Saint-Émilion

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Saint-Émilion
An aerial view of Saint-Émilion
An aerial view of Saint-Émilion
Coat of arms of Saint-Émilion
Location of Saint-Émilion
Saint-Émilion is located in France
Saint-Émilion
Saint-Émilion
Saint-Émilion is located in Nouvelle-Aquitaine
Saint-Émilion
Saint-Émilion
Coordinates: 44°53′37″N 0°09′17″W / 44.8936°N 0.1547°W / 44.8936; -0.1547Coordinates: 44°53′37″N 0°09′17″W / 44.8936°N 0.1547°W / 44.8936; -0.1547
CountryFrance
RegionNouvelle-Aquitaine
DepartmentGironde
ArrondissementLibourne
CantonLes Coteaux de Dordogne
Government
 • Mayor (2020–2026) Bernard Lauret[1]
Area
1
27.02 km2 (10.43 sq mi)
Population
 (Jan. 2019)[2]
1,859
 • Density69/km2 (180/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+01:00 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+02:00 (CEST)
INSEE/Postal code
33394 /33330
Elevation3–107 m (9.8–351.0 ft)
(avg. 23 m or 75 ft)
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries.
Jurisdiction of Saint-Émilion
UNESCO World Heritage Site
Saint-Emilion Eglise monolithe.jpg
Monolithic church of Saint-Émilion and its bell tower
CriteriaCultural: iii, iv
Reference932
Inscription1999 (23rd Session)
Area7,847 ha
Buffer zone5,101 ha

Saint-Émilion (French pronunciation: ​[sɛ̃.t‿emiljɔ̃]; Gascon: Sent Milion) is a commune in the Gironde department in Nouvelle-Aquitaine in southwestern France. In 2016, it had a population of 1,938.

In the heart of the country of Libournais (the area around Libourne), in a region of wine hills, Saint-Emilion is a medieval city located at the crossroads of Bordeaux, Saintonge and Périgord. The town and surrounding vineyards was made a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1999, owing to its long, living history of wine-making, Romanesque churches and ruins stretching all along steep and narrow streets.[3]

History[edit]

Saint-Émilion's history goes back at least 35,000 years ago, to the Upper Paleolithic.[4] An oppidum was built on the hill overlooking the present-day city in Gaulish times, before the regions was annexed by Augustus in 27 BC.[4] The Romans planted vineyards in what was to become Saint-Émilion as early as the 2nd century. In the 4th century, the Latin poet Ausonius lauded the fruit of the bountiful vine.[3]

Saint-Émilion, previously called Ascumbas,[5] was renamed after the Breton monk Émilion (d.767[6]), a travelling confessor, who settled in a hermitage carved into the rock there in the 8th century. The monks who followed him started up the commercial wine production in the area.

Because the region was located on the route of the Camino de Santiago, many monasteries and churches were built during the Middle Ages, and in 1199, while under Plantagenet rule, the town was granted full rights.[3] During the 12th and 13th centuries, the wines produced in the area were well-renowned for their quality, although political instability during the European wars of religion negatively affected the vineyards.[4] The region only began to recover in the late 19th century.[4]

Geography and Description[edit]

Saint-Émilion is located 35 km (22 mi) east of Bordeaux, between Libourne and Castillon-la-Bataille. Saint-Émilion station has rail connections to Bordeaux, Bergerac and Sarlat-la-Canéda. Vineyards make up more than 67% of the land area of the commune.[4] Within the region there is a mix of medieval Romanesque religious architecture and vineyard "chateaux", built in 18th and 19th centuries. In the villages, however, most of the buildings are modest, one-story stone houses dating from the 19th century.[3]

Population[edit]

Historical population
YearPop.±%
18002,761—    
18512,828+2.4%
18613,014+6.6%
18723,059+1.5%
18813,034−0.8%
18913,233+6.6%
19013,392+4.9%
19113,408+0.5%
19213,165−7.1%
19313,367+6.4%
19463,232−4.0%
YearPop.±%
19543,252+0.6%
19623,335+2.6%
19683,403+2.0%
19753,323−2.4%
19823,010−9.4%
19902,799−7.0%
19992,345−16.2%
20062,124−9.4%
20072,090−1.6%
20082,020−3.3%
20121,931−4.4%

Sights[edit]

Wine[edit]

Saint-Émilion is one of the principal red wine areas of Bordeaux along with the Médoc, Graves and Pomerol. The region is much smaller than the Médoc and adjoins Pomerol. As in Pomerol and the other appellations on the right bank of the Gironde, the primary grape varieties used are the Merlot and Cabernet Franc, with relatively small amounts of Cabernet Sauvignon also being used by some châteaux.

Saint Émilion wines were not included in the 1855 Bordeaux classification. The first formal classification in Saint-Émilion was made in 1955. Unlike the 1855 classification, it is regularly revised.

A panoramic view of the town of Saint-Émilion, France.
Panoramic view of Saint-Émilion, July 2016
A panoramic view of the town of Saint-Émilion, France.
Panoramic view of Saint-Émilion, August 2012

Saint-Émilion Jazz Festival[edit]

Since 2012, Saint-Émilion hosts a jazz festival at the end of July.[7]

Personalities[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Répertoire national des élus: les maires". data.gouv.fr, Plateforme ouverte des données publiques françaises (in French). 2 December 2020.
  2. ^ "Populations légales 2019". The National Institute of Statistics and Economic Studies. 29 December 2021.
  3. ^ a b c d "Jurisdiction of Saint-Emilion". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization. Retrieved 13 November 2021.
  4. ^ a b c d e Advisory Body Evaluation (ICOMOS): Saint-Emilion (France), No. 932 (Report). International Council on Monuments and Sites. 30 June 1998. Retrieved 13 November 2021.
  5. ^ "The Monk Émilion". saint-emilion tourisme. Retrieved Sep 30, 2018.
  6. ^ "Bordeaux". Catholic Encyclopedia. Retrieved Sep 30, 2018.
  7. ^ "Saint-Emilion Jazz Festival - Site Officiel | Éditions passées". www.saint-emilion-jazz-festival.com (in French). Retrieved 2018-08-02.

External links[edit]