||This article includes a list of references, related reading or external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks inline citations. (January 2016)|
In Iraq, December 2007
|Birth name||Oliver Laurence North|
October 7, 1943 |
San Antonio, Texas, United States
|Allegiance||United States of America|
|Service/branch||United States Marine Corps|
|Years of service||1968–1990|
|Commands held||Marine Corps Northern Training Area, Okinawa|
|Spouse(s)||Betsy North (married 1967); 4 children|
Oliver Laurence North (born October 7, 1943) is an American political commentator and television host, military historian, New York Times best-selling author, former United States Marine Corps lieutenant colonel.
North is primarily remembered for his term as a National Security Council staff member during the Iran–Contra affair, a political scandal of the late 1980s. The scandal involved the clandestine sale of weapons to Iran, supposedly to encourage the release of U.S. hostages then held in Lebanon. North formulated the second part of the plan, which was to divert proceeds from the arms sales to support the Contra rebel groups in Nicaragua, which had been specifically prohibited under the Boland Amendment. He was the host of War Stories with Oliver North on Fox News Channel.
- 1 Early life
- 2 U.S. Marine Corps career
- 3 Military awards and decorations
- 4 Iran–Contra affair
- 5 Later life and career
- 6 Personal life
- 7 Pop culture
- 8 References
- 9 Further reading
- 10 External links
North was born in San Antonio, Texas, on October 7, 1943. He is the son of Ann Theresa (née Clancy) and Oliver Clay North, a U.S. Army major. He grew up in Philmont, New York, and graduated from Ockawamick Central High School in 1961. He attended the State University of New York at Brockport in Brockport, New York, for two years.
While at Brockport, North spent a summer at the United States Marine Corps Platoon Leaders Class at Marine Corps Base Quantico, Virginia, and gained an appointment to the United States Naval Academy in 1963. He received his commission as second lieutenant in 1968 (he missed a year due to injuries from an auto accident). One of North's classmates at the Academy was future secretary of the Navy and U.S. senator Jim Webb, whom he beat in a championship boxing match at Annapolis. Their graduating class included Dennis C. Blair, Michael Mullen, Charles Bolden and Michael Hagee.
U.S. Marine Corps career
|This section needs additional citations for verification. (February 2016)|
North served as a platoon commander during the Vietnam War, where during his combat service, he was awarded the Silver Star, Bronze Star Medal, and two Purple Heart medals. At the time of his Silver Star, Second Lieutenant North was a Platoon Commander leading his Marines in Operation Virginia Ridge. North lead a counter assault against the North Vietnamese Army, as his platoon took on heavy machine gun fire and rocket propelled grenades. Throughout the battle, North displayed "courage, dynamic leadership and unwavering devotion to duty in the face of grave personal danger". He then became an instructor at The Basic School in Quantico, Virginia.
In 1970, North returned to South Vietnam to testify at the trial of LCpl Randy Herrod, a U.S. Marine formerly under his command who had been charged with the mass killing of Vietnamese civilians. North was promoted to captain in 1971 and served as the commanding officer of the U.S. Marine Corps' Northern Training Area in Okinawa Prefecture, Japan.
After his duty in Okinawa, North was assigned for four years to Marine Corps Headquarters in Arlington, Virginia. He was then promoted to major and served two years as the operations officer of 3rd Battalion, 8th Marine Regiment, commanded by then Lt. Col. John Southy Grinalds, 2nd Marine Division in Camp Lejeune at Jacksonville, North Carolina. He attended the Command and Staff Course at the Naval War College in Newport, Rhode Island, and graduated in 1981.
North began his assignment to the National Security Council (NSC) in Washington, D.C., where he served as the deputy director for political–military affairs from 1981 until his reassignment in 1986. In 1983, North received his promotion to lieutenant colonel, which would be his last.
During his tenure at the NSC, North managed a number of missions. This included leading the hunt for those responsible for the 1983 Beirut barracks bombing that killed 299 American and French military personnel, an effort that saw North arranging a midair interception of an EgyptAir jet carrying those responsible for the Achille Lauro hijacking. While also at the NSC, he helped plan the U.S. invasion of Grenada and the 1986 Bombing of Libya.
