Sar language

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Native to Chad
Native speakers
(180,000 cited 1993 census)[1]
  • Sar
  • Nar
Language codes
ISO 639-3 mwm
Glottolog sarr1246[2]

Sar or Sara, also known as Madjingay and Sara Madjingay is a Bongo–Bagirmi language of southern Chad, and the lingua franca of regional capital of Sarh.


The consonants are as follows.[3]

Labial Alveolar Retroflex Post-alveolar
tenuis p t k
voiced b d d͡ʒ ɡ
implosive ɓ ɗ
prenasalized m͡b n͡d n͡dʒ ŋ͡ɡ
Fricative s
Nasal m n
Liquid oral l ɽ
nasalized ɽ̃
Semi-vowel oral j w

Vowels and nasal vowels are as follows:

Front Central Back
Close i ĩ u ũ
Mid e ẽ o õ
ə ɔ
Open a ã

There are three tones.[4][5]

Tone Example Gloss
high ɡáŋɡá drum
mid māl scavenger
low jàbə̀ hippopotamus
nasal sauce


  1. ^ Sar at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Sar". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. 
  3. ^ (in French) Fournier, Maurice, Les consonnes du sar, dans Études phonologiques tchadiennes (Jean-Pierre Caprile, éd.), pp. 37-44, Paris, SELAF, 1977, ISBN 2-85297-019-8
  4. ^ (in French) Moundo Ndimajibay, Nei-Balway, Les limites des modifications en sar, dans Études phonologiques tchadiennes (Jean-Pierre Caprile, éd.), pp. 45-58, Paris, SELAF, 1977, ISBN 2-85297-019-8
  5. ^ "PanAfriL10n - PanAfrLoc - Sara". PanAfrican Localisation Resource Wiki. Retrieved 2017-03-07. 

External links[edit]