Sons of the American Revolution
|Motto||"Libertas et patria" (Latin)
"Liberty and Country"
|Established||April 30, 1889|
|Legal status||Federally chartered corporation|
|Purpose||Fraternal, patriotic, historical, charitable, educational|
|Headquarters||809 West Main Street,
|Affiliations||Daughters of the American Revolution|
The National Society of the Sons of the American Revolution, Inc. is a Federally Chartered Corporation located in Louisville, Kentucky. It is a 501(c)3 non-profit corporation that describes its purpose as "maintaining and extending the institutions of American freedom, an appreciation for true patriotism, a respect for our national symbols, the value of American citizenship, and the unifying force of e pluribus unum that has created, from the people of many nations, one nation and one people." Sons of the American Revolution is a patriotic organization. Its members are male descendants of people who served in the Revolutionary War, or who contributed to establishing the independence of the United States. The society is dedicated to perpetuating American ideals and traditions, and to protecting the Constitution. Constitution Day, Flag Day, and Bill of Rights Day were established through its efforts. The society was founded on April 30, 1889. Its official name is the National Society of the Sons of the American Revolution. It has members in the United States, Canada, France, Germany, Mexico,. Spain, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom. Its national headquarters are in Louisville, Kentucky.
The organization should not be confused with the Sons of the Revolution (SR), a separate organization founded on February 22, 1876 by businessman John Austin Stevens and members of The Society of the Cincinnati. SAR Founder William Osborn McDowell disagreed with the Sons of the Revolution requirement at that time that all societies were to be subordinate to the New York society.
- 1 History
- 2 Membership
- 3 Governance
- 4 Genealogical library
- 5 Merchandise
- 6 Activities
- 7 SAR National Headquarters
- 8 Symbolism of the SAR insignia
- 9 Notable SAR members
- 10 See also
- 11 External links
- 12 Notes
The first organization of descendants of Revolutionary War patriots was established in San Francisco, California in 1876. A group of men who were descendants of Revolutionary War veterans gathered to celebrate the centennial of the Declaration of Independence and the founding of the United States. They also wanted to honor the men and women who pledged their lives, fortunes, and livelihood to the striving for independence from Great Britain. This group formed an organization called the Sons of Revolutionary War Sires (SRWS). There is, however, no direct link between the SRWS and the SAR except that members of the SRWS were permitted to join the SAR after its founding in 1889.
The history of the SAR can be traced to the founding of the Sons of the Revolution, the New York Society which was organized in 1883. The SR was founded by John Austin Stevens who envisioned an aristocratic social and hereditary organization along the lines of the Society of the Cincinnati. In 1889 William Osborn McDowell, a New Jersey financier and businessman, organized the New Jersey Society of the Sons of the Revolution but was unwilling to accept the SR's requirement that other state societies be subordinate to the New York society. Furthermore, McDowell wanted the society to become more of a mass movement of descendants of Revolutionary patriots rather than an exclusive social club. As a result, McDowell organized the Sons of the American Revolution (SAR) at Fraunces Tavern in New York on April 30, 1889. This was the centennial for the inauguration of George Washington as the First President of the United States of America in 1789. SAR membership number 1 was assigned to McDowell. In addition to organizing the SAR, McDowell worked with six women to organize the National Society Daughters of the American Revolution on July 29, 1890.
The SAR was formally granted a congressional charter by an act of Congress under Title 36 of the United States Code on June 9, 1906. The act was signed by President Theodore Roosevelt, who was a member.
Membership in the society is open to any male of "good repute" who can prove lineal bloodline descent from an ancestor who actively supported the American Revolution. Acceptable ancestors include:
- military veterans of the American Revolutionary War, including those who served in the Continental Army, Continental Navy, and state militias and navies
- signers of the Declaration of Independence
- members of the Continental Congress
- civilians who provided arms or supplies to the American cause
- people who served on political bodies supporting the Revolution, signed oaths of allegiance, or those who gave similar support to the Patriot cause.
- Soldiers and sailors from allied nations such as France and Spain who fought in support of American independence.
No state society or chapter may discriminate against an applicant on the basis of race or creed. The SAR claims a membership of over 33,000 members in over 500 chapters representing all 50 states in the United States, as well as societies in Canada, Mexico, France, Spain, Germany, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom. Overall, about 175,000 descendants have been admitted since the founding of the S.A.R. in 1890.
