Steve Stockman

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Steve Stockman
Steve Stockman official portrait.jpg
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Texas's 36th district
In office
January 3, 2013 – January 3, 2015
Preceded by Constituency established
Succeeded by Brian Babin
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Texas's 9th district
In office
January 3, 1995 – January 3, 1997
Preceded by Jack Brooks
Succeeded by Nick Lampson
Personal details
Born Stephen Ernest Stockman
(1956-11-14) November 14, 1956 (age 60)
Bloomfield Hills, Michigan, U.S.
Nationality American
Political party Republican
Spouse(s) Patti Ferguson (1988–present)[1]
Alma mater University of Houston, Clear Lake
Website House website

Stephen Ernest "Steve" Stockman (born November 14, 1956) is an American politician and member of the Republican Party. He served as the U.S. Representative for Texas's 9th congressional district from 1995 to 1997 and for Texas's 36th congressional district from 2013 to 2015. Stockman ran in the 2014 election for the United States Senate but lost the Republican primary to incumbent Senator John Cornyn.

Early life, education, and business career[edit]

Stockman was born in Bloomfield Hills, Michigan, outside Detroit. He graduated from Dondero High School in Royal Oak, Michigan. From 1985 to 1986, he attended San Jacinto College but dropped out because he suffered from what he called "partying syndrome". In 1977, when Stockman was twenty, police officers found valium in his possession. He was charged with felony possession of a controlled substance, but the charge was later dropped.[3][4] He later became a born-again Christian.[5][6] In 1990, he earned a bachelor's degree in accounting from the University of Houston–Clear Lake.[7] He worked as a computer salesman in Friendswood, Texas.[8]

Criminal case[edit]

In March 2017, Stockman was arrested for allegedly conspiring to use contributions designated for a charity to fund his campaign and for personal use, a felony, under 18 U.S.C. § 371. According to the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), in January 2013, Stockman requested and received $350,000 in donations from an unidentified businessman. Stockman allegedly solicited the money by using the name of Life Without Limits, a Las Vegas-based nonprofit intended to help people who have experienced traumatic events. The donation was allegedly intended to be used to renovate the Freedom House in Washington D.C.[9] Stockman has also been charged with conspiracy to falsify statements when reporting contributions to try launder the money.[10][11] The FBI alleges that at the time of the events in question, Stockman had no formal control of the Life Without Limits organization, but that he had opened multiple bank accounts under the name "Stephen E Stockman dba Life Without Limits." The FBI also alleges that financial records indicate that Stockman "made no significant expenditures toward the purchase, renovation, or operation of the 'Freedom House,' which was never opened."[12] Federal prosecutors allege that Stockman conspired with Thomas Dodd, a former campaign worker and congressional special assistant. According to the Houston Chronicle, the alleged conspiracy involved attempts “to bilk conservative foundations out of at least $775,000 in donations meant for charitable purposes or voter education”. Dodd was indicted by a Federal grand jury in Houston and, on March 20, 2017, he pleaded guilty. Sentencing for Dodd is set for August 3, 2017.[13][14]

On March 28, 2017, a federal grand jury issued a 28-count indictment of Stockman. He was accused of obtaining $1.25 million under false pretenses and using the funds for his political campaigns.[15] Also indicted was Jason Posey, the former director of special projects in Stockman’s congressional office. Stockman was charged with eleven counts of money laundering, eight counts of mail and wire fraud, one count of conspiracy to make "conduit contributions" and false statements (conspiracy to conceal the real source of the contributions by false attribution), two counts of making false statements to the Federal Election Commission, one count of making excessive contributions, and one count of willfully filing a false 2013 Federal income tax return by not reporting some of his income. Posey was charged with six counts of money laundering, four counts of mail and wire fraud, one count of conspiracy to make conduit contributions and false statements, two counts of making false statements to the Federal Election Commission, one count of making excessive contributions, and one count of falsification of records.[16][17] Due to its complexity and the need for time to review 142,378 pages of documents disclosed by the prosecution, a motion for postponement of Stockman's trail by his court-appointed attorney was granted. It is now scheduled to begin on January 29, 2018.[18]

U.S. House of Representatives (1995–1997)[edit]

Stockman during his first term in Congress

Elections[edit]