During his trial, Oliver North spent his last two years on active duty assigned to Headquarters Marine Corps in Arlington, Virginia. He resigned his Marine Corps commission in 1990 following his indictment for conspiring to defraud the United States by channeling the profits from US arms sales to the Contra rebels in Nicaragua.
|Basic Parachutist Badge|
|Silver Star Medal||Bronze Star Medal with Combat "V"|
|Purple Heart Medal with one gold 5/16 inch star||Defense Meritorious Service Medal||Meritorious Service Medal|
|Navy and Marine Corps Commendation Medal with Combat "V' and two gold 5/16 inch stars||Navy and Marine Corps Achievement Medal with one gold 5/16 inch star||Combat Action Ribbon|
|Navy Unit Commendation||Navy Meritorious Unit Commendation with one bronze service star||National Defense Service Medal|
|Vietnam Service Medal with five bronze campaign stars||Sea Service Deployment Ribbon with one bronze service star||Navy and Marine Corps Overseas Service Ribbon|
|Republic of Vietnam Gallantry Cross with silver star||Republic of Vietnam Gallantry Cross Unit Citation with frame and palm||Vietnam Campaign Medal|
|Expert marksmanship badge for rifle (not shown)||Expert marksmanship badge for pistol (not shown)|
|Presidential Service Badge|
North came into the public spotlight as a result of his participation in the Iran–Contra affair, a political scandal during the Reagan administration, in which he claimed partial responsibility for the sale of weapons through intermediaries to Iran, with the profits being channeled to the Contras in Nicaragua. It was alleged that he was responsible for the establishment of a covert network which subsequently funneled those funds to the Contras. Congress passed the Boland Amendment (to the House Appropriations Bill of 1982 and following years), which prohibited the appropriation of U.S. funds by intelligence agencies for the support of the Contras. The money was passed through a shell organization, the National Endowment for the Preservation of Liberty, to the Palmer National Bank of Washington, D.C., and then to the Contras.
In an August 23, 1986, e-mail to National Security Advisor John Poindexter, North described a meeting with a representative of Panamanian president Manuel Noriega: "You will recall that over the years Manuel Noriega in Panama and I have developed a fairly good relationship," North writes before explaining Noriega's proposal. If U.S. officials can "help clean up his image" and lift the ban on arms sales to the Panamanian Defense Force, Noriega will "'take care of' the Sandinista leadership for us."
North told Poindexter that President Noriega could assist with sabotage against the ruling party of Nicaragua, the Sandinista National Liberation Front. North supposedly suggested that Noriega be paid one million dollars in cash, from Project Democracy funds raised from the sale of U.S. arms to Iran—for the Panamanian leader's help in destroying Nicaraguan economic installations.
In November 1986, as the sale of weapons was made public, North was dismissed by President Ronald Reagan. On February 11, 1987, the FBI detected an attack on North's family from the Peoples Committee for Libyan Students, a sleeper cell for the Islamic Jihad[disambiguation needed], with an order to kill North. His family was moved to Camp Lejeune in North Carolina and lived with federal agents until North retired from the Marine Corps the following year.
In July 1987, North was summoned to testify before televised hearings of a joint congressional committee that was formed to investigate Iran–Contra. During the hearings, North admitted that he had lied to Congress previously, for which and other actions he was later charged. He defended his actions by stating that he believed in the goal of aiding the Contras, whom he saw as freedom fighters, against the Sandinistas and said that he viewed the Iran–Contra scheme as a "neat idea." North admitted shredding government documents related to his Contra and Iranian activities, at William Casey's suggestion, when the Iran–Contra scandal became public. He also testified that Robert McFarlane had asked him to alter official records to delete references to direct assistance to the Contras and that he had helped.
North was tried in 1988. He was indicted on 16 felony counts, and on May 4, 1989, he was initially convicted of three: accepting an illegal gratuity, aiding and abetting in the obstruction of a congressional inquiry, and ordering the destruction of documents through his secretary, Fawn Hall. He was sentenced by U.S. District Judge Gerhard Gesell on July 5, 1989, to a three-year suspended prison term, two years probation, $150,000 in fines, and 1,200 hours of community service. North performed some of his community service within Potomac Gardens, a public housing project in Southeast Washington, D.C.
