Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Saint Paul and Minneapolis
Archdiocese of Saint Paul and Minneapolis
Archidiocesis Paulopolitana et Minneapolitana
Cathedral of Saint Paul
|Ecclesiastical province||Saint Paul and Minneapolis|
|Area||6,187 sq mi (16,020 km2)|
|(as of 2017)|
|Sui iuris church||Latin Church|
|Established||July 19, 1850 (170 years ago)|
|Cathedral||Cathedral of Saint Paul (Saint Paul)|
|Co-cathedral||Basilica of Saint Mary (Minneapolis)|
|Patron saint||Saint Paul|
|Auxiliary Bishops||Andrew H. Cozzens|
|Bishops emeritus||John Clayton Nienstedt|
Lee A. Piché
The Archdiocese of Saint Paul and Minneapolis (Latin: Archidioecesis Paulopolitana et Minneapolitana) is a diocese of the Catholic Church in the United States. It is led by an archbishop who administers the archdiocese from the cities of Saint Paul and Minneapolis. The archbishop has both a cathedral and co-cathedral: the mother church, the Cathedral of Saint Paul in Saint Paul and the co-cathedral, the Basilica of Saint Mary in Minneapolis.
The archdiocese has 188 parish churches in twelve counties of Minnesota. It counts in its membership an approximate total of 750,000 people. It has two seminaries, the Saint Paul Seminary School of Divinity and Saint John Vianney College Seminary. Its official newspaper is The Catholic Spirit.
In 1680, a waterfall on the Upper Mississippi River was noted observed in a journal by Father Louis Hennepin, a Belgian Franciscan Recollect and explorer. Hennepin named them the Chutes de Saint-Antoine or the Falls of Saint Anthony after his patron saint, Anthony of Padua.
In 1727 René Boucher de La Perrière and Michel Guignas built Fort Beauharnois on the shore of Lake Pepin. It was the site of the first Roman Catholic chapel in Minnesota, which was dedicated to St. Michael the Archangel. Eventually it was abandoned as the French sent most of their troops to the east to fight the British in the French and Indian War.
Some French-speaking colonists from Switzerland, having migrated from their original settlements near Fort Garry in Canada to a place seven or eight miles below Saint Anthony Falls, Bishop Loras of Dubuque, whose diocese included the entire region now called Minnesota, visited Fort Snelling and the nearby Swiss settlement in 1839, which was called Saint Pierre. In the following year he sent a missionary to Minnesota, Father Lucien Galtier. Galtier learned that a number of settlers, who had left the Red River Colony, had settled on the east bank of the Mississippi River. He decided that the area with the settlers was a better location for a church as it was near a steamboat landing, which had the potential for later development. Two French settlers offered a location for a church, and other settlers provided materials and labor to build a log chapel. Father Galtier wrote, "I had previously to this time fixed my residence at Saint Peter's and as the name of Paul is generally connected with that of Peter... I called it Saint Paul." With the gradual increase of population about the chapel, the community developed into a village known as Saint Paul's Landing.
The original see was canonically erected by Pope Pius IX on July 19, 1850 as the Diocese of Saint Paul of Minnesota, a suffragan episcopal see of the Archdiocese of Saint Louis. The Diocese's territory was taken from that of Dubuque, and its authority spread over all of Minnesota Territory, which consisted of the area which now composes the states of Minnesota, North Dakota and South Dakota and also comprises the modern archdiocese's ecclesiastical province. Its first Ordinary was Bishop Joseph Crétin. In addition to the French Canadians large contingents of Irish and German Catholics arrived, who located in St. Paul, and in places along the Mississippi, St. Croix, and Minnesota Rivers. In November 1851, the Sisters of St. Joseph of Carondelet came to St. Paul, and soon opened schools at St. Paul and St. Anthony Falls.
In January 1859, Thomas Grace was named Bishop of St. Paul. The number of Catholics in the diocese continued to grow, with many coming from Bohemia and Poland. The number of priests grew with the increase of the people, and they were so chosen as to correspond to the needs of the parishes. Hospitals were opened at Minneapolis and New Ulm, orphan asylums were erected at St. Paul and Minneapolis, and homes were established for the aged poor. In February 1875, St. Paul was transferred from the ecclesiastical province of St. Louis to that of Milwaukee.