1990

Stockman's first run for Congress was in March 1990 in Texas's 9th congressional district. The district, anchored by Beaumont and Galveston, had been represented by Democratic Representative Jack Brooks since 1953. His primary challenger was Mayor Maury Meyers of Beaumont.[19] Oliver North made appearances at two of Stockman's fundraisers.[20]

Meyers got 44.3% of the primary vote; Stockman, 41%.[19] Since no candidate had a majority, there was a runoff election and, with the support of third-place finisher Steve Clifford,[21] Meyers beat Stockman to win the Republican nomination.[22]

1992

Stockman ran again in 1992 for the House in District 9. This time he was unopposed in the primary.[23] The 1992 Republican National Convention was held in Houston in August of that year. Stockman organized a "congressional cruise" on the Houston Ship Channel as a fundraising opportunity, but no members of Congress attended.[24] Democrat Brooks defeated him 56% to 44%.[25]

1994

Stockman ran again for House District 9 in 1994. He had two challengers in the Republican primary: John LeCour and James Milburn. Stockman finished the primary with a landslide 74%.[26]

His Democratic opponent in the general election was, as before, incumbent Jack Brooks. Initially the National Rifle Association (NRA) endorsed Brooks and even donated $5,000 to his cause, while the Gun Owners of America endorsed Stockman.[27] However, a number of NRA members threatened to resign from the organization over the issue and the NRA withdrew their support for Brooks, remaining neutral in the race.[27] In a major upset, Stockman beat Brooks, who, had he won, would have become Dean of the United States House of Representatives,[28] by 51% to 49%.[29]

1996

Stockman ran unopposed in the 1996 Republican primary.[30] In July a federal court ordered the boundaries of 13 Texas House districts to be redrawn because of racial gerrymandering, although Stockman's district was barely affected.[31] Stockman won a plurality in the November election with 46%, forcing a runoff against Democratic Jefferson County assessor Nick Lampson in the runoff election.[32] Lampson won the runoff election with 53% of the vote[33]

Tenure[edit]

During his 1995 term, Stockman opposed the U.S. bailout of the Mexican peso[34][35]

In 1995, Stockman wrote an article for Guns & Ammo claiming that the Waco siege had been orchestrated by the Clinton administration in order "to prove the need for a ban on so-called 'assault weapons.'"[36] He wrote further that "[h]ad Bill Clinton really been unhappy with what Attorney General Janet Reno ordered, he would not only have fired her, he would have had Reno indicted for premeditated murder." After the article was published, Stockman's office denied that he believed in Waco "conspiracy theories."[37][38]

In 1995, Stockman called for a Congressional investigation into Alfred Kinsey's 1948 study Sexual Behavior in the Human Male after learning that Kinsey had used data from the diary of a pedophile.[39] Stockman believed that the allegations discredited current theories of sexual education in the United States, writing to his congressional colleagues that"[o]ur children have been taught that . . . any type of sex is a valid outlet for their emotions. They are taught that the problem with sex is not that it is wrong to engage in homosexual, bestial, underage, or premarital sex, but that it is wrong to do so without protection."[3]

Committee assignments[edit]

Inter-congressional career (1997–2013)[edit]

In 1998, Stockman ran unsuccessfully in the Republican primary for the Texas Railroad Commission.[43]

Between 2005 and 2007, Stockman worked with the conservative Leadership Institute[43] as director of its Campus Leadership Program.[44]

In 2006, he attempted to run as an Independent candidate for Texas's 22nd congressional district, Tom DeLay's former seat, and even though he had enough signatures to qualify for ballot access, the Texas Secretary of State invalidated enough signatures to make him ineligible.[45][46] Stockman registered for the special election to fill out the remainder of DeLay's term; he was one of five candidates.[47] He finished third, with 10.75% of the vote.