However, on July 20, 1990, with the help of the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU), North's convictions were vacated, after the appeals court found that witnesses in his trial might have been impermissibly affected by his immunized congressional testimony.
As North had been granted limited immunity for his congressional testimony, the law prohibited a prosecutor from using that testimony as part of a criminal case against him. To prepare for the expected defense challenge that North's testimony had been used, the prosecution team had—before North's congressional testimony had been given—listed and isolated all of its evidence. [clarification needed]
Further, the individual members of the prosecution team had isolated themselves from news reports and discussion of North's testimony. While the defense could show no specific instance in which North's congressional testimony was used in his trial, the Court of Appeals ruled that the trial judge had made an insufficient examination of the issue. Consequently, North's convictions were reversed. After further hearings on the immunity issue, Judge Gesell dismissed all charges against North on September 16, 1991.
Allegations of involvement with drug traffickers
Allegations were made, most notably by the Kerry subcommittee, that North and other senior officials created a privatized Contra network that attracted drug traffickers looking for cover for their operations, then turned a blind eye to repeated reports of drug smuggling related to the Contras, and actively worked with known drug smugglers such as Panamanian dictator Manuel Noriega to assist the Contras. Journalist Gary Webb asserted in his journalistic series and book Dark Alliance, that North developed the idea of using drug money to support the resistance movement. Most Contra associates found guilty of trafficking by the Kerry committee were involved in the supply chain (ostensibly for "humanitarian goods," though the supply chain was later found to have serviced the transport of arms), which had been set up by North. Organizations and individuals involved in the supply chain under investigation for trafficking included the company SETCO (operated by large-scale trafficker Juan Matta-Ballesteros), the fruit company Frigorificos de Puntarenas, rancher John Hull, and several Cuban exiles; North and other U.S. government officials were criticized by the Kerry Report for their practice of "ticket punching" for these parties, whereby people under active investigation for drug trafficking were given cover and pay by joining in the Contra supply chain. Notably, cocaine trafficker and Contra Oscar Danilo Blandón was granted political asylum in the U.S. despite knowledge of his running a drug ring. In addition to the Kerry committee's investigation, the Costa Rican government of Óscar Arias conducted an investigation of Contra-related drug trafficking, and as a result of this investigation, North and several other U.S. government officials were permanently banned from entering Costa Rica.
Later life and career
In the 1994 election, North unsuccessfully ran for the United States Senate as the Republican Party candidate in Virginia. Republican Senator John Warner of Virginia endorsed Marshall Coleman, a Republican who ran as an independent, instead of North. North lost by a 46 percent to 43 percent margin to incumbent Democrat Charles Robb, a son-in-law of President Lyndon B. Johnson. Coleman received 11%. North's candidacy was documented in the 1996 film A Perfect Candidate.
In his failed bid to unseat Robb, North raised $20.3 million in a single year through nationwide direct-mail solicitations, telemarketing, fundraising events, and contributions from major donors. About $16 million of that amount was from direct mail alone. This was the biggest accumulation of direct-mail funds for a statewide campaign to that date, and it made North the top direct-mail political fundraiser in the country in 1994.
Books and media
North has written several best-selling books including Under Fire, One More Mission, War Stories—Operation Iraqi Freedom, Mission Compromised, The Jericho Sanction, and The Assassins.
His book American Heroes was released nationally in the United States on May 6, 2008. In the book, "North addresses issues of defense against global terrorism, Jihad, and radical Islam from his firsthand perspective as a military officer and national security advisor and current Middle East war correspondent." He writes a nationally syndicated newspaper column through Creators Syndicate.
On November 5, 2013, North's new book, American Heroes on the Homefront, was released. This is a nonfiction book that gives a firsthand account of the American volunteers who have volunteered to join the United States Army. The book was a collection from the dozen years North and the Fox News Channel have traveled the frontlines of the War on Terror. During those years North and his team have profiled hundreds of soldiers and chronicles what it means to be a hero. In the book he continues the journey by following these soldiers from the battlefield back to the home front.