John Ireland was born in Burnchurch, County Kilkenny, Ireland. During the Civil War he served as chaplain to the Fifth Minnesota Regiment. He was appointed coadjutor to Bishop Grace, whom he succeeded in 1884. Pope Leo XIII elevated the see to the rank of archdiocese on May 4, 1888 and its name was changed to reflect this. The creation of the Diocese of Winona diminished the territory of the archdiocese by the southern section of Minnesota.
Disturbed by reports that Catholic immigrants in eastern cities were suffering from social and economic handicaps, Ireland and Bishop John Lancaster Spalding of the Diocese of Peoria, Illinois, founded the Irish Catholic Colonization Association. This organization bought land in rural areas to the west and south and helped resettle Irish Catholics from the urban slums. Various settlements such as De Graff, Clontarf (Swift Co.), Adrian (Nobles Co.), Avoca, Fulda (Murry Co.), Graceville (Big Stone Co.), Minneota, and Ghent (Lyon Co.), owe their origin and prosperity to his labours.
Charlotte Grace O'Brien, philanthropist and activist for the protection of female emigrants, found that often the illiterate young women were being tricked into prostitution through spurious offers of employment. She proposed an information bureau at Castle Garden, a temporary shelter to provide accommodation for immigrants, and a chapel, all to Archbishop Ireland, who she believed of all the American hierarchy, would be most sympathetic. Archbishop Ireland agreed to raise the matter at the May 1883 meeting of the Irish Catholic Association which endorsed the plan and voted to establish an information bureau at Castle Garden, the disembarkation point for immigrants arriving in New York. The Irish Catholic Colonization Association was also instrumental in the establishment of the Mission of Our Lady of the Rosary for the Protection of Irish Immigrant Girls.
Ireland was a strong supporter of the temperance movement, and of racial equality. On the other hand, his less than diplomatic relations with Eastern Catholics drove them into the Orthodox Church.
The author of The Church and Modern Society (1897), Ireland opposed the use of foreign languages in American Catholic churches and parochial schools. National (ethnic) parishes were common at the time because of the large influx of immigrants to the U.S. from European countries. In this, he differed from Michael Corrigan, Archbishop of New York, who believed that the more quickly Catholics gave up their native languages, customs, and traditions in order to assimilate into a Protestant culture, the sooner they would forsake their religion as well. Different views on the so-called "Americanization" of the Catholic Church in the United States split the hierarchy in the 1890s.
Pope Paul VI once again instituted a name change for the see on July 11, 1966. Reflecting the growth of the Catholic Church in the region, it became the Archdiocese of Saint Paul and Minneapolis, the name it retains today. Archbishop John Clayton Nienstedt, succeeded to the post on the retirement of his predecessor, Archbishop Harry Flynn, on May 2, 2008. He stepped down on June 15, 2015 and Bernard Hebda was named the next Archbishop of Saint Paul and Minneapolis.
In January 2015, the archdiocese filed for bankruptcy. With the filing of bankruptcies by also the Diocese of Duluth and the Diocese of New Ulm, Minnesota set the record for having more Catholic bankruptcies than any other state in the United States of America. In February 2018 the Diocese of St Cloud became the fourth Catholic Diocese in Minnesota to announce plans to file for bankruptcy.
Clergy sexual abuse settlement and reorganization of the Archdiocese
On May 31, 2018, the Archdiocese of St Paul and Minneapolis agreed to pay victims of clergy sexual abuse a total of $210 million in settlement, which awaited court approval. By the time the settlement was issued, 91 priests who served in the Archdiocese of St Paul and Minneapolis were accused of sexually abusing 450 victims. On June 27, 2018, the Archdiocese filed for reorganization in order to find enough money to pay for the settlement. Once approved, the settlement became the second largest in any Catholic bankruptcy case in United States history and largest overall for any Archdiocese which was forced into bankruptcy. On September 21, 2018, survivors of clergy abuse officially concluded a month-long vote which resulted in the approval the settlement; the vote had started on August 21. The settlement was then approved by a U.S. Bankruptcy Court judge on September 25, 2018.