During his time away from Congress, Stockman also cared for his father, who had Alzheimer's disease. The cost of caring for him drove Stockman to declare bankruptcy[48] and, when his father's disease became too severe, Stockman moved him to a veteran's home. When his father died, Stockman decided to run for Congress in the 2012 elections.[43]

U.S. House of Representatives (2013–2015)[edit]

Election[edit]

In 2011 Stockman formed an exploratory committee, Friends of Steve Stockman, to consider a run for the 14th district seat being vacated by unsuccessful presidential candidate Ron Paul. Stockman instead ran in 2012 in the newly created 36th District. This includes the Harris County portion of Friendswood, where Stockman's home was located. It was drawn to be heavily Republican, and it was understood that whoever won the Republican primary would be the district's first congressman. In the May 29 primary, Stockman finished second in the first round, behind Stephen Vincent Takach, a financial planner. Takach finished with 22 percent of the vote, far short of the 50 percent threshold required to win.[49] Stockman defeated Takach in the July 31 runoff 55%–45%, all but assuring his return to Congress after a 16-year absence.[50]

In the November general election, Stockman defeated Democrat Max Owen Martin, a retired pilot from Clear Lake City, Texas, with 71% of the vote.[51]

Tenure[edit]

In 2013, Stockman was one of ten Republicans who did not vote for John Boehner (R-OH) for Speaker of the House; he was the only representative to vote "Present" as his protest vote.[52][53]

Stockman opposes the Affordable Care Act (ACA). In 2013, Stockman supported a government shutdown caused by Republican members of Congress who sought to block a continuing resolution that includes funding for the Affordable Care Act.[54] Stockman's last-minute decision to challenge Cornyn in the Republican primary for Senate was "sparked in part by Cornyn's role in helping end" the federal shutdown.[55]

In January 2013, Stockman introduced the "Safe Schools Act," a bill that would repeal the Gun-Free School Zones Act of 1990. Stockman introduced the bill following the Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting. He asserted that "By disarming qualified citizens and officials in schools we have created a dangerous situation for our children."[56] The same month, Stockman issued a press release condemning gun control executive orders issued by President Barack Obama post-Sandy Hook, stating, "I will seek to thwart this action by any means necessary, including but not limited to eliminating funding for implementation, defunding the White House, and even filing articles of impeachment."[57]

In February 2013, Stockman voted against the re-authorization of the Violence Against Women Act, objecting to provisions in the bill that expanded protections for transgender victims of domestic violence. Stockman said, "This is helping the liberals, this is horrible. Unbelievable. What really bothers—it's called a women's act, but then they have men dressed up as women, they count that. Change-gender, or whatever. How is that—how is that a woman?"[43]

On April 25, 2014, Stockman stated that the House Ethics Committee was investigating a campaign finance reporting error made by a former campaign worker. Stockman stated that the mistake was corrected soon after he learned of it, and that the worker had been removed from the campaign organization.[58]

Committee assignments[edit]

2014 U.S. Senate election[edit]

On December 9, 2013, Stockman filed for the Republican nomination for U.S. Senate for Texas against incumbent U.S. Senator John Cornyn.[60][61]

On March 4, 2014, Stockman polled 250,759 votes (19.2 percent) in his bid for the Republican nomination for the Senate.[62] He placed second in a field of eight candidates on the ballot. Cornyn received 778,967 votes (59.44 percent).[63][64] On election night, Stockman quickly conceded and called upon Texas Republicans to vote the straight party ticket on November 4, 2014.[65]

Meanwhile, Brian Babin won the seat for District 36 as Stockman did not contest this seat.

Political future[edit]

Stockman was a potential candidate for the Constitution Party nomination for President of the United States in the 2016 election.[66][67]

Political positions[edit]

Energy Independence[edit]

Congressman Stockman is a supporter of American Energy Independence and used his position during his tenure on the technology committee to question the EPA's technological criteria for evaluating applications on hydraulic fracking.[68] He has worked on improving the current technologies being used[68] on shale oil and gas production. He was a member of the carbon caucus, supports the keystone pipeline, use of coal, opening up federal lands for drilling as well as hydraulic fracking for shale oil and gas production.