The governance of the Sons of the American Revolution is made up of 10 National (General) Officers, 15 Vice-Presidents that preside over separate geographical regions and a Trustee elected from each state and international society. These officers meet several times over the year to discuss business pertaining to the society. The National Officers meet at least four times during their term of office, unless special meetings are called. The Trustees meet twice each year at the Society's Headquarters in Louisville, Kentucky. These meetings, known as the Fall and Spring Leadership Meetings, are normally held in late September and early March. During the Leadership Meetings committee recommendations and the society's budget are approved. While only the National Officers, Vice-Presidents and Trustees have the right to vote on the floor, all SAR members are welcome to attend and may request appointment to committees. The National Officers and Trustees also meet during the National Congress held in late June or early July of each year. Unlike the Leadership Meetings which always take place at the Society's National Headquarters, the National Congress is held in different locations throughout the United States. Locations are often selected in order to honor a historical event in United States history or in the history of the SAR, and there is an effort to alternate the meetings between the Eastern and Western United States. The National Congress is responsible for electing the National Officers and approving changes to the Society's constitution, along with any other motions brought before it. In addition to the National Officers, Vice-Presidents and Trustees, State and International Society Presidents and specially elected delegates from each society also attend with voting privileges. The number of delegates are determined by each State or International Society's membership size.
In addition to the larger meetings previously listed, there are over 60 standing and special committees that SAR members are appointed to in order to oversee the Society's welfare. Some of these committees include: facilities, insurance, genealogy, library, merchandise, medals and awards. All SAR members are welcome to participate on committees and are appointed by the Society's President General for a one-year term. There are no term-limits and all committee members have the right to vote on the committee's decisions.
The President-General for 2015–2016 is Judge Thomas E. Lawrence from the Texas Society. He was sworn in as President-General at the 125th National Congress in Louisville, Kentucky. The Executive Director is Don Shaw of the Kentucky Society.
The National Society of the Sons of the American Revolution has held a collection of genealogical reference dating back to 1889. Materials were originally kept by the Secretary General or Registrar General up until 1926, when the materials were moved to the Registrar General's office in Washington D.C. in 1927, this collection was moved to the recently purchased Sixteenth Street Headquarters Building, and the collection had grown to 914 books by 1933. From this point until the move of Headquarters from Washington D.C. to Louisville, Kentucky, the book collection grew at a rapid pace, growing to approximately 25,000 items by 1988. At this point, the Library was on the Second floor of the Headquarters building on South Fourth Street, and possessed a 544-square-foot vault for books not out in the library due to space.
Because of continuing growth, the SAR Library was moved in 2010 to a renovated building on West Main Street in the heart of the Historic Museum District of downtown Louisville. By this point, the Library collection had grown to over 58,000 items, mostly covering the Revolutionary War period, but also containing other genealogical materials. The library collection includes family histories, state genealogy materials, federal censuses, Revolutionary War pension applications, and CD collections, and the library separates materials based on State. The library also provides access to online research databases, including Ancestry.com, Footnote.com, and Heritage Quest Online.
The society operates a Merchandise Department that sells items intended for both SAR members and the general public. Among the products available to the general public are: clothing apparel for men and women, Revolutionary War replicas such as Liberty Bells and Field Cannons, jewelry for men and women such as lapel pins and cuff links, along with cups, mugs, key-chains, books, CDs, videos and knickknacks. Items intended for SAR members only include: clothing, decals, license plate holders and frames, certificates and medals corresponding to SAR activities, medals designed to reward active and retired military personnel, firefighters, EMS, JROTC and ROTC, individuals involved in education, Eagle Scouts and many others.
The Merchandise Department is located on the lower level of the SAR Genealogical Library, located at 809 West Main Street, just across the street from the Louisville Slugger Museum & Factory.
The society is involved in historical research, raising funds for local scholarships and educational awards, and preservation of sites and documents related to the American Revolution. The SAR petitioned Congress to store Revolutionary era documents in a fire-proof area and make them available to the public, leading to the creation of the National Archives in 1913. It is also active in cataloging and marking Revolutionary War patriot graves and conducts an annual Eagle Scout scholarship program. The society is active in promoting "patriotism," and was instrumental in the establishment of Constitution Day. Several SAR societies and chapters have active color guard groups that appear in various public and private venues as a means of community outreach.
