Second National Government of New Zealand

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Second National Government

The Second National Government of New Zealand (also known as the Holyoake Government, after head of government Keith Holyoake) was the government of New Zealand from 1960 to 1972. It was a conservative government which sought mainly to preserve the economic prosperity and general stability of the early 1960s. It was one of New Zealand's longest-serving governments.

Significant policies[edit]

Economic policy[edit]

Treaty of Waitangi and Maori policy[edit]

Other[edit]

  • On 12 October 1961 ten National MPs voted with the Opposition and removed capital punishment for murder from the Crimes Bill that the government had introduced, by a vote of 41 to 30. Ralph Hanan, the Minister of Justice who had introduced the bill was one of them.
  • Family maintenance allowances were introduced (1968).[1]
  • In 1967 after a referendum on 23 September, bar closing times were extended from 6pm to 10pm on 9 October.
  • In 1968, emergency benefit was systematised into a discretionary Domestic Purposes Benefit (this was replaced by the statutory Domestic purposes Benefit in 1973).[1]
  • In 1969, the general medical services benefit was raised for beneficiaries, while specialist benefit was introduced.[1]
  • A rural incentives scheme for doctors was introduced (1969).[2]
  • Income abatement on benefits was simplified (1971).[1]

Foreign affairs[edit]

Constitutional[edit]

Formation[edit]

The key issue of the 1960 election was the 'Black Budget' of 1958, in which the Labour government had raised taxes on alcohol, petrol and cigarettes. Although the government argued that it was necessary to address a balance of payments crisis, National continually attacked the government for it, and most historians consider that it lost Labour the election after only one term in office. Another, less important factor, may have been the age of Labour's leadership. Prime Minister Walter Nash was 78 in 1960, and had been Finance Minister in the first Labour government 25 years earlier. Voters probably considered him and many of his team old and out of touch in contrast with National leader Keith Holyoake, who in 1960 was only in his mid 50s.

The phrase Young Turk was used by Ian Templeton to describe three of the new National MPs elected in 1960, Peter Gordon, Duncan MacIntyre and Robert Muldoon. The description stuck (Zavos).

The 1963 election[edit]

In many ways the 1963 election was a re-run of the 1960 election. No new major issues had arisen, and Labour continued to be damaged by the 'Black Budget' of 1958. Although five years had passed since the budget, its architect, Arnold Nordmeyer, was now Labour Party leader following the retirement of Nash earlier in 1963. Voters continued to associate Nordmeyer, and therefore the party, with the unpopular budget. It is normal for governments to lose some support during their term, but National's share of the popular vote was only 0.5% less than in 1960, and it lost only one seat, retaining a majority of 10.

The 1966 election[edit]

Shortly before the 1966 election, Labour had replaced Nordmeyer as leader with Norman Kirk, but Kirk had insufficient time to consolidate his position and the party was damaged by this and division over economic policy. The main difference between the parties in terms of policy was commitment to the Vietnam War. The National government had committed a small number of troops, seeing support for American wars as a necessary payment for America's commitment (through the ANZUS pact) to protect New Zealand. Labour was opposed to New Zealand involvement in the war and made troop recall a major platform. However the strongest anti-war sentiment was probably amongst young people, and at this stage the voting age was 21. The election resulted in National losing 3.5% of the popular vote, and one seat, to Social Credit. This marked the first time since 1943 that a seat had been won by a party other than Labour or National.

The 1969 election[edit]

Before the 1969 election the voting age was lowered from 21 to 20, and the number of electorates was increased from 80 to 84, to reflect population growth. These changes seem to have benefited National, as its share of the popular vote rose by 1.6% and it regained the seat it had lost (Hobson) to Social Credit. This is a rare example of a government increasing its share of the vote while in power.

Defeat[edit]

Like Labour in 1960, National in 1972 appeared old, worn-out and out of touch. Holyoake's retirement in favour of deputy Jack Marshall did little to revitalise the party, as Marshall lacked the charisma of Labour leader Norman Kirk. The government was defeated less on any particular policy than on a general feeling that, as Labour's campaign material put it, it was time for a change.

Election results[edit]

Election Parliament Seats Total votes Percentage Gain (loss) Seats won Change Majority
1960 33rd 80 1,170,503 47.6% +3.4% 46 +7 12
1963 34th 80 1,198,045 47.1% -0.5% 45 -1 10
1966 35th 80 1,205,095 43.6% -3.5% 44 -1 8
1969 36th 84 45.2% +1.6% 45 +1 6
1972 37th 87 41.5% -7% 32 -13 -

Prime ministers[edit]

Keith Holyoake was Prime Minister for almost the entire term of this government, from 12 December 1960 until 7 February 1972 when he resigned. He was replaced by Jack Marshall, with the terms of other ministers commencing on 9 February 1972. The Marshall Ministry stepped down on 8 December 1972.

