin). Tomus II. Paris: Sebastien Cramoisy. p. 196. 
  18. ^ Albanés, pp. 13-14.
  19. ^ Albanés, p. 54.
  20. ^ Gallia christiana I (Paris 1716), Instrumenta, p. 66 no. XI.
  21. ^ Albanés, p. 55.
  22. ^ Ritzler-Sefrin, V, p. 92 note 1. Rtizler-Sefrin, VI, p. 92 note 1.
  23. ^ Albanés, p. 53. P. Jaffé and S. Loewenfeld, Regesta pontificum Romanorum Tomus I, editio altera (Leipzig 1885), p. 692, nos. 5688-5690. Martin Bouquet; Jean Baptiste Haudiquier; Charles Michel Haudiquier (1806). Recueil des historiens des Gaules et de la France ... (in French and Latin). Tome quatorzième (14). Paris: Imprimerie impériale. pp. 727–728. 
  24. ^ "Praeterea primatum Aquensis metropolis, quae est Narbonensis secunda, et quidquid dignitatis vel honoris eamdem Narbonensem Ecclesiam antiquitus iure habuisse constiterit, nos quoque presentis decreti pagina inconcussum et inviolabile perpetuo manere decrevimus." J. P. Migne, ed. (1854). Patrologiae cursus completus (in Latin). Tomus CLXIII. Paris. p. 32. 
  25. ^ Gallia christiana I (Paris 1716), Instrumenta, p. 66-67, no. XII. Albanés gives the year as 1102.
  26. ^ Albanés, p. 54. Gallia christiana I (Paris 1716), Instrumenta, p. 66. Jaffé and Loewenfeld, I, p. 711, no. 5904.
  27. ^ Louis Méry (1837). Histoire de Provence (in French). Tome IV. Marseille: Barile and Bouloch. pp. 121–123.  Edouard Mechin (1892). Annales du Collège royal Bourbon d'Aix: depuis les premières démarches faites pour sa fondation jusqu'au 7 ventôse an III (in French). Tome III. Aix: J. Nicot. pp. 200–206.  Fisquet, p. 4.
  28. ^ Fisquet, p. 4.
  29. ^ Fisquet, pp. 5-6.
  30. ^ Louis Marie Prudhomme (1793). La République française en quatre-vingt-quatre départements, dictionnaire géographique et méthodique (in French). Paris: Chez l'éditeur, rue des Marais. pp. 7–11. 
  31. ^ Ludovic Sciout (1872). Historie de la constitution civile du clergé (1790-1801) ... (in French). Tome I. Paris: Firmin Didot frères, fils et cie. pp. 204–208. 
  32. ^ Pierre Brizon (1904). L'église et la révolution française des Cahiers de 1789 au Concordat (in French). Paris: Pages libres. pp. 27–30. 
  33. ^ Philippe Bourdin, "Collégiales et chapitres cathédraux au crible de l'opinion et de la Révolution," Annales historiques de la Révolution française no. 331 (janvier/mars 2003), 29-55, at 29-30, 52-53.
  34. ^ Jean-de-Dieu-Raimond de Boisgelin de Cucé (1790). Exposition des principes sur la constitution du clergé par les évêques députés à l'Assemblée nationale [rédigé par M. de Boisgelin]. (in French). Paris: l'Impr. de la Veuve Herissant.  W. Henley Jervis (1872). A History of the Church of France, from the Concordat of Bologna, A. D. 1516, to the Revolution. London: J. Murraÿ. p. 403. 
  35. ^ Paul Pisani (1907). Répertoire biographique de l'épiscopat constitutionnel (1791-1802). (in French). Paris: A. Picard et fils. p. 323. 
  36. ^ Pisani, pp. 326-328.
  37. ^ Em Sevestre; Émile Sévestre (1905). L'histoire, le texte et la destinée du Concordat de 1801 (in French). Paris: Lethielleux. pp. 238–249, 488, 496. 
  38. ^ Pius VI; Pius VII (1821). Collectio (per epitomen facta,) Bullarum, Brevium, Allocutionum, Epistolarumque, ... Pii VI., contra constitutionem civilem Cleri Gallicani, ejusque authores et fautores; item, Concordatorum inter ... Pium VII. et Gubernium Rei publicae, in Galliis, atque alia varia regimina, post modum in hac regione, sibi succedentia; tum expostulationum ... apud ... Pium Papam VII., Contra varia Acta, ad Ecclesiam Gallicanam, spectantia, a triginta et octo Episcopis, Archiepiscop. et Cardinal. antiquae Ecclesiae Gallicanae, subscriptarum, etc. 6 Avril, 1803 (in Latin). London: Cox & Baylis. pp. 111–121. 