Calls for a grand jury investigation
On August 22, 2018, Jeff Anderson, the Ramsey County attorney who investigated the Archdiocese, called for Minnesota Governor Mark Dayton to assemble a Grand Jury investigation similar to the one conducted in Pennsylvania. The proposed grand jury investigation would include the Archdiocese of St Paul and Minneapolis and all of its five suffragan dioceses. Archbishop Hebda, Judge Tim O'Malley, director of Ministerial Standards and Safe Environment, and Tom Abood, chairman of the Archdiocesan Financial Council and the Reorganization Task Force, issued a joint statement stating that the Archdiocese "would cooperate" with a future grand jury investigation. Caroline Burns, press secretary for Governor Dayton, stated that the case was under review and that the Governor would not publicly respond until after completing this review.
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This is a list of the bishops who have served the Archdiocese.
Bishops of Saint Paul
- Joseph Crétin (1850-1857)
- Thomas Langdon Grace, O.P. (1859-1884)
- John Ireland (1884-1888 see below)
Archbishops of Saint Paul
- John Ireland (see above 1888-1918)
- Austin Dowling (1919-1930)
- John Gregory Murray (1931-1956)
- William O. Brady (1956-1961)
- Leo Binz (1961-1966 see below)
Archbishops of Saint Paul and Minneapolis
- Leo Binz (see above 1966-1975)
- John Robert Roach (1975-1995)
- Harry Joseph Flynn (1995-2008)
- John Clayton Nienstedt (2008-2015)
- Bernard Hebda (2016–present)
- John Ireland (1875-1884)
- William Otterwell Brady (1956)
- Leo Christopher Byrne (1967-1974), died without succeeding to see
- Harry Joseph Flynn (1994-1995)
- John Clayton Nienstedt (2007-2008)
- John Jeremiah Lawler (1910-1916), appointed Bishop of Lead
- James Joseph Byrne (1947-1956), appointed Bishop of Boise and later Archbishop of Dubuque
- Leonard Philip Cowley (1957-1973)
- Gerald Francis O'Keefe (1961-1966), appointed Bishop of Davenport
- James P. Shannon (1965-1968)
- John Robert Roach (1971-1975), appointed Archbishop of Saint Paul and Minneapolis
- Raymond Alphonse Lucker (1971-1975), appointed Bishop of New Ulm
- Paul Vincent Dudley (1976-1978), appointed Bishop of Sioux Falls
- John Francis Kinney (1976-1982), appointed Bishop of Bismarck and later Bishop of Saint Cloud
- William Henry Bullock (1980-1987), appointed Bishop of Des Moines and later Bishop of Madison
- James Richard Ham, M.M. (1980-1990)
- Robert J. Carlson (1984-1994), appointed Coadjutor Bishop of Sioux Falls and later Bishop of Sioux Falls, Bishop of Saginaw, and Archbishop of St. Louis
- Joseph Charron, C.PP.S. (1990-1994), appointed Bishop of Des Moines
- Lawrence Welsh (1991-1999)
- Frederick F. Campbell (1999-2004), appointed Bishop of Columbus
- Richard Pates (2000-2008), appointed Bishop of Des Moines
- Lee A. Piché (2009-2015)
- Andrew H. Cozzens (2013–present)
Other priests of this diocese who became bishops
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- John Loughlin, appointed Bishop of Brooklyn in 1853
- Louis Joseph Mary Theodore de Goesbriand, appointed Bishop of Burlington in 1853
- James McGolrick, appointed Bishop of Duluth in 1889
- Patrick Delany, appointed Coadjutor Archbishop of Hobart, Australia in 1893
- Thomas O'Gorman, appointed Bishop of Sioux Falls in 1896
- James Trobec, appointed Bishop of Saint Cloud in 1897
- Alexander Christie, appointed Bishop of Vancouver Island in 1898
- James John Keane, appointed Bishop of Cheyenne in 1902
- John Stariha, appointed Bishop of Lead in 1902
- Joseph Francis Busch, appointed Bishop of Lead in 1910
- Timothy J. Corbett, appointed Bishop of Crookston in 1910
- Patrick Richard Heffron, appointed Bishop of Winona in 1910
- James Albert Duffy, appointed Bishop of Kearney in 1913
- Thomas Anthony Welch, appointed Bishop of Duluth in 1925
- James Louis Connolly, appointed Coadjutor Bishop of Fall River in 1945
- Francis Joseph Schenk, appointed Bishop of Crookston in 1945
- Alphonse James Schladweiler, appointed Bishop of New Ulm in 1957
