|Capital||1991–1992 — Shahumyan|
1993—2020 — Karvachar
|• Total||1,830 km2 (710 sq mi)|
|Area rank||Ranked 3rd|
|• Rank||Ranked 8th|
|• Density||1.9/km2 (5.0/sq mi)|
Shahumyan Province (Armenian: Շահումյան, romanized: Shahumyan, also spelled Shaumyan and Shahumian) was a province of the self-proclaimed Republic of Artsakh, de jure part of the Republic of Azerbaijan. The capital of the province was Karvachar. Shahumyan Province had 17 communities of which one is considered urban and 16 are rural. Its bordered Martakert Province to the east, Kashatagh Province to the south, Gegharkunik and Vayots Dzor provinces of Armenia to the west and Dashkasan, Goygol and Goranboy districts of Azerbaijan to the north.
The western part of the province was controlled by the Artsakh, while the northern part, originally the Shahumyan district of the Azerbaijani SSR - now part of the Goranboy District, remained under Azerbaijani control, which was claimed by Artsakh. The Shahumyan district was located outside of the former Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Oblast; however, prior to the First Nagorno-Karabakh War, its population was mostly Armenian which was expelled during Operation Ring in 1991. While the Shahumyan Region was not part of the Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Oblast, representatives from Shahumyan declared independence along with the Oblast, and the proclamation of Artsakh includes the Shahumyan region within its borders.
In antiquity the territory was a part of Artsakh; in the Middle Ages it was part of the principality of Khachen; in the 17th and 18th centuries, the territory formed part of Melik-Abovian dynasty's melikdom of Gulistan, with its capital in the fortress of that name.
During Soviet times the area was renamed after the Armenian Bolshevik Stepan Shahumyan, its administrative centre taking the same name. By the 1990s the population of the Shahumyan district was mostly Armenian by language and ethnicity, though the area was not included within the boundaries of the Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Oblast.
In the spring/summer of 1991, Soviet general secretary Mikhail Gorbachev ordered Operation Ring in which the Soviet Red Army and Azerbaijani OMON surrounded some of the area's Armenian villages (notably Getashen and Martunashen in the neighboring Khanlar District of Azerbaijan SSR) and deported their inhabitants to Armenia.
Approximately 17,000 Armenians living in Shahumyan's 23 villages were deported out of the region. The operation involved the use of ground troops, military, armored vehicles and artillery. The deportations of the Armenian civilians were carried out with gross human rights violations documented by international human rights organizations.
The town of Shahumyan was renamed by Azerbaijan to Aşağı Ağcakənd in 1992 and has been partially repopulated by ethnic Azerbaijanis, most of whom are internally displaced persons who were deported from Nagorno-Karabakh and surrounding districts.
As part of an agreement that ended the 2020 Nagorno-Karabakh War the town of Kalbajar/Karvachar and its surrounding district was initially to be returned to Azerbaijani control by 15 November 2020, but this deadline was subsequently extended to 25 November 2020. In the early hours of November 25, Azerbaijani forces entered the region, it was the second region to be returned to Azerbaijan per the ceasefire agreement after one of Aghdam/Agdam.
Towns in Soviet Shahumyan and Getashen
Armenians constituted 73.2% of the population of the Shahumyan district in 1979, and the majority of the villages within the Shahumyan district and the Getashen village had an Armenian majority prior to the First Nagorno-Karabakh war and Operation Ring, with the exception for some Azerbaijani-majority villages (as well as some smaller localities), which are mentioned as such in the following list. The Shahumyan district and Getashen subdistrict are claimed by the Republic of Artsakh as part of the Shahumyan Province.
|Başqışlaq (Azerbaijani majority)||Azerbaijan|
|Gürzallar (Azerbaijani majority)||Azerbaijan|
|Hay Borisner||Հայ Բորիսներ||Azerbaijan|
|Todan (Azerbaijani majority)||Azerbaijan|
|Zeiva (Azerbaijani majority)||Azerbaijan|
|Sarısu (Azerbaijani majority)||Azerbaijan|
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