  39. ^ Pisani, p. 327.
  40. ^ Georges Desdevises du Dezert (1908). L'église & l'état en France ...: Depuis le Concordat jusqu' nos jours (1801-1906) (in French). Paris: Société Française d'Imprimerie et de Libraire. pp. 21–22. 
  41. ^ Palanque, p. 177.
  42. ^ Concordat entre Notre Saint Père le pape et le roi très-chrétien, signé à Rome, le 11 juin 1817: avec les bulles et pièces qui y sont relatives, en latin & en françois, et la liste des évêques de France (in French and Latin). Paris: A. Le Clère. 1817. pp. 37, 43, 84. 
  43. ^ Goyau, p. 183 column 2.
  44. ^ Jacques Lafon (1987). Les prêtres, les fidèles et l'état: le ménage à trois du XIXe siècle (in French). Paris: Editions Beauchesne. p. 355. ISBN 978-2-7010-1145-5. 
  45. ^ Ruben van Luijk (2016). Children of Lucifer: The Origins of Modern Religious Satanism. Oxford University Press. p. 239. ISBN 978-0-19-027510-5. 
  46. ^ Maurice Larkin (1974). Church and State after the Dreyfus Affair: The Separation Issue in France. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK. p. 66. ISBN 978-1-349-01851-2. 
  47. ^ Larkin, pp. 85-86. Cour d'Appel (Paris) (1900). Procès des Assomptionnistes: exposé et réquisitoire du procureur de la République (in French). Paris: Société nouvelle de librairie et d'édition. 
  48. ^ Larkin, pp. 86-87.
  49. ^ Lafon, pp. 354-355.
  50. ^ Larkin, pp. 134-136. Sylvie Humbert; Jean-Pierre Royer (2007). Auteurs et acteurs de la Séparation des Églises et de l'État: actes du colloque tenu à Lille, les 29 et 30 septembre 2005 (in French). Lille: Centre d'histoire judiciaire. p. 464. ISBN 978-2-910114-17-6. 
  51. ^ Revue administrative du culte catholique. n.s. première année. Paris: Revue administrative du culte catholique. 1906. pp. 157–159. 
  52. ^ Ceslas B. Bourdin, "Church and State" in: Craig Steven Titus, ed. (2009). Philosophical Psychology: Psychology, Emotions, and Freedom. Washington DC USA: CUA Press. pp. 140–147. ISBN 978-0-9773103-6-4. 
  53. ^ J. de Fabregues (1967). "The Re-Establishment of Relations between France and the Vatican in 1921". Journal of Contemporary History. 2 (4): 163–182. JSTOR 259828. 
  54. ^ A bishop Treferius subscribed to the decrees of the Council of Nimes, c. 394–396, but it is a gratuitous assumption of Albanés inGallia christiana novissima (pp. 26-27) that he was a bishop of Aix. Albanés also cites the Council of Turin (c. 401), but in that case also the name of the See is not given. C. J. Hefele, A History of the Councils of the Church Volume II (Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark 1876), p. 405 note 7 ("His See is unknown."). Duchesne, p. 280 note 1. C. Munier, Concilia Galliae, A. 314 – A. 506 (Turnholt: Brepols 1963), p. 51.
  55. ^ Bishop Lazarus resigned voluntarily in 411. Albanés, pp. 27-29. Duchesne, p. 279-280 no. 1.
  56. ^ Auxanius is impossibly listed as Bishop of Aix along with Basilius. Some consider him a bishop of Nice, some of Marseille. Albanés, pp. 29-31. Duchesne, p. 280 note 1.
  57. ^ Basilius was a priest of Arles by 449. He is mentioned by Sidonius Apollinaris (Book VII, no. 6), but without his diocese being mentioned. Albanés, pp.31-32. Duchesne, p. 280 no. 2.
  58. ^ There is only one document referring to Menelphalus (le nom bizarre: a strange name), an inscription (10th century?) commemorating the moving of his body from the church of St. Laurence to the church of Saint-Saveur. Albanés, pp. 32-33. Duchesne, p. 281 note 5, indicating that the placing of Menelphalus in the 5th century is an arbitrary decision of Albanés, there being nothing to compare the inscription with.
  59. ^ Bishop Maximus was present at the Council at Arles (6 June 524); at the Council of Orange (3 July 529), at the Council of Vaison (5 November 529), at the Council of Marseille (26 May 533), and the Council of Orléans in 541. Albanés, pp. 33-34. Duchesne, p. 280 no. 3. Carolus De Clercq, Concilia Galliae, A. 511 – A. 695 (Turnholt: Brepols 1963), pp. 45-46, 65-66, 80-81, 85 (all without the name of the diocese).