- Nicolas Eugene Walsh, appointed Bishop of Yakima in 1974
- Peter Forsyth Christensen, appointed Bishop of Superior in 2007
- John Marvin LeVoir, appointed Bishop of New Ulm in 2008
- Paul David Sirba, appointed Bishop of Duluth in 2009
- Donald Edward DeGrood, appointed Bishop of Sioux Falls in 2019
- Academy of Holy Angels, Richfield
- Benilde-St. Margaret's, St. Louis Park
- Bethlehem Academy, Faribault
- Convent of the Visitation School, Mendota Heights
- Cretin-Derham Hall, St. Paul
- Cristo Rey Jesuit High School, Minneapolis
- DeLaSalle High School, Minneapolis
- Hill-Murray School, Maplewood
- Holy Family Catholic High School, Victoria
- Providence Academy, Plymouth
- Saint Agnes High School, St. Paul
- Saint Thomas Academy, Mendota Heights
- Totino-Grace High School, Fridley
Independent Catholic schools
Ecclesiastical Province of St. Paul and Minneapolis
- Roman Catholic Diocese of Bismarck
- Roman Catholic Diocese of Crookston
- Roman Catholic Diocese of Duluth
- Roman Catholic Diocese of Fargo
- Roman Catholic Diocese of New Ulm
- Roman Catholic Diocese of Rapid City
- Roman Catholic Diocese of Saint Cloud
- Roman Catholic Diocese of Sioux Falls
- Roman Catholic Diocese of Winona-Rochester
- Cathedral of Saint Paul, Saint Paul, MN, Mother Church of the Archdiocese of Saint Paul and Minneapolis
- Basilica of Saint Mary, Minneapolis, MN, First American Basilica
- Our Lady of Lourdes Catholic Church, the oldest church building in continuous use in Minneapolis
- Saint Peter's, Mendota, MN, Oldest active parish
- Catholic Church and politics in the United States
- Catholic Church by country
- Catholic Church in the United States
- Ecclesiastical Province of Saint Paul and Minneapolis
- Father H. Timothy Vakoc (a priest of the archdiocese and an Army chaplain, who died from wounds received in the Iraq War)
- Global organisation of the Catholic Church
- History of Roman Catholicism in the United States
- List of Roman Catholic archdioceses (by country and continent)
- List of Roman Catholic dioceses (alphabetical) (including archdioceses)
- List of Roman Catholic dioceses (structured view) (including archdioceses)
- List of the Catholic bishops of the United States
- List of the Catholic cathedrals of the United States
- List of the Catholic dioceses of the United States
- Plenary Councils of Baltimore
- Roman Catholicism in the United States
- The Basilica of St. Mary
- Willis, John. "Minnesota." The Catholic Encyclopedia Vol. 10. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1911. 14 March 2020 This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
- Risjord, Norman K. (2005). A Popular History of Minnesota. Saint Paul, MN: Minnesota Historical Society Press. pp. 57–58. ISBN 0-87351-532-3.
- Schaefer, Francis. "Saint Paul (Minnesota)." The Catholic Encyclopedia Vol. 13. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1912. 14 Mar. 2020 This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
- Rainer, Joseph. "Milwaukee." The Catholic Encyclopedia Vol. 10. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1911. 13 March 2020 This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
- Miller, Chandra. "'Tumbling Into the Fight' Charlotte Grace O'Brien (1845-1909); The Emigrant's Advocate", History Ireland, Vol. 4, Issue 4 (Winter 1996)
- O'Connell, Marvin Richard (1988). John Ireland and the American Catholic Church. Minnesota Historical Society Press. p. 271, Template:ISBN 0-87351-230-8
- "Archdiocese of Saint Paul and Minneapolis". Catholic-Hierarchy.org. David M. Cheney. Retrieved 21 January 2015.
- "St. Cloud is 4th Minnesota diocese to declare bankruptcy amid abuse lawsuits". Catholic News Agency, March 5, 2018
- Only U.S. bishop to resign and leave the priesthood in response to the encyclical of Pope Paul VI, Humanae vitae.
- Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Saint Paul and Minneapolis Official Site
- Cathedral of Saint Paul
- The Catholic Spirit, the Archdiocese's official newspaper
- Information and population statistics kept by www.catholic-hierarchy.org (Unofficial)