Cabinet ministers[edit]

Portfolio Minister Start End
Prime Minister Keith Holyoake 12 December 1960 7 February 1972
Jack Marshall 7 February 1972 8 December 1972
Deputy Prime Minister Jack Marshall 12 December 1960 7 February 1972
Robert Muldoon 7 February 1972 8 December 1972
Minister of Agriculture William Gillespie 12 December 1960 23 April 1961
Thomas Hayman 2 May 1961 2 January 1962
Brian Talboys 24 January 1962 22 December 1969
Douglas Carter 22 December 1969 8 December 1972
Attorney-General Ralph Hanan 12 December 1960 22 December 1969
Jack Marshall 22 December 1969 2 February 1971
Dan Riddiford 2 February 1971 9 February 1972
Roy Jack 9 February 1972 8 December 1972
Minister of Broadcasting Arthur Kinsella 12 December 1960 20 December 1963
Jack Scott 20 December 1963 15 February 1967
Lance Adams-Schneider 15 February 1967 22 December 1969
Bert Walker 22 December 1969 8 December 1972
Minister of Customs Jack Marshall 12 December 1960 24 January 1962
Norman Shelton 24 January 1962 12 December 1969
Lance Adams-Schneider 12 December 1969 9 February 1972
George Gair 9 February 1972 8 December 1972
Minister of Defence Dean Eyre 12 December 1960 12 December 1966
David Thomson 12 December 1966 9 February 1972
Allan McCready 9 February 1972 8 December 1972
Minister of Education Blair Tennent 12 December 1960 20 December 1963
Arthur Kinsella 20 December 1963 22 December 1969
Brian Talboys 22 December 1969 9 February 1972
Lorrie Pickering 9 February 1972 8 December 1972
Minister of Finance Harry Lake 12 December 1960 21 February 1967
Robert Muldoon 21 February 1967 8 December 1972
Minister of Foreign Affairs Keith Holyoake 12 December 1960 8 December 1972
Minister of Forestry Geoff Gerard 12 December 1960 12 December 1966
Duncan MacIntyre 12 December 1966 8 December 1972
Minister of Health Norman Shelton 12 December 1960 24 January 1962
Don McKay 24 January 1962 9 February 1972
Lance Adams-Schneider 9 February 1972 8 December 1972
Minister of Housing John Rae 12 December 1960 9 February 1972
Eric Holland 9 February 1972 8 December 1972
Minister of Immigration Tom Shand 12 December 1960 22 December 1969
Jack Marshall 22 December 1969 9 February 1972
David Thomson 9 February 1972 8 December 1972
Minister of Industries and Commerce Jack Marshall 12 December 1960 22 December 1969
Norman Shelton 22 December 1969 9 February 1972
Brian Talboys 9 February 1972 24 October 1972
Minister of Internal Affairs Leon Götz 12 December 1960 20 December 1963
David Seath 20 December 1963 9 February 1972
Allan Highet 9 February 1972 8 December 1972
Minister of Island Territories Leon Götz 12 December 1960 20 December 1963
Ralph Hanan 20 December 1963 24 July 1969
Duncan MacIntyre 24 July 1969 8 December 1972
Minister of Justice Ralph Hanan 12 December 1960 24 July 1969
Dan Riddiford 22 December 1969 9 February 1972
Roy Jack 9 February 1972 8 December 1972
Minister of Labour Tom Shand 12 December 1960 11 December 1969
Jack Marshall 12 December 1969 7 February 1972
David Thomson 7 February 1972 8 December 1972
Minister of Maori Affairs Ralph Hanan 12 December 1960 24 July 1969
Duncan MacIntyre 22 December 1969 8 December 1972
Minister of Marine John McAlpine 12 December 1960 2 May 1961
Geoff Gerard 2 May 1961 20 December 1963
Jack Scott 20 December 1963 22 December 1969
Allan McCready 22 December 1969 9 February 1972
Peter Gordon 9 February 1972 8 December 1972
Minister of Mines Tom Shand 12 December 1960 11 December 1969
Norman Shelton 22 December 1969 9 February 1972
Les Gandar 9 February 1972 8 December 1972
Minister of Police Dean Eyre 12 December 1960 20 December 1963
Percy Allen 20 December 1963 22 December 1969
David Thomson 22 December 1969 9 February 1972
Percy Allen 9 February 1972 8 December 1972
Postmaster-General Thomas Hayman 12 December 1960 2 May 1961
Arthur Kinsella 2 May 1961 20 December 1963
Jack Scott 20 December 1963 22 December 1969
Allan McCready 22 December 1969 9 February 1972
Bert Walker 9 February 1972 8 December 1972
Minister of Railways John McAlpine 12 December 1960 12 December 1966
Peter Gordon 12 December 1966 8 December 1972
Minister for Social Security Norman Shelton 12 December 1960 24 January 1962
Don McKay 24 January 1962 9 February 1972
Lance Adams-Schneider 9 February 1972 8 December 1972
Minister of Trade Jack Marshall 12 December 1960 9 February 1972
Brian Talboys 9 February 1972 8 December 1972
Minister of Transport John McAlpine 12 December 1960 12 December 1966
Peter Gordon 12 December 1966 8 December 1972
Minister of Works Stan Goosman 12 December 1960 20 December 1963
Percy Allen 20 December 1963 8 December 1972

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Pragmatism and Progress: Social Security in the Seventies by Brian Easton
  2. ^ Joseph, A.E.; Phillips, D.R. (1984). Accessibility and Utilization: Geographical Perspectives on Health Care Delivery. SAGE Publications. p. 77. ISBN 9780063182769. Retrieved 27 August 2015.

See also[edit]