  60. ^ Bishop Avolus was present at the Council of Orléans (549), the Council of Paris (552), and the Council of Arles (554). Duchesne, p. 280 no. 4. De Clercq, pp. 159, 168, 172.
  61. ^ Bishop Franco is known only from an incident mentioned by Gregory of Tours in his De gloria confessorum (chapter 70). Albanés, pp. 34-36. Duchesne, p. 280 no. 5.
  62. ^ Pientius is mentioned by Gregory of Tours, Historia Francorum (Book VI, chapter 11) in the context of the year 581. He was present at the Council of Mâcon on 23 October 585. Albanés, p. 36. Duchesne, p. 280 no. 5. De Clercq, pp. 249, line 373.
  63. ^ Bishop Protasius received a letter from Pope Gregory I, dated 23 July 596. Albanés, pp. 36-37 (referencing two additional charters, of 636 and 660). Duchesne, p. 280 no. 7, considers the two charters dubious and false.
  64. ^ A bishop of Aix was present at the Council of Frankfort in 794, and he was discussed in Canon 8 of that council, but his name is not recorded. J.D.-Mansi, Sacrorum conciliorum nova et amplissima collectio, editio novissima, Tomus XIII (Florence: A. Zatta 1767), p. 908. Fisquet, p. 27. Duchesne, pp. 280-281 no. 8.
  65. ^ Archbishop Benedictus was present at the Council of Lyon in 828, where he is listed as a Metropolitan. J.D.-Mansi, Sacrorum conciliorum nova et amplissima collectio, editio novissima, Tomus XIV (Florence: A. Zatta 1769), p. 607. Fisquet, p. 28. Duchesne, p. 281 no. 9.
  66. ^ Archbishop Honoratus' existence depends on a document of 4 July 1852, according to Fisquet, pp. 28-29. Albanés, pp. 39-40 and Instrumenta p. 442, dates the same document to 4 July 1867. The document identifies Honoratus as servus servorum Dei, but neither calls him Archbishop of Aix nor Metropolitan. Duchesne, p. 281 note 2, rejects the conjectures, and excludes him from the list of real bishops.
  67. ^ Archbishop Robert was already bishop when he attended the Council of Troyes in 878. He is addressed by Pope John VIII in a letter of 14 June 1879. Albanés, pp. 40-41. Duchesne, p. 281 no. 10.
  68. ^ Matfridus is mentioned only in the Life of Saint Theodard, Archbishop of Narbonne as having attended a council ad Portum in 887. J. D. Mansi (ed.), Sacrorum Conciliorum nova et amplissima collectio, editio novissima, Tomus XVIII (Venice: Antonio Zatta 1773), p. 45. Albanés, p. 41. Duchesne, p. 281 no. 11, calls the Life "un document bien suspect." The Life was already labelled as suspect by the Bollandists Henschen and Papebroch in the Acta sanctorum: Acta sanctorum Maii (in Latin). Tomus primus. Antwerp. 1680. p. 141. 
  69. ^ Odolricus: Flodoard, History of the Church of Reims, says that Bishop Odolricus, who had been driven out of Aix by the Saracens, was invited to become an auxiliary bishop in Reims for Hugues, the son of Heribert, who was too young to be consecrated. He is said to have attended the Council of Verdun in 947 (Flodoard, Book IV, chapter 33, is the only source for this supposed council). Other scholars, noting the title of Bishop rather than Archbishop, suggest that Odolricus was Bishop of Dax, not Aix (Both Aix and Dax are written Aquensis in Latin). Albanés, p. 42, quotes a document of Arles of 933, in which an Odolricus humilis episcopus subscribes. Haitze, pp. 21-23. Fisquet, pp. 30-33. Albanés, pp. 41-42.
  70. ^ Israel is known from one document, an exchange of property negotiated for the Church of Arles, for the foundation of the Abbey of Saint-Pierre de Montmajour. Fisquet, p. 34. Albanés, pp. 42-43
  71. ^ Silvester is known from two documents. One is a bull, without date but attributed to 966, addressed to him and other archbishops of southeastern France by Pope John XIII (965–972), which Philipp Jaffé (1885). Regesta pontificum Romanorum: ab condita Ecclesia ad annum post Christum natum MCXCVIII (in Latin). Tomus I (altera ed.). Leipzig: Veit. pp. 475, no. 3743. , marks as spurious. The other is the foundation document of the monastery of Vaucluse in 979. Albanés, pp. 43-44.
  72. ^ Archbishop Amalric is first recorded in a foundation charter of 4 August 991. He died ca. 1018. Fisquet, pp. 35-36. Albanés, pp. 44-45.
  73. ^ Pons (I.) consecrated a church on 15 November 1019. The name Châteaurenard is that of Pons' brother; there is no evidence that Pons used the name. Albanés, pp. 45-46.
