Alkaline hydrolysis (death custom)

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Alkaline hydrolysis (also called biocremation, resomation,[1][2] flameless cremation, or water cremation[3]) is a process for the disposal of human remains which produces less carbon dioxide and pollutants than cremation. The process is being marketed as an alternative to the traditional options of burial or cremation.

Process[edit]

The process is based on alkaline hydrolysis: the body is placed in a pressure vessel that is then filled with a mixture of water and lye, and heated to a temperature around 160 °C (320 °F), but at an elevated pressure, which prevents boiling. Instead, the body is effectively broken down into its chemical components, which takes approximately four to six hours. A lower temperature and pressure may be used, but at a longer duration (98 °C (208 °F), 14 to 16 hours).[4] At the beginning of the process, the mixture is strongly basic, with a pH level of approximately 14; pH drops to 11 by the end, but the final pH level depends on the total operation time and the amount of fat in the body.[5]

Alkaline hydrolysis treatment times of infected animal carcasses[5]
Pathogen Temperature Pressure Time
Microbal 212 °F
100 °C
15 psi
100 kPa
3 hours
TSE 300 °F
149 °C
70 psi
480 kPa
6 – 8 hours

The end result is a quantity of green-brown tinted liquid (containing amino acids, peptides, sugars and salts) and soft, porous white bone remains (calcium phosphate) easily crushed in the hand (although a cremulator is more commonly used) to form a white-colored dust. The "ash" can then be returned to the next of kin of the deceased. The liquid is disposed of either through the sanitary sewer system, or through some other method, including use in a garden or green space.[citation needed] To dispose of 1,000 pounds (450 kg), approximately 60–240 US gallons (230–910 l; 50–200 imp gal) of water are used, resulting in 120–300 US gallons (450–1,140 l; 100–250 imp gal) of effluent, which carries a dried weight of 20 pounds (9.1 kg) (approximately 2% of original weight).[5]

This alkaline hydrolysis process has been championed by a number of ecological campaigning groups,[6] for using 90 kW-hr of electricity,[7] one-quarter the energy of flame-based cremation and producing less carbon dioxide and pollutants.[1][3] It also produces no mercury emissions.[8] It is being presented as an alternative option at some British crematorium sites.[9] As of August 2007, about 1,000 people had chosen this method for the disposition of their remains in the United States.[10] Excluding the capital investment cost of equipment, the operating cost of materials, maintenance, and labor associated with the disposal of 2,000 pounds (910 kg) of remains was estimated at $116.40.[5]

Alkaline hydrolysis has also been adopted by the pet and animal industry. A handful of companies in North America offer the procedure as an alternative to pet cremation.[11] Alkaline hydrolysis is also used to sterilize animal carcasses in the agricultural industry which may pose a health hazard, since the process inactivates viruses, bacteria, and transmissible spongiform encephalopathy.[5][12]

History[edit]

The process was originally developed as a method to process animal carcasses into plant food, patented by Amos Herbert Hobson in 1888.[4][13][7]

Religious views[edit]

In Christian countries and cultures, cremation has historically been discouraged, but now in many denominations it is accepted.[14]

The Roman Catholic Church permits ordinary cremation of bodies as long as it is not done in denial of the beliefs in the sacredness of the human body or the resurrection of the dead.[15]

When alkaline hydrolysis was proposed in New York state the New York State Catholic Conference condemned the practice, stating that hydrolysis does not show sufficient respect for the teaching of the intrinsic dignity of the human body.[16]

Legal status[edit]

United States[edit]

Alkaline hydrolysis as a method of final disposition of human remains is currently legal in fourteen states,[3][17] including Oregon, Minnesota, Maryland, Maine, Kansas, Illinois, Florida, Colorado, Georgia, Wyoming, Idaho, and Nevada. Additional rules are pending in California, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, and Pennsylvania.[18] The process was legal in New Hampshire for several years but amid opposition by religious lobby groups it was banned in 2008[19] and a proposal to legalize it was rejected in 2013.[20][21] Alkaline hydrolysis has been used for cadavers donated for research at the University of Florida since the mid 1990s and at the Mayo Clinic[1] since 2005.[22] UCLA uses the process to dispose of donor bodies.[2]

List of states where alkaline hydrolysis of human remains is permitted
  • Colorado (2011, HB11-1178)[23]
  • Florida (2010, SB1152)[24]
  • Georgia (2012, HB933)[25]
  • Idaho (2014)
  • Illinois (2012, SB1830)
  • Kansas (2011, HB2310)
  • Maine (2009, 144 CMR 244)
  • Maryland (2011, HB995)
  • Michigan
  • Minnesota (2003)
  • Nevada (2017, AB205)[26]
  • Oregon (2009, SB796)
  • Vermont
  • Wyoming (2014, HB25)
List of states with conditional allowance of alkaline hydrolysis
  • California (1995) Alkaline hydrolysis is used at UCLA for donated cadavers. Assembly Bill no. 967 (2017) is being considered to make alkaline hydrolysis legal in the state.[27] Previously, AB 1615 (2012) was advanced and passed the Assembly, but died in Senate.[28]
List of states explicitly prohibiting alkaline hydrolysis of human remains
  • New Hampshire (2008, SB332)[21]

Canada[edit]