Economy and jobs[edit]

Stockman has spoken out about the need to dredge and secure the Texas Ports like Houston, Cedar Bayou, Beaumont and Orange from which many of the Gulf Coast petrochemicals are shipped, providing a considerable number of jobs, as these ports are important to the Texan economy.[69] The district includes Baytown, Pasadena, Deer Park, Mount Bellvieu and is the largest petrochemical industrial district in the United States.[70] With the advent of production of shale gas, over 100 billion dollars are expected to be invested in the U.S. petrochemical sector over the next few years (most of it in Texas), and over 40 billion dollars in Stockman’s district, potentially creating numerous new jobs.[69] These plants include ethylene crackers, PDH plants, methanol manufacturing facilities and others. Stockman has repeatedly appealed to the EPA to expedite permits for new plant construction.[71] He has also called on Vice President Joe Biden to obtain a lifting of what he argues is an EPA blockade on American jobs.[72]

Fiscal[edit]

Stockman cosponsored the 2013 Energy Freedom Prosperity Act that would have eliminated all energy-related tax subsidies.[69] He sponsored the bill to defund "Obamacare". Stockman advocates abolishing the Internal Revenue Service and replacing the federal income tax with a flat tax.[citation needed]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Stephen Stockman and Patti Ferguson, Married December 10, 1988". texasmarriagerecords.org. Retrieved August 2, 2012. 
  2. ^ Reiner, Anne (November 12, 2012). "Southern Baptist contingent in Congress grows". Erlc.com. Retrieved January 16, 2013. 
  3. ^ a b Mimi Swartz (February 1996). "Congressman Clueless". Texas Monthly. 
  4. ^ Gillman, Todd. "In 1995, Stockman admitted jail time, felony charge. Today he denies that, accusing Cornyn allies of lying.". Dallas Morning News. Retrieved 1 February 2014. 
  5. ^ John Gizzi, Steve Stockman Vies for 36th Texas District Seat, Human Events, July 7, 2012
  6. ^ Christopher Hooks (December 20, 2013). "Steve Stockman Can't Lose". Politico. 
  7. ^ "Salesman, 33, to run for Brooks seat". Houston Chronicle. December 20, 1989. p. 26. 
  8. ^ Alan Bernstein (March 11, 1990). "Local candidates rush to replace outgoing incumbents". Houston Chronicle.  |section= ignored (help)
  9. ^ Hunt, Dianna; Kadifa, Margaret (17 March 2017). "Former Rep. Steve Stockman charged with diverting charitable funds to campaign". Hearst Newspapers, LLC. Chron. Retrieved 17 March 2017. 
  10. ^ Flynn, Maegan (17 March 2017). "Tea Partier Steve Stockman Accused of Using Charity Cash For Campaign". Houston Press, LP. Retrieved 17 March 2017. 
  11. ^ "Former Texas Congressman Steve Stockman accused of violating federal election law". Houston, TX: KPRC. 16 March 2017. Retrieved 17 March 2017. 
  12. ^ Criminal Complaint and Affidavit, United States v. Stephen E. Stockman, case no. 17-mj-00331, U.S. District Court for the Southern District of Texas.
  13. ^ Lise Olsen, “Alleged scam by Stockman detailed,” March 23, 2017, pages A1 and A13, Houston Chronicle.
  14. ^ United States v. Thomas Dodd, case no. 17-cr-00116, U.S. District Court for the Southern District of Texas.
  15. ^ Josh Gerstein, "Ex-congressman Stockman indicted in Texas," March 28, 2017, politico.com, at [1].
  16. ^ News Release, "Former Texas Congressman and Associate Indicted on Conspiracy Charges," March 28, 2017, United States Department of Justice, at [2].
  17. ^ First Superseding Indictment, March 28, 2017, docket entry 23, United States v. Stephen E. Stockman, Jason T. Posey, case no. 17-cr-00116, U.S. District Court for the Southern District of Texas (Houston Div.).
  18. ^ Former Texas Congressman’s Fraud Trial Pushed to 2018, Courthouse News Service, Cameron Langford, April 27, 2017. Retrieved July 24, 2017.
  19. ^ a b Richard Stewart (March 15, 1990). "Primaries '90 – Rep. Brooks wins Dem contest; Meyers leads GOP opponent". Houston Chronicle. 