In 1991 North appeared on the first season of The Jerry Springer Show. From 1995 to 2003, he was host of his own nationally syndicated radio program known as the Oliver North Radio Show or Common Sense Radio. He also served as co-host of Equal Time on MSNBC for a couple of years starting in 1999. North is currently the host of the television show War Stories with Oliver North and a regular commentator on Hannity, both on the Fox News Channel. North appeared as himself on many television shows including the sitcom Wings in 1991, and three episodes of the TV military drama JAG in 1995, 1996, and 2002 as "Ollie", a close friend of the deceased father of Tracey Needham's character Meg Austin. In addition, he regularly speaks at both public and private events. North appears in an episode of Auction Kings to have his Marine Corps sword returned after it was lost and presumably stolen in 1980. North was credited as a military consultant in the 2012 video game Call of Duty: Black Ops II and voiced himself in one level of the game. In 2014 he received story credit for an episode of the TV series The Americans where the protagonist Soviet spies infiltrate a Contra training base in the United States.
In 1990, North founded the Freedom Alliance, a 501(c)(3) foundation "to advance the American heritage of freedom by honoring and encouraging military service, defending the sovereignty of the United States, and promoting a strong national defense." The foundation's primary activities include providing support for wounded combat soldiers and providing scholarships for the sons and the daughters of service members killed in action. Beginning in 2003, Sean Hannity has raised over $10 million for the Freedom Alliance Scholarship Fund through Freedom Concerts and donations from The Sean Hannity Show and its listeners. The charity has been criticized by far-right-leaning blogger Debbie Schlussel for distributing too little of its funds for charitable purposes. Hannity, North, and other charity spokespersons say that all of the net proceeds from the Freedom Concerts are donated to the fund.
In 1967, North married Betsy Stuart and they have four children.
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The second episode of the 1988 Disney television movie Earth Star Voyager features an excerpt of Oliver North's congressional testimony that is played over the PA system on the bridge of the Earth Star Voyager space ship. It is explained that the radio waves containing Oliver North's statement have been traveling from Earth into space and that the space ship Earth Star Voyager has traveled so far from Earth that it is detecting radio transmissions from the past.
Lou Reed's 1989 album New York contains the song "Sick of You" which references the Iran-Contra affair with the lyric "And Oliver North married William Secord (sic) and gave birth to a little Teheran."
In Season 1 Episode 4 of JAG - "Desert Son: - Oliver North makes a Guest Appearance.
In season 3 episode 17 of "Wings" Oliver North is seen in the beginning of the episode speaking with Brian about a new book he released and a pen he stole from a hotel.
In season 3 episode 15 of American Dad!, North is mentioned in a song that Stan sings about left over gold from the Iran-Contra affair and the rest of the episode centers around Stan trying to find the gold to have a legacy.
In season 2 episode 13 of Malcolm in the Middle, North is mentioned to be a guest speaker at Marlin Academy by Commandant Edwin Spangler.
In rap artist Killer Mike's 2012 song "Reagan" North is credited with introducing the African-American community to cocaine in the 1980s.
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- "Veteran Tributes". Veterantributes.org. Retrieved 2016-01-20.
- "Did Military Justice Fail or Prevail?" Duke University Law Center on Law, Ethics, and National Security reprinted from Michigan Law Review, 1998
- Greenwald, John; Beckwith, David; Halevy, David (November 17, 1986). "Washington's Cowboys". Time. Retrieved June 23, 2011.
- "Oliver North profile". Speaker Line-Up 2002. The Bakersfield Business Conference. Retrieved December 23, 2008.
- "North Quits Marines". The New York Times. March 19, 1988. Retrieved December 21, 2012.
- Cushman Jr., John H. (July 7, 1987). "Washington Talk; 5 Young Lawyers Who Would Be Heroes... And A Marine Who Wears a Hero's Ribbons". The New York Times. Retrieved June 23, 2011.
- Profile, valor.militarytimes.com; accessed January 31, 2016.
- Profile, biography.com; accessed January 31, 2016.
- Oliver North honored by American Legion, legion.org; accessed January 31, 2016.