  74. ^ Amalric is known from a single donation charter of 1032. Albanés, pp. 46-47.
  75. ^ Pierre was one of five brothers. He is known from donations or consecrations of churches in 1032, 1033, 1034, 1038, 1040, 1044, and 1048. Albanés, pp. 47-48.
  76. ^ Pons de Châteaureard was consecrated bishop by Rainaud, Archbishop of Arles, and swore the oath of obedience and reverence to the See of Arles. The same act recognizes his title as Archbishop. On 13 September 1056 he was present in company with Archbishop Rainaud in Toulouse to preside at a council ordered by Pope Victor II to deal with clerical marriage and simony. J.D.-Mansi, Sacrorum conciliorum nova et amplissima collectio, editio novissima, Tomus XIX (Venice: Antonius Zatta 1774), p. 849. Albanés, pp. 48-50.
  77. ^ It was Rostan who began the construction of the Cathedral of Saint Sauveur, claiming in an encyclical letter that he possessed the relics of Mary Magdalen and St. Maurice. He resigned in 1082. Gallia christiana I, Instrumenta, p. 65. Albanés, pp. 50-51, and Instrumenta, pp. 1-3.
  78. ^ Petrus was the son of Geoffroy, Viscount of Marseille, and was sent to the monastery of Saint-Vincent. He was Archbishop of Aix by 27 May 1082, and became a great patron and donor of his old monastery. He was at Salerno in 1085 at the time of the death of Pope Gregory VII and the election of Pope Victor III. He was in Rome again at Easter of 1094. He participated in the Council of Piacenza of Pope Urban II in March 1095, and then at the Council of Clermont in November 1095. In 1101 he resigned the diocese of Aix and retired to the Abbey of Saint-Vincent de Marseille. He was still alive at Christmas, 1104. Albanés, pp. 51-53.
  79. ^ In 1112 Archbishop Petrus (III) conducted the first ever provincial council in Aix. Albanés, pp. 53-54.
  80. ^ Fouques had previously been Provost of the Cathedral Chapter. His successor was elected before 15 May 1132. Albanés, pp. 53-54.
  81. ^ Bermondus was Canon (1185) and Provost (1202) of Saint-Sauveur, and then Bishop of Fréjus (1206–1212), when he was elected Archbishop of Aix. He died on 7 April 1223. Albanés, pp. 64-66. Eubel, I, p. 96.
  82. ^ Raimond had been Canon (1211) Provost (1215) of the Cathedral Chapter of Saint-Sauveur. He was Archbishop-elect on 25 January 1224. He resigned before 7 March 1251, when Pope Innocent IV ordered the election of a successor. He died on 6 October 1252. Albanés, pp. 66-68. Eubel, I, p. 96 with note 1.
  83. ^ Master Philippus was Chaplain, Councillor, and agent of Charles of Anjou, Comte de Province. He was also a papal Chaplain and Canon of Orléans. Albanés conjectures that since Pope Innocent IV visited Aix on his journey from Lyon to Marseille on 25–29 April 1251, that it must have been on that occasion that he confirmed the election of Archbishop Philip. There is, however, no evidence on the point. Archbishop Philip died on 10 February 1257. Albanés, pp. 68-70. Eubel, I, p. 96.
  84. ^ Vicedomino was Archdeacon of Aix before his election to the Archbishopric. He was the nephew of Te(o)daldus Visconti of Piacenza, who was elected pope on 1 September 1271, and who returned from the Holy Land to accept the office in January 1272. He made his nephew a cardinal on 3 June 1273, and appointed him Bishop of Palestrina. Vicedomino died on 6 September 1276. Albanés, pp. 70-73. Eubel, I, p. 96. Neither authority believes that Vicedomino was elected pope and died within 24 hours.
  85. ^ A near relation of Archbishop Vicedomino, he was brought from Piacenza, and found places in the church of Aix, first as official of the Archbishop, then Archpriest, Canon-supernumerary, and Archdeacon. He became the Archbishop's Vicar General. When Vicedomino was promoted cardinal, the Chapter elected Bishop Alain of Sisteron to replace him, but in a move of family solidarity, Gregory X quashed the election and appointed Grimier on 13 January 1274. He died on 30 November 1282. Albanés, pp. 70-71. Eubel, I, p. 96 with note 3.
  86. ^ It took eight months for the Cathedral Chapter to elect Rostagnus de Novis. He had been Canon of Marseille and Canon of Aix. He was granted his bulls by Pope Martin IV on 17 August 1283. Due to his advanced age, he was granted two Coadjutors in 1310, Guillaume d'Étienne, and Augéry du Pont-de Sorgue. He died on 30 January 1311. Albanés, pp. 74-76. Eubel, I, p. 96.