The Sons of the American Revolution hosts two Leadership Meetings and one National Congress every year. The two leadership meetings are held in the Spring and Fall in Louisville, KY at the Brown Hotel. The National Congress is held at a different location every year during the Summer. The 2015 National Congress took place June 26 – July 1 in Louisville, Kentucky. The 2016 National Congress will take place July 8–13 in Boston, Massachusetts.
SAR National Headquarters
The SAR's national headquarters, located along Museum Row in downtown Louisville, Kentucky, contains the organization's administrative staff offices, SAR Genealogical Research Library, and the future site of an American Revolutionary War Education Center. The SAR is currently raising funds to finish the Center's development. The building houses original and copied art that commemorates important people and events of the Revolutionary War, as well as historical uniforms, flags, documents, and other colonial era pieces.
Symbolism of the SAR insignia
The cross's vertical bar represents the commandment "You Shall Love Your God"; the horizontal bar represents the commandment "You Shall Love Your Neighbor as Yourself." The four limbs are a reminder of the four cardinal virtues; its eight points represent eight spiritual injunctions:
- To have spiritual contentment
- To live without malice
- To weep over your sins
- To humble yourself at insults
- To love justice
- To be merciful
- To be sincere and open-hearted
- To suffer persecution
The insignia is normally worn suspended by a ribbon of blue, white and gold on the wearer's left breast. National officers and former state presidents wear the insignia suspended from a neck ribbon of the Society's colors.
On other occasions a rosette in the Society's colors is worn on the wearers left lapel.
Notable SAR members
Presidents of the United States
- Ulysses S. Grant (posthumous) 18th
- Rutherford B. Hayes 19th
- Benjamin Harrison 23rd
- William McKinley 25th
- Theodore Roosevelt 26th
- William Howard Taft 27th
- Warren G. Harding 29th
- Calvin Coolidge 30th
- Herbert Hoover 31st
- Franklin D. Roosevelt 32nd
- Harry S. Truman 33rd
- Dwight D. Eisenhower 34th
- Lyndon B. Johnson 36th
- Gerald D. "Jerry" Ford 38th
- James Earl "Jimmy" Carter 39th
- George H. W. Bush 41st
- George W. Bush 43rd
Note – Presidents Grover Cleveland, Richard Nixon, William Jefferson "Bill" Clinton and Barack Obama had or have qualifying lineage but did not join the Sons of the American Revolution. Presidents Woodrow Wilson, John Fitzgerald Kennedy and Ronald Wilson Reagan did not have qualifying lineage. All US Presidents not mentioned above died prior to the founding of the SAR in 1889.
Presidents John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, James Monroe, Andrew Jackson, and John Quincy Adams had either military or patriotic service during the American Revolution and, thereby, their descendants are eligible for membership in SAR. President George Washington has no direct descendants, but the descendants of Martha Washington would also qualify for SAR membership.
In addition to the presidents mentioned above, presidents John Quincy Adams, William Henry Harrison, John Tyler, James K. Polk, Zachary Taylor, Millard Fillmore, Franklin Pierce, Abraham Lincoln, Andrew Johnson, James Garfield and Chester A. Arthur all had ancestors who supported the Patriot cause during the American Revolution and, thus, their descendants are eligible to join the SAR. Presidents Martin Van Buren and James Buchanan did not have qualifying ancestors.