Saskatchewan approved the process in 2012, becoming the first province to do so.[29] Quebec and Ontario have also legalized the process.[30] A funeral home in Granby, Quebec has become the first to receive an alkaline hydrolysis machine in the province.[31]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c "Biocremation (Resomation) - Body Donation - Mayo Clinic". mayoclinic.org. Retrieved 4 September 2017. 
  2. ^ a b "Bio Cremation - UCLA Donated Body Program". ucla.edu. 
  3. ^ a b c McClurg, Lesley (July 24, 2017). "Want to Cut Your Carbon Footprint? Get Liquefied When You’re Dead". KQED. Retrieved 4 September 2017. 
  4. ^ a b Stockton, Nick (10 March 2017). "The Fight to Legalize a Machine That Melts Flesh From Bone". Wired. Retrieved 4 September 2017. 
  5. ^ a b c d e "Alkaline hydrolysis". Managing Contaminated Animal and Plant Materials: Field Guide on Best Practices (PDF). Texas A&M University. Retrieved 4 September 2017. 
  6. ^ The Groovy Green website is one example of such sites.
  7. ^ a b Rothstein, Karla Maria (November 12, 2013). "Reconfiguring Urban Spaces of Disposal, Sanctuary, and Remembrance". In Staudt, Christina; Ellens, J. Harold. Our Changing Journey to the End: Reshaping Death, Dying, and Grief in America. Santa Barbara, California: Praeger. p. 262. ISBN 9781440828461. Retrieved 4 September 2017. 
  8. ^ "Bio Cremation Equipment - Matthews Cremation". www.matthewscremation.com. Retrieved 2016-09-18. 
  9. ^ See the October 2007 Newsletter of Worthing Crematorium, operated by Worthing Borough Council in West Sussex, England.
  10. ^ "UK firm: Don't burn bodies, boil them". Physorg News. 2007-08-06. 
  11. ^ "New ‘petuary’ liquifies deceased pets, green alternative to cremation". Los Angeles Daily News. 
  12. ^ Kaye, G; Weber, P; Evans, A; Venezia, R (May 1998). "Efficacy of Alkaline Hydrolysis as an Alternative Method for Treatment and Disposal of Infectious Animal Waste". Contemp Top Lab Anim Sci. 37 (3): 43–46. Retrieved 4 September 2017. 
  13. ^ US 394982, Amos Herbert Hobson, "Process of separating gelatine from bones", published 25 December 1888 
  14. ^ Gassmann, Günther; Larson, Duane H.; Oldenburg, Mark W. (4 April 2001). Historical Dictionary of Lutheranism. Scarecrow Press. p. 48. ISBN 9780810866201. Retrieved 22 April 2014. Cremation was unheard of from the time Charlemagne outlawed it (784) until the 17th century. At that point, the practice was urged primarily by those opposed to the church, and for a long time cremation was forbidden by Roman Catholicism and practiced only reluctantly by Protestants. Recently, these strictures have eased, and more and more churches have established columbaria or memorial gardens within their precincts for the reception of the ashes by the faithful. 
  15. ^ "Catholics and Cremation: Questions and Answers from the Bishops of New York State". New York State Catholic Conference. December 6, 2002. 
  16. ^ "NY Catholic conference opposes 'chemical digestion' of human remains". Mar 25, 2012. 
  17. ^ Bowdler, Neil (2011-08-31). "New body 'liquefaction' unit unveiled in Florida funeral home". BBC News. 
  18. ^ Biocremation (2015-01-01). "State Legislation". biocremationinfo.com. Retrieved 2017-04-09. 
  19. ^ "States consider: Is it legal to dissolve bodies?". msnbc.com. 
  20. ^ "New Hampshire Senate Rejects Proposal For Alkaline Hydrolysis". Connecting Directors Funeral News. 3 May 2013. 
  21. ^ a b New Hampshire General Court (2008), SB332 (2008): prohibiting the disposal of human remains through a reductive process utilizing alkaline hydrolysis in New Hampshire and establishing a committee to examine the practice of resomation. 
  22. ^ ABC News. "New in mortuary science: Dissolving bodies with lye". ABC News. 
  23. ^ Looper; Fields; Labuda; Nikkel; Schafer, S; Stephens; Todd; Vigil; Wilson; Williams, S. (3 February 2011). "Concerning the regulation of persons who dispose of human remains in the ordinary course of lawful business" (PDF). Colorado Legislature. Retrieved 5 September 2017. 
  24. ^ "Chapter 2010-125: Florida Funeral, Cemetary [sic]], and Consumer Services Act". Florida Department of State. 2010. Retrieved 5 September 2017. 
  25. ^ Rogers, Carl; Williams, Roger; Brockway, Buzz; Miller, Butch (7 February 2012). "HB 933: Preneed escrow accounts; release funds when a monument is placed into a bonded memorial storage program; provide". Georgia General Assembly. Retrieved 5 September 2017. 
  26. ^ Araujo, Nelson (13 February 2017). "An Act relating to cremation; authorizing the use of alkaline hydrolysis for cremation; requiring notice be provided to certain entitites relating to a crematory which intends to use alkaline hydrolysis for cremation; revision provisions relating to the location of a crematory; and providing other matters properly relating thereto". Nevada Legislature. Retrieved 5 September 2017. 
  27. ^ Gloria, Todd (16 February 2017). "AB-967 Human remains disposal: alkaline hydrolysis: licensure and regulation". California Secretary of State. Retrieved 5 September 2017. 
  28. ^ Miller, Jeff (8 February 2012). "AB-1615 Human remains". California Secretary of State. Retrieved 5 September 2017. 
  29. ^ Christianson, Adriana (November 28, 2012). "Liquifying bodies new cremation technique offered in Saskatchewan". News Talk 650 CKOM. Rawlco Communications. Retrieved 2012-11-28. 
  30. ^ Cohen, Jeremy (November 17, 2015). "Bio Cremation: A Greener Way To Die?". Retrieved 2015-11-17. 
  31. ^ Quenneville-Girard, Romy (April 1, 2015). "La bio-crémation débarque à Granby". Granby Express. Retrieved 2015-04-01. 

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