  87. ^ Guillaume, a noted canon lawyer, had been Archbishop of Embrun for six years, and had been consecrated by Pope Boniface VIII. He was recalled to Rome to help in the composition of the Sixth Book of the Decretals. He had also served as papal Legate to Spain to confirm the peace between Charles II of Naples and James II of Aragon. On his return to Rome he was named Rector of the Venaissin, and on 26 May 1311 he was named Archbishop of Aix.
  88. ^ Robert was the nephew of Cardinal Guilelmus Rufati of Santa Pudenziana. He was already archdeacon of Sablé, Bishop of Salerno (1310–1313), and Papal Treasurer. He was transferred to Aix by Pope Clement V on 6 August 1313. He resigned on 9 September 1318. The new Pope, John XXII, disliked him and wanted him gone. In the face of a number of charges, the primary of which was magic (and to which were added simony, sexual incontenence, acts of violence, wild hunting parties, public scandal, and blasphemy), Robert resigned, despite promises of fair justice. Albanés, p. 77-79. Eubel, I, p. 96; 429 with note 7. Joseph Shatzmiller, Justice et injustice au début du XIVe siècle : L'enquête sur l'archevêque d'Aix et sa renonciation en 1318, Rome, École française de Rome, 1999. ISBN 2-7283-0569-2 (in French)
  89. ^ A native of Cahors like Pope John XXII, des Prés had been a Professor of Law at Toulouse. John XXII made him his Chaplain, and Provost of Clermont. He was assigned to handle the case against Robert de Mauvoisin, and was named Bishop of Riez on 31 March 1318. After Mauvoisin resigned he was granted the Archbishopric of Aix on 11 September 1318, two days after the forced resignation of his predecessor. He was named a cardinal by John XXII on 19/20 December 1320, and appointed Bishop of Palestrina on 25 May 1323. He died on 30 September 1361. Albanés, pp. 79-80. Eubel, I, pp. 15 no. 12, 96, 417.
  90. ^ Auriol was appointed by the General Chapter of the Franciscan Order to teach the Sentences at Paris in 1318. In 1319 he was elected Minister of the province of Aquitaine. He was appointed Archbishop of Aix on 27 February 1321, and consecrated personally by Pope John XXII on 14 June 1321. He died at the Papal Court on 10 January 1322. Albanés, pp. 80-81. Eubel, I, pp. 96.
  91. ^ Concos was a Dominican, who became an Apostolic Penitentiary and Confessor of John XXII. He was named Bishop of Lodève (1318–1322), and was consecrated on 9 April 1318 by Cardinal Guillaume de Mandagot, Bishop of Palestrina. He established the Dominican convent of Clermont-de-l'Hérault. John XXII then transferred him to the diocese of Aix on 9 July 1322. He died in Avignon on 1 May 1329. Albanés, pp. 82-83. Eubel, I, pp. 96, 310 with note 4.
  92. ^ Armandus de Narcesio was Dean of the Cathedral Chapter of Chartres, Canon of Cahors (1326), papal Chaplain, and (only) a Subdeacon. He was appointed Archbishop of Aix by Pope John XXII on 19 July 1329. In 1331 he was sent by the Pope to Spain to make peace between the King of Majorca and the Comte de Foix. In 1342 he was sent again, to make peace between the King of Majorca and the King of Aragon. He died of the plague on 21 July 1348. Albanés, pp. 83-86; and Instrumenta, pp. 59-60. Eubel, I, p. 96.
  93. ^ Arnaud was the grand-nephew of Cardinal Bertrand de Pouget, and therefore great-grandnephew of Pope John XXII. In 1329 Pope John made him Dean of the Church of Tescou, for which he required a dispensation, being only in his 19th year. He was sent to study law, though he was also given a Canonry at Metz and another at Bourgos to help cover his expenses. Benedict XII gave him a Canonry at Tours, and Clement VI a Canonry and prebend at Lodève. He became a Doctor in utroque iure (Civil and Canon Law), and on 14 August 1348 was named Archbishop of Aix. After taking possession, he only visited his diocese once. On 16 June 1361, Arnaud was named Patriarch of Alexandria and given the administration of the diocese of Montaubon. He was named a cardinal on 22 September 1368 by Pope Urban V, but died shortly thereafter. Albanés, pp. 86-88. Eubel, I, pp. 21 no. 5, 82, 96, 347.
  94. ^ Jean was the nephew (or son) of the architect of the Papal Palace at Avignon. He was Canon of the cathedral of Béziers, Prebend of S. Afrodise, and parish priest of Escueillens (Narbonne) (1338). He obtained a licenciate in Canon Law, and became a papal chaplain. In 1341 he was appointed Bishop of Digne, and was consecrated by Cardinal Pierre des Prés. He was named Archbishop of Aix by Pope Innocent VI on 2 August 1361. He died on 10 October 1368. Albanés, pp. 88-90. Eubel, I, p. 96.