Vice presidents of the United States
Nobel Peace Prize recipients
Medal of Honor recipients
- General of the Army Douglas MacArthur – Legendary general
- Lieutenant General Nelson A. Miles – U.S. Army Commanding General, 1895–1903
- Major General Adolphus Greely – Civil War veteran and Arctic explorer
- Rear Admiral Richard E. Byrd, Jr., USN – aviator and Antarctic explorer
- Brigadier General Theodore Roosevelt, Jr., AUS - Landed at Utah Beach on D-Day
- Brigadier General John B. Babcock
- Brigadier General Joseph Foss, SDANG – Governor of South Dakota
- Brevet Brigadier General Horace Porter
- Colonel Theodore Roosevelt, USV - Hero of the Battle of San Juan Hill
- Brevet Colonel Horatio Collins King
- Major John Alexander Logan, Jr., USV
- Surgeon John O. Skinner
- Admiral of the Navy George Dewey – Hero of the Battle of Manila Bay
- General of the Armies John J. Pershing – U.S. Army Chief of Staff and commander of the American Expeditionary Force in the First World War
- General of the Army Dwight Eisenhower – Supreme Commander of Allied Forces Europe
- General of the Air Force Henry H. Arnold – Commander of the U.S. Army Air Force in World War II
- Fleet Admiral William F. Halsey – Commander of the 3rd Fleet in World War II
- General Joseph E. Johnston, CSA – Confederate general
- General Frederick Kroesen – Former Vice Chief of Staff of the United States Army
- General Charles P. Summerall – U.S. Army Chief of Staff
- General William C. Westmoreland - United States commander in Vietnam.
- Admiral Thomas H. Moorer – Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff
- Admiral David Dixon Porter – Senior admiral of the U.S. Navy
- Admiral Harry D. Train II – NATO Supreme Allied Commander Atlantic
- Major General Thomas M. Anderson – Veteran of the Civil War, Spanish–American War and the Philippine Insurrection
- Major General Joseph Cabell Breckinridge, Sr. – U.S. Army general
- Major General Darius N. Couch – Union Army general during the Civil War
- Major General Frederick D. Grant – Son of President Ulysses S. Grant
- Major General Ulysses S. Grant III – Grandson of President Ulysses S. Grant
- Major General Curtis Guild, Jr. – Governor of Massachusetts
- Major General William Henry Fitzhugh Lee, CSA – Son of General Robert E. Lee
- Major General William R. Shafter – Commanded U.S. Army V Corps in Cuba in the Spanish–American War
- Major General Joseph Wheeler – Confederate Lieutenant General and U.S. Army Major General of Volunteers in the Spanish–American War
- Rear Admiral John R. Bartlett, USN – Oceanographer
- Rear Admiral Lewis A. Kimberly
- Rear Admiral Winfield Scott Schley – Hero of the Battle of Santiago de Cuba
- Rear Admiral John L. Worden – Commander of the USS Monitor
- Brigadier General James Devereux, USMC - Recipient of the Navy Cross and congressman
- Brigadier General Charles Wheaton Abbot, Jr. – Adjutant General of Rhode Island
- Brigadier General George Andrews – Adjutant General of the United States Army
- Brigadier General George Lippitt Andrews
- Brigadier General William H. Bisbee – Veteran of the Civil War and Spanish–American War
- Brigadier General Charles A. Coolidge – Veteran of the Civil War and Spanish–American War
- Brigadier General Charles Duke – Apollo 16 lunar module pilot
- Brigadier General Winfield Scott Edgerly – Veteran of the Indian Wars and the Spanish–American War
- Brigadier General Edmund Rice - Medal of Honor recipient.
- Brigadier General George Miller Sternberg – U.S. Army Surgeon General
- Brigadier General Charles Foster Tillinghast, Sr. – Veteran of the Spanish–American War and World War I
- Captain Charles V. Gridley, USN – Captain of the USS Olympia at the Battle of Manila Bay
- Colonel Ashley Chadbourne McKinley, USAF – Photographer on first flight over the South Pole
- Lieutenant Colonel Russell Benjamin Harrison – Veteran of the Spanish–American War and son of President Benjamin Harrison
- Major Archibald Butt – Presidential aide who died on the RMS Titanic
- Major Washington Irving Lincoln Adams – Politician, banker and veteran of World War I
- Brevet Major Augustus P. Davis – Founder of the Sons of Union Veterans of the Civil War
- Charles F. Adams III – Secretary of the Navy
- Sherman Adams – Governor of New Hampshire and chief of staff to President Eisenhower
- Richard S. Aldrich – United States Representative from Rhode Island