  20. ^ Sam Attlesey (February 3, 1990). "Iran-contra figure North appears at Hance fund-raisers". Dallas Morning News. In addition to the fee he received for appearing with Mr. Hance, Mr. North also will receive $25,000 for joining Republican congressional candidate Steve Stockman on Saturday in Beaumont and Houston. 
  21. ^ "Loser backs Meyers in runoff". Houston Chronicle. March 16, 1990. p. A25. 
  22. ^ Mike Ward; Drew Parma (April 11, 1990). "Shine gets GOP nod in race for Congress". Austin American-Statesman. p. A9. 
  23. ^ "Unopposed Republican candidates". Houston Chronicle. March 1, 1992. p. 15.  |section= ignored (help)
  24. ^ Alan Bernstein (August 23, 1992). "National convention continues to have ripple effect locally". Houston Chronicle. p. C2. 
  25. ^ "House of Representatives [Part 2 of 2]". Sacramento Bee. November 5, 1992. p. A16. 
  26. ^ Susan Warren (March 9, 1994). "Election '94/Bentsen, Clark in runoff/District 25 victor to face Fontenot". Houston Chronicle. 
  27. ^ a b "Rep. Brooks' long tenure in danger – The crime bill, his incumbency may sink the Democrat's bid for a 22nd term". Austin American-Statesman. October 22, 1994. p. A13. 
  28. ^ Ron Hutcheson (July 25, 1994). "Texan in line as House dean – Jack Brooks has reputation as in-your-face politician". Fort Worth Star-Telegram. p. 1. 
  29. ^ "State Results". Austin American-Statesman. November 9, 1994. p. A8. 
  30. ^ "Unopposed Republicans". Houston Chronicle. March 3, 1996. p. 16.  |section= ignored (help)
  31. ^ Alan Bernstein (August 7, 1996). "The shape of things to come/Judges shift district lines/New races ordered this year for seats in Houston, Dallas". Houston Chronicle. 9th District:Few changes made; first-term conservative still running in a majority Democratic and Anglo district stretching from Galveston to Beaumont. 
  32. ^ Richard Stewart (November 7, 1996). "ELECTION '96/Stockman-Lampson runoff brawl may take place on national stage". Houston Chronicle. p. 34. 
  33. ^ Michael Graczyk (December 11, 1996). "Lampson, Brady, Bentsen win House seats in runoff election". Austin American-Statesman. p. A10. 
  34. ^ Sangillo, Gregg (November 1, 2012). "Texas, 36th House District". National Journal. Retrieved February 13, 2013. 
  35. ^ Sangillo, Gregg (1 November 2012). "Texas, 36th House District". National Journal. Retrieved 13 February 2013. 
  36. ^ Dana Milbank (January 17, 1999). "Whatever Happened to the Class of 1994?: The right-wing firebrands who charged into Congress in 1994 launched the missile that impeached Bill Clinton. Now, more than a third of the renegades are out of office—and those who remain are becoming Washington insiders. in out But it may have been a kamikaze mission". New York Times. p. 36.  |section= ignored (help)
  37. ^ Holmes, Steven A. (May 13, 1995). "Terror in Oklahoma: In Congress; Congressman Calls Raid Near Waco A Clinton Plot". The New York Times. Retrieved February 1, 2014. 
  38. ^ Schmidt, Susan (May 13, 1995). "Rep. Stockman Says Raid On Cult Had Political Aim". The Washington Post. p. A08. 
  39. ^ Fisher, Marc (12 December 1995). "Critics: Sex Ed A Sham Since Kinsey Used Pedophile's Data". The Washington Post. Retrieved 1 February 2014. 
  40. ^ Griffith, Pat (Feb 11, 1995). "Kaptur calls for date on Mexico bailout". Toledo Blade. Washington. p. 3. Retrieved 13 February 2013. 
  41. ^ "Washington Digest". Fort Worth Star-Telegram. November 8, 1995. Retrieved 13 February 2013. 
  42. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on January 17, 2013. Retrieved 2013-02-11. 
  43. ^ a b c d Woodruff, Betsy (March 18, 2013). "Back in the Saddle". National Review. Retrieved March 25, 2013. 
  44. ^ Texas, 36th House District National Journal. Retrieved December 17, 2013
  45. ^ "Stockman fails to get enough names – Houston Chronicle". Chron.com. 2006-06-23. Retrieved 2013-01-16. 
  46. ^ "Texas Secretary Of State Rules Stockman Can't Run For Congress - Fort Bend Now". Fortbendnow.com. 2006-06-22. Retrieved 2016-06-27. 