  95. ^ Giraud was a nephew of Cardinal Bertrand de Deaulx, and cousin of Cardinal Jean de Blauzac. He was an author on canon law. He was named Canon of Embrun and Canon of Liège, and curate of three parishes in various dioceses (all obviously benefices, not occupations). In 1360 he became Provost of the Cathedral Chapter of Embrun, and on 4 December 1368 he was appointed Archbishop of Aix by Pope Urban V. He died on 23 March 1379. Albanés, pp. 90-92. Eubel, I, p. 96.
  96. ^ Agout was named by Clement VII on 1 June 1379. Eubel, I, p. 96.
  97. ^ Puppio had previously been Bishop of Grasse (1382–1389), and then Bishop of Orvieto. He was named Archbishop of Aix on 22 December 1396 by Benedict XIII, after the election of Guillaume Fabri had been quashed on the day before. He died on 10 February 1420. Eubel, I, p. 96; 267; 508 note 10.
  98. ^ Jacques' origins are unknown. He was appointed Archbishop of Aix by a pope unknown, but not one of the Avignon Obedience. He never visited Aix, was never installed, and never received its revenues. He was never recognized in France. He lived off the revenues of two Roman churches, Santa Prassede and Santa Susanna, granted him by Innocent VII (Roman Obedience) in 1404 and 1405. His later life is unknown. Albanés, p. 96. Albanés' conjecture that he was appointed in 1395 or 1396, following the death of Thomas de Puppio of the Avignon Obedience, is weak. It could have been 1404, based on the evidence.
  99. ^ On 22 December 1503 Pope Julius II named Archbishop Christophe Brillac to the diocese of Orléans, which had up to that point been held by his uncle, and, to preserve his title of Archbishop, also named him titular Archbishop of Trajanopolis in Thrace (Ottoman Empire) (on 22 September 1503, or on 19 January 1504, according to Eubel). In François' bull of appointment to Aix on 22 December 1503, however, Christopher is referred to as late Archbishop of Aix and Archbishop of Trajanopolis effective on 22 December. He became Archbishop of Tours on 3 July 1514, and died on 31 July 1520. Albanés, pp. 110-111; and Instrumenta, p. 89. Eubel, III, pp. 112, 316, 321.
  100. ^ François de Brillac, the uncle of Christophe de Brillac, was granted his bulls for Aix on 22 December 1503 (according to Albanés), or 22 December 1504 (according to Eubel, who appears very confused on the careers of the two Brillacs). He died at Orléans on 17 January 1506. Albanés, pp. 111-112; and Instrumenta, p. 89. Eubel, III, pp. 112, 124.
  101. ^ Petrus Filioli (Philholi) had been Treasurer of the Cathedral Chapter of Avignon, and Papal Nuncio to King Louis XII. He had also been Bishop of Sisteron (1504-1506), though up to the point of his appointment to Aix he was living in Rome as Majordomo to the Pope. On 9 March 1506 he was named by Pope Julius II to be Archbishop of Aix, though he did not turn up in Aix until 8 October 1508. Suspecting his loyalty in connection with the Conciliabulum of Pisa in 1510, Pope Julius secretly ordered Filleul's arrest, which lasted over two years. He was Governor of Paris and of the Ile de France (attested in 1521). In his senility, at the age of 90, he was granted a Coadjutor, on 9 March 1530, who was allowed the right to be consecrated on 23 August 1532. He died in Paris on 22 January 1541 at the age of 102. Albanés, pp. 112-115. Eubel, III, pp. 112, 301.
  102. ^ Antoine Filleul (Philholi was the Latin spelling) was nephew of Archbishop Pierre.
  103. ^ Saint-Chamond, who was only twenty-seven years old, and a Canon of Lyon, but not in holy orders, was nominated by King Henri II, and approved in Consistory by Pope Paul IV on 19 January 1551. He was summoned to Rome in 1562 to answer charges of holding Lutheran and other heterodox opinions; he did not comply, citing Gallican liberties. After lengthy investigation and canonical procedures, he was excommunicated by Pope Pius V on 13 April 1563. After three years of increasingly public and grave offenses, he was deposed and deprived of his diocese on 11 December 1566. He subsequently married. Death took him on 25 June 1578. Albanés, pp. 118-120. Eubel, III, p. 112.
