Brazilian hemorrhagic fever
|Group:||Group V ((-)ssRNA)|
|Brazilian hemorrhagic fever|
|Classification and external resources|
Brazilian hemorrhagic fever (BzHF) is an infectious disease caused by the Sabiá virus, an Arenavirus. The Sabiá virus is one of the arenoviruses from South America to cause hemorrhagic fever. It shares a common progenitor with the Junin virus, Machupo virus, Tacaribe virus, and Guanarito virus. It is an enveloped RNA virus and is highly infectious and lethal. Very little is known about this disease, but it is thought to have be transmitted by the excreta of rodents.
There have only been three documented infections of the Sabiá virus, only one of which occurred naturally and the other two cases occurred in the clinical setting. The only naturally occurring case was in 1990, when a female agricultural engineer who was staying in the neighborhood of Jardim Sabiá near São Paulo, Brazil contracted the disease. She presented with hemorrhagic fever and died. Her autopsy showed liver necrosis. A virologist who was studying the woman's disease contracted the virus but survived. Ribavirin was not given in these first two cases. Four years later, in 1994, a researcher was exposed to the virus in a level 3 biohazard facility at Yale University when a centrifuge bottle cracked, leaked, and released aerosolized virus particle. He was successfully treated with ribavirin.
Ribavirin is thought to be effective in treating the illness, similar to other arenaviruses. Compared to the patients who did not receive ribavirin, the patient who was treated with it had a shorter and less severe clinical course. Symptomatic control such as fluids to address dehydration and bleeding may also be required.
- Barry, M.; Russi, M.; Armstrong, L.; Geller, D.; Tesh, R.; Dembry, L.; Gonzalez, J. P.; Khan, A. S.; Peters, C. J. (1995). "Treatment of a Laboratory-Acquired Sabiá Virus Infection". N Engl J Med. 333 (5): 317–318. doi:10.1056/NEJM199508033330505. PMID 7596373.
- GONZALEZ, JEAN PAUL J. (1996). "Genetic Characterization and Phylogeny of Sabiá Virus, an Emergent Pathogen in Brazil". Virology. 221 (2): 318–324. doi:10.1006/viro.1996.0381. PMID 8661442.
- NRT Quick Reference Guide: Brazilian Hemorrhagic Fever (BzHF)
- Gandsman, E. J.; Aaslestad, H. G.; Ouimet, T. C.; Rupp, W. D. (1997). "Sabia virus incident at Yale University". American Industrial Hygiene Association journal. 58 (1): 51–3. doi:10.1080/15428119791013080. PMID 9018837.
- http://www.stanford.edu/group/virus/arena/2005/SabiaVirus.htm Sabia Virus
- http://www.oregon.gov/DHS/ph/acd/bioterrorism/backvhf.pdf Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers and Bioterrorism