  47. ^ "Races with Candidates with Addresses Report" (PDF). Texas Secretary of State. Retrieved 2006-09-01. 
  48. ^ In re Stephen E. Stockman and Patti F. Stockman, case no. 02-33843-H3-7, U.S. Bankruptcy Court for the Southern District of Texas (Houston Div.); petition filed April 5, 2002; discharge granted Oct. 24, 2002; case closed Oct. 24, 2002.
  49. ^ "Republican primary election returns, May 29, 2012". enr.sos.state.tx.us. Retrieved May 30, 2012. 
  50. ^ "Texas Congressional Primaries – Election Results". The New York Times. March 7, 2013. Retrieved August 2, 2012. 
  51. ^ "Texas general election returns, November 6, 2012". Texas Secretary of State. Retrieved November 10, 2012. 
  52. ^ Blake, Aaron (January 3, 2013). "Who voted against Boehner for speaker and why?". Washington Post. Retrieved August 3, 2013. 
  53. ^ Kasperowicz, Pete (January 3, 2013). "Boehner reelected as Speaker; nine Republicans defect in vote – The Hill's Floor Action". Thehill.com. Retrieved January 16, 2013. 
  54. ^ Sabrina Siddiqui, Steve Stockman: People In Wheelchairs Help Democrats Win Health Care Argument, Huffington Post (August 8, 2013).
  55. ^ Brian Rogers & Margaret Kadifa, Former U.S. Rep. Steve Stockman blames 'deep state' conspiracy for arrest, Houston Chronicle (March 17, 2017).
  56. ^ "Stockman introduces Audit The Fed Act, Safe Schools Act to repeal ‘Gun Free School Zones’ – Your Houston News: News". Your Houston News. 2013-01-07. Retrieved 2013-01-16. 
  57. ^ Stockman, Steve (January 14, 2013). "Obama's gun grab an unconstitutional threat to the nation" (Press release). Washington DC: House.gov. Retrieved 2013-01-18. The White House’s recent announcement they will use executive orders and executive actions to infringe on our constitutionally-protected right to keep and bear arms is an unconstitutional and unconscionable attack on the very founding principles of this republic. I will seek to thwart this action by any means necessary, including but not limited to eliminating funding for implementation, defunding the White House, and even filing articles of impeachment. 
  58. ^ Matthew Daly, "Texas Rep. Stockman says ethics inquiry underway," April 26, 2014, Associated Press, at [3].
  59. ^ "Stockman named to Science, Foreign Affairs committees – The Vindicator: News". The Vindicator. 2013-01-10. Retrieved 2013-01-16. 
  60. ^ Woodruff, Betsy. Stockman Will Primary Cornyn, National Review, December 9, 2013.
  61. ^ Glueck, Katie (December 9, 2013). "In surprise, Steve Stockman challenges John Cornyn". Politico. 
  62. ^ "Cornyn easily wins GOP nomination for US Senate," Associated Press, March 4, 2014, from KHOU-TV Houston, at [4].
  63. ^ "Republican primary election returns, March 4, 2014". enr.sos.state.tx.us. Retrieved March 5, 2014. 
  64. ^ "Texas 2014 Primary Results". The New York Times. Retrieved 6 March 2014. 
  65. ^ "Mary Katherine Ham, "Cornyn crushes Stockman in Texas primary", March 4, 2014". hotair.com. Retrieved March 6, 2014. 
  66. ^ Glenn Davis (April 8, 2015). "Constitution Party Has Ballot Access in 13 States and Continues to Grow". IVN.com. Retrieved April 16, 2015. 
  67. ^ Trent Hill (April 13, 2015). "The Constitution Party’s Presidential Options". Independent Political Report. Retrieved April 16, 2015. 
  68. ^ a b [5].
  69. ^ a b c "Platts Horizon Spring 2013". zmags.com. Retrieved August 2, 2016. 
  70. ^ "Texas’s 36th Congressional District - TX-36 Representatives & District Map - GovTrack.us". govtrack.us. Retrieved August 2, 2016. 
  71. ^ "Press release". house.gov. Retrieved August 2, 2016. 
  72. ^ "Press release". house.gov. Retrieved August 2, 2016. 

External links[edit]

U.S. House of Representatives
Preceded by
Jack Brooks
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Texas's 9th congressional district

1995–1997
Succeeded by
Nick Lampson
New constituency Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Texas's 36th congressional district

2013–2015
Succeeded by
Brian Babin