  104. ^ Strozzi's mother was Clarice de' Medici, niece of Pope Leo X. He was Bishop of Béziers at the age of 27. He was named a cardinal by Pope Paul IV (Carafa) on 15 March 1557. He was Administrator of the diocese of Albi when he was named Archbishop of Aix on 6 February 1568. He died at Avignon on 14 December 1571. Albanés, pp. 121-123, and Instrumenta, pp. 103-104. Eubel, III, p. 35 no. 11.
  105. ^ Giuliano de' Medici was the son of Francesco de' Medici and Maria Soderini, and thus the cousin of Cardinal Lorenzo Strozzi and of Queen Marie de Medicis. He had been Bishop of Béziers (1561–1574), in succession to Cardinal Strozzi. He was transferred to the diocese of Aix by Pope Gregory XIII in the Consistory of 29 May 1574, though he enjoyed the income of the diocese since 18 January 1573, thanks to lettres-patents of Charles IX. He was transferred to the diocese of Albi on 28 March 1576. He died on 28 July 1588. Albanés, pp. 123-126. Eubel, III, pp. 101, 112, 135.
  106. ^ Canigiani was a cousin of Giuliano de Medicis, through common Soderini relatives. Alexander was a follower of Cardinal Carlo Borromeo of Milan. He was Doctor in utroque iure (Civil and Canon Law) and a Referendary of the Two Signatures in the Roman Curia, and Abbreviator de parco majore. His bulls for Aix were approved on 28 March 1576. He was careful and vigorous in applying the decrees of the Council of Trent to his diocese, which he visited with care. He died in Rome on 31 March 1591. Albanés, pp. 123-126. Eubel, III, p. 112.
  107. ^ Paul Hurault was the grandson of Michel de l'Hôpital, Chancellor of France. He was confirmed in Consistory by Pope Clement VIII on 10 March 1599. On 2 April 1618, due to advanced age, he was granted a Coadjutor, Guy Huralt de l'Hôpital, who was granted the title of bishop of Augustopolis in Phrygia (Turkey). Paul Hurault died in September 1624. Albanés, pp. 133-135. Gauchat, Hierarchia catholica IV, p. 89 with note 2.
  108. ^ Guy Hurault died on 3 December 1625. Albanés, pp. 135-136. Gauchat, IV, p. 89 note 3.
  109. ^ Alphonse Duplessis de Richelieu was the brother of Cardinal Armand Duplessis de Richelieu, Minister of State of King Louis XIII. The minister had Alphonse appointed three days after the death of Huralt. He was approved by Pope Urban VIII on 27/28 April 1626. He was transferred to Lyon on 27 November 1628, and was named a cardinal on 19 November 1629. He died at Lyon on 24 March 1653. Albanés, pp. 136-138. Gauchat, IV, pp. 89, 226 with note 6.
  110. ^ Albanés, p. 138.
  111. ^ Bretel was Dean of the Cathedral Chapter of Rouen, and Councilor of the Parliament of Normandy. He was granted the revenues of the diocese of Aix by Louis XIII on 30 September 1630. He was confirmed in Consistory by Pope Urban VIII on 6 October 1631, and consecrated in Rouen on 11 January 1632 by Archbishop François de Harlay. Gauchet, IV, p. 89.
  112. ^ Daniel de Cosnac had previously been Bishop of Valence-et-Die (1655– ?). He was nominated Archbishop of Aix by King Louis XIV in February 1687, and confirmed by Pope Innocent XII on 9 November 1693. The rupture in diplomatic relations between Louis XIV and the Vatican prevented the issuance of the appropriate bulls until after the deaths of Innocent XI and Alexander VIII. Cosnac died on 20 January 1708. Fisquet, pp. 187-196. Albanés, pp. 144-147. Gauchat, IV, p. 357 with note 4. Ritzler-Sefrin, Hierarchia catholica, V, p. 92 with note 2.
  113. ^ Vintimille had previously been Bishop of Marseille He was nominated Archbishop of Aix by King Louis XIV on 10 February 1708, and confirmed by Pope Clement XI on 14 May 1708. He was transferred to the diocese of Paris on 17 August 1729. He died in Paris on 13 March 1746 in his ninety-first year. Fisquet, pp. 196-222. Albanés, pp. 147-149. Ritzler-Sefrin, V, p. 93 with note 3.
  114. ^ Brancas had previously been Canon and Dean of the Cathedral Chapter of Lisieux, royal Aumonier, and then Bishop of La Rochelle (1725-1729). He was nominated Archbishop of Aix by King Louis XV on 14 June 1729, and confirmed by Pope Benedict XIII on 17 August 1729. He died on 30 August 1770. Fisquet, pp. 222-227. Albanés, pp. 149-151. Ritzler-Sefrin, V, p. 93 with note 4; 337 with note 5.