- Lamar Alexander – United States Senator
- Joseph W. Barr – Secretary of the Treasury
- Hale Boggs – Majority Leader, U.S. House of Representatives
- Augustus O. Bourn – Governor of Rhode Island
- Scott Brown – United States Senator from Massachusetts
- Morgan Bulkeley – Governor of Connecticut, United States Senator, Mayor of Hartford and longtime president of Aetna Insurance
- Quentin N. Burdick – U.S. Senator from North Dakota
- Harry F. Byrd – Governor and United States Senator from Virginia
- Harry F. Byrd, Jr. – United States Senator from Virginia
- HM Juan Carlos I – King of Spain
- Colonel Louis R. Cheney – Mayor of Hartford, Connecticut
- Lawton Chiles – U.S. Senator and Governor of Florida
- Rt. Hon. Sir Winston Churchill KG, OM, CH, TD, FRS – Prime Minister of the United Kingdom
- Arthur W. Coolidge – Lieutenant Governor of Massachusetts
- George P. Cronk – Los Angeles City Council member, 1945–52
- Charles G. Dawes – Vice President of the United States and Nobel Peace Prize recipient
- Arthur W. Dennis – Lieutenant Governor of Rhode Island
- Chauncey M. Depew – Secretary of State, United States Senator and President of the Empire State Society of the SAR from 1890 to 1899
- James P. S. Devereux – U.S. Congressman
- Thomas E. Dewey – Governor of New York and presidential candidate
- Angier Biddle Duke – Ambassador to Denmark
- Elisha Dyer, Jr. – Governor of Rhode Island
- Bob Ehrlich – Governor of Maryland
- Sam Ervin – United States Senator and Distinguished Service Cross recipient
- Phillips Lee Goldsborough – Governor of Maryland
- Barry M. Goldwater – United States Senator and presidential candidate
- Gilbert Gude – U.S. House of Representatives
- Curtis Guild, Jr. – Governor of Massachusetts
- John B. Hattendorf – Naval historian and professor at the United States Naval War College
- David J. Hill – Ambassador to Germany
- Lucius F. Hubbard – Governor of Minnesota and brigadier general during the Spanish–American War
- Charles Evans Hughes (honorary) – Supreme Court Chief Justice, Secretary of State and Governor of New York
- Hamilton Fish Kean – United States Senator from New Jersey
- Kenneth B. Keating – United States Senator from New York and Ambassador to India and Israel
- Charles D. Kimball – Governor of Rhode Island
- Jefferson M. Levy – United States Representative and owner of Monticello
- Charles W. Lippitt – Governor of Rhode Island
- Henry F. Lippitt – United States Senator from Rhode Island
- Henry Cabot Lodge – United States Senator from Massachusetts
- John Langeloth Loeb, Jr. - Ambassador to Denmark
- Seymour Lowman – Lieutenant Governor of New York
- John S. McCain, III – United States Senator
- Wallace McCamant – Federal judge
- Mitch McConnell – United States Senate Majority Leader
- Jesse H. Metcalf – U.S. Senator from Rhode Island
- Arch A. Moore, Jr. – Governor of West Virginia
- Levi P. Morton – Vice President of the U.S. and Governor of New York
- Franklin Murphy – Governor of New Jersey
- Martin O'Malley – Governor of Maryland and presidential candidate
- Rick Perry – Governor of Texas
- Gary Peters – United States Senator from Michigan
- John J. Rhodes - U.S. Representative for 30 years
- Henry Roberts – Governor of Connecticut
- Nelson A. Rockefeller – Governor of New York and Vice President of the United States
- Winthrop Rockefeller – Governor of Arkansas
- Winthrop Paul Rockefeller - Lieutenant Governor of Arkansas
- Ernest E. Rogers – Lieutenant Governor of Connecticut
- Elihu Root – Secretary of War and Secretary of State
- John G. Rowland - Governor of Connecticut
- Leverett Saltonstall – U.S. Senator and Governor of Massachusetts
- George L. Shepley – Lieutenant Governor of Rhode Island
- Henry L. Stimson – Secretary of War during World War II
- Henry Stockbridge – U.S. Representative
- Robert Taft, Jr. – U.S. Senator from Ohio
- Royal C. Taft – Governor of Rhode Island
- Herman Talmadge – U.S. Senator from Georgia
- Strom Thurmond – U.S. Senator from South Carolina
- John Tower – U.S. Senator from Texas
- David Jenkins Ward – U.S. Congressmen
- Edwin Warfield – Governor of Maryland
- Roger Wicker – U.S. Senator from Mississippi
- Bob Wilson – U.S. Representative from California
- Henry L. Wilson – American diplomat and Ambassador to Mexico 1909–1913
Other notable members
- Henry L. P. Beckwith, Jr. – Genealogist and historian
- Luther Blount - Inventor and shipyard owner
