Flaviviridae is a family of viruses. Humans and mammals serve as natural hosts. They are primarily spread through arthropod vectors (mainly ticks and mosquitoes). The family gets its name from Yellow Fever virus, a type virus of Flaviviridae; flavus means yellow in Latin. (Yellow fever in turn was named because of its propensity to cause jaundice in victims.) There are currently 60 species in this family, divided among 4 genera. Diseases associated with this family include: hepaciviruses: hepatitis; pestiviruses: hemorrhagic syndromes, abortion, fatal mucosal disease; flavivirus: hemorrhagic fever, encephalitis.
Flaviviridae have monopartite, linear, single-stranded RNAgenomes of positive polarity, 9.6 to 12.3 kilobase in length. The 5'-termini of flaviviruses carry a methylatednucleotide cap, while other members of this family are uncapped and encode an internal ribosome entry site. Virus particles are enveloped, with icosahedral and spherical geometries, about 40–60 nm in diameter.
Viral replication is cytoplasmic. Entry into the host cell is achieved by attachment of the viral envelope protein E to host receptors, which mediates clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Replication follows the positive stranded RNA virus replication model. Positive stranded RNA virus transcription is the method of transcription. Translation takes place by viral initiation. The virus exits the host cell by budding. Humans and mammals serve as the natural host. The virus is transmitted via a vector (ticks and mosquitoes).
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