  115. ^ Boisgelin had previously been Vicar General of Rouen, and then Bishop of Lavaur (1765–1771). He was nominated Archbishop of Aix on 4 November 1770 by King Louis XV, and transferred by Pope Clement XIV on 17 June 1771. He resigned before 7 November 1801, obeying the request of Pope Pius VII. He was named Archbishop of Tours on 16 April 1802, and was named a Cardinal on 17 January 1803. He died on 22 August 1804. Fisquet, pp. 227-239. Albanés, pp. 151-153. Ritzler-Sefrin, Hierarchia catholica VI, p. 92 with note 2; 433 with note 3. E. Lavaquery, Le Cardinal de Boisgelin (1732-1804). Tome i, Un Prélat d'Ancien Régime. Tome ii, La Révolution, l'Exil, Le Concordat, (Paris: Plon-Nourrit 1921).
  116. ^ Roux was elected by the Electors of 'Bouches-du-Rhône' on 23 February 1791. He was executed by order of a Revolutionary Tribunal on 5 April 1794. Pisani, pp. 323-325.
  117. ^ Aubert had been Vicar-General of Bishop Roux. He was named Bishop of 'Bouches-du-Rhône' by the bishops of the 'Metropole des côtes de la Méditerranée' on 29 April 1798. When the Concordat went into effect in 1801, Aubert made a complete submission to Archbishop de Cucé and travelled to Rome to receive absolution from Pope Pius VII. He died on 16 February 1816. Pisani, pp. 326-328.
  118. ^ Champion de Cicé was consecrated as Bishop of Rodez on 26 August 1770 by Cardinal de la Roche-Aymon, Archbishop of Reims. He was transferred to the diocese of Bordeaux on 2 April 1781 by Pope Pius VI, and resigned on 7 October 1801 at the command of Pope Pius VII. On 9 April 1802 he was named Archbishop of Aix by Pius VII. He died on 22 August 1810. Albanés, pp. 153-154. "P.", in: L'épiscopat français... (1907), pp. 11-12. Ritzler-Sefrin, VI, pp. 134, 361.
  119. ^ Pope Pius VII was held prisoner by Napoleon Bonaparte at Fontainebleau from 1809 to 1815. He was deprived of his advisors, including the Cardinals. The Emperor Bonaparte had nominated Bishop Duvoisin of Nantes to the Archbishopric, but he refused. Then the Emperor nominated Bishop Jauffret of Metz, but on 16 January 1811 the Cathedral Chapter was only willing to vote him the position of Vicar Capitular. The episcopal throne remained vacant. Palanque, p. 177.
  120. ^ Bausset-Roquefort was Bishop of Vannes (1807–1817), consecrated by Archbishop Champion de Cicé on 25 May 1808. He was nominated Archbishop of Aix by King Louis XVIII on 8 August 1817, and preconised (approved) by Pope Pius VII on 1 October 1817. He was installed on 13 November 1819. During his administration the diocese of Aix lost territory to the reestablished dioceses of Fréjus and Marseille. He died on 29 January 1829. Albanés, pp. 154-155. René Kerviler, in: L'épiscopat français... (1907), pp. 667-668. "P.", in: L'épiscopat français... (1907), p. 13.
  121. ^ Richery was consecrated Bishop of Fréjus on 20 July 1823 by Archbishop Bausset-Roquefort. He was nominated to succeed Bausset-Roquefort on 8 February 1829, and the transfer was approved by Pope Pius VIII on 27 July 1829. He was installed at Aix on 12 September 1829, and died on 25 November 1830. Albanés, pp. 155-156. "P.", in: L'épiscopat français... (1907), pp. 13-14.
  122. ^ Raillon: Albanés, pp. 156-157. "P.", in: L'épiscopat français... (1907), p. 14.
  123. ^ Bernet: Albanés, pp. 157-158. "P.", in: L'épiscopat français... (1907), p. 15.
  124. ^ Darcimoles: Albanés, pp. 158-159. "P.", in: L'épiscopat français... (1907), pp. 15-16.
  125. ^ Chalandon: Albanés, pp. 159-160. "P.", in: L'épiscopat français... (1907), pp. 16-17.
  126. ^ Forcade: Albanés, pp. 161-162. "P.", in: L'épiscopat français... (1907), p. 17.
  127. ^ Gouthe-Soulard: Albanés, pp. 162-164. "P.", in: L'épiscopat français... (1907), pp. 18-19.
  128. ^ Bonnefoy had been a member of the Congrégation des Oblats, but was secularized when the Congregation was dissolved. H. Espitalier (1904). Les évêques de Fréjus (in French). Fréjus: Latel. p. 188. 

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Coordinates: 43°31′57″N 5°27′05″E / 43.53250°N 5.45139°E / 43.53250; 5.45139