- George Madison Bodge – Author, historian, and genealogist
- John Nicholas Brown II – Philanthropist
- Charles W. Burpee – Newspaper editor
- Henry Louis Gates, Jr – Professor and chairman of the African American Studies Program at Harvard University
- Howard B. Gist, Sr. – attorney and civic figure in Alexandria, Louisiana
- William Randolph Hearst – Newspaper publisher and U.S. Representative
- William Randolph Hearst, Jr. - Newspaper editor
- Benjamin Newhall Johnson – Attorney and historian
- Rod D. Martin – former PayPal executive, former President of the National Federation of Republican Assemblies, technology entrepreneur and author
- Frederick Law Olmsted – Landscape architect and designer of Central Park
- Norman Vincent Peale – Author and minister
- H. Paul Pressler – Texas appeals court justice and leader of the Conservative Resurgence in the Southern Baptist Convention
- John D. Rockefeller – Founder of Standard Oil
- George Albert Smith – President of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
- John Spencer-Churchill – Artist and nephew of Winston Churchill
- Lowell Thomas – Author and news anchor
- George Washington Vanderbilt II – Owner of the Biltmore estate
- Edgar Williamson, Jr. – Insurance executive
- List of attractions and events in the Louisville metropolitan area
- List of hereditary and lineage organizations
- Daughters of the American Revolution
- Children of the American Revolution
- Military Order of the Loyal Legion of the United States
- Military Order of Foreign Wars
- General Society of Colonial Wars
- Sons of Confederate Veterans
- Sons of the Revolution
- Sons of Union Veterans
- The United Empire Loyalists' Association of Canada
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Sons of the American Revolution.|
- National Society of the Sons of the American Revolution - Official Web site
- National Society of the Sons of the American Revolution state websites
- NSSAR Genealogical Library
- Society of the Sons of the American Revolution-France
- Sons of the American Revolution at DMOZ
- Founder of Black Revolutionary War Patriots Foundation praises NSSAR
- United Empire Loyalist Association of Canada
- The Hereditary Society Community Of the United States of America
- The Arkansas Society of the Sons of the American Revolution
- "Sons of the American Revolution." World Book Online Reference Center. World Book, 2013. Web. 9 May 2013.
- The National Society of the Sons of the American Revolution Official Handbook (PDF). September 2012. p. 1. Retrieved 24 October 2012.
- Charles B. Schweizer. "SAR New Member Information" (PDF). Retrieved 24 October 2012.
- Williams, Winston C. (ed.). Centennial History of the National Society of the Sons of the American Revolution, 1889–1989. Paducah, KY: Turner Publishing Company. p. 9. Retrieved 15 January 2011.
- "Suggested Induction Ceremony for New Members No. Two" (PDF). The National Society of the Sons of the American Revolution Official Handbook Volume II: History, Organization and Protocol. The National Society of the Sons of the American Revolution. Retrieved 27 July 2012.
- (President Grant died in 1885 – prior to the founding of the S.A.R. - but he was a member of the "Sons of Revolutionary Sires". Though it had no direct connection with the SAR, its members were later granted admission to the Sons of the American Revolution after its organization if they so desired.)
- Presidents who are SAR members (California SAR)
- "The California Compatriot" (PDF). California Society SAR. Spring 2007. p. 23. Retrieved 2007-09-04.
- SAR Handbook, VIII, pg 6. General MacArthur approved an SAR service medal bearing his likeness, and was the first recipient following his death in 1964. Websites accessed 28 December 2008.
- "Political Graveyard".
- "Stony Point Battle Chapter Sons of the American Revolution".
- Short History of the Sons of the American Revolution. Retrieved 26 December 2008.
- "Recovery of the Remains of Patriot John Paul Jones".
- "Sons of American Revolution welcome Gates". Harvard University Gazette. Retrieved 15 January 2011.
- NSSAR Membership Roster 2009
- Henry E. Chambers, History of Louisiana, Vol. 2 (Chicago and New York City: The American Historical Society, Inc., 1925), p. 247
- "Dr. Rod Martin to Speak at 2015 Commencement". Hannibal LaGrange University. Retrieved 13 January 2016.