- Cockburn, Alexander; St. Clair, Jeffrey (1998). Whiteout: the CIA, drugs, and the press. Verso. p. 287. ISBN 1-85984-139-2. Retrieved November 30, 2010.
- North American Congress on Latin America (1993). NACLA report on the Americas 27. California: NACLA. p. 31. Retrieved November 30, 2010.
- "The Oliver North File". National Security Archive. Retrieved June 23, 2011.
- "An Exclusive Interview with Oliver North". Retrieved 2014-06-06.
- North, Oliver (June 6, 2014). Hugh Hewitt Show. Interview with Hugh Hewitt.
- "Eight Men Are Charged With Pro-Libya Actions". Retrieved 2014-06-06.
- "A Perfect Candidate (1996)". IMDb. Retrieved June 23, 2011.
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- Shenon, Philip (July 21, 1988). "Civil Liberties Union Asks Court To Quash Iran-Contra Indictment". The New York Times. Retrieved June 23, 2011.
- "Walsh Iran/Contra Report – Chapter 2 United States v. Oliver L. North". Fas.org. Retrieved June 23, 2011.
- Drugs, Law Enforcement And Foreign Policy: Report By The Committee On Foreign Relations, U.S. Senate, DIANE Publishing Company, (2004) ISBN 0-7881-2984-8. Google Books. August 30, 2004. Retrieved June 23, 2011.
- Webb, Gary (1999). Dark Alliance. Seven Stories Press. p. 177. ISBN 978-1-888363-93-7.
- "Statistics Of The Congressional Election Of November 8, 1994". Clerk.house.gov. Retrieved June 23, 2011.
- "Ollie, Inc.: how Oliver North raised over $20 million in a losing U.S. Senate race". Archived from the original on October 13, 2007. Retrieved September 24, 2007.
- "The Mute Marine". Snltranscripts.jt.org. Retrieved 2016-01-20.
- "About The Book". Americanheroesbook.com. Archived from the original on July 24, 2012. Retrieved June 23, 2011.
- "About Oliver North". Creators.com. September 30, 2011. Retrieved October 16, 2012.
- "OliverNorth". bookrevue.com. Retrieved 2014-01-25.
- Oliver North at the Internet Movie Database
- Itzkoff, Dave (April 15, 2014). "Oliver North, Now in the Service of TV’s K.G.B.". The New York Times.
- "About Freedom Alliance". Freedom Alliance.
- Watts Jr., James D. (Aug 19, 2010). "A concert with an attitude: Sean Hannity's benefit show isn't without controversy". McClatchy – Tribune Business News (Washington).
- Archived February 8, 2014 at the Wayback Machine
- "Oliver North profile". U-s-history.com. Retrieved October 16, 2012.
- "London Review of Books: Robert Fisk writes about Oliver North's contributions to the ordeal of the Middle East". Lrb.co.uk. Retrieved June 23, 2011.
- "Bolton, Oliver North among speakers at NRA conference". Showmenews.com. Retrieved June 23, 2011.
- "NRA's Annual Meetings & Exhibits 2008: A Celebration of American Values". NRA Institute for Legislative Action. April 17, 2008.
- Ben Bradlee Jr. (1998). Guts and Glory: The Rise and Fall of Oliver North. Donald I. Fine, Inc. ISBN 1-55611-053-7.
- Meyer, Peter (1987). Defiant Patriot: the Life and Exploits of Lt. Colonel Oliver L. North. St. Martin's Press. ISBN 0312910916. OCLC 16774532.
- "The Contras, Cocaine, and U.S. Covert Operations". Nsarchive.gwu.edu. Retrieved 2016-01-20.
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|Quotations from Wikiquote|
|Data from Wikidata|
- Oliver North at the Internet Movie Database list of Oliver North's television appearances
- Freedom Alliance
- Oliver North Features at Creators Syndicate
- "The Oliver North File". The National Security Archive/George Washington University.
- Oliver North's political donations
- Oliver North's Website
- Publisher's website featuring Oliver North's latest book American Heroes
- C-SPAN Sen. Inouye Remarks to Oliver North on Military Ethics and Iran-Contra
- Transcript, Audio, Video of North's Opening Statement During the Iran Contra Hearings from AmericanRhetoric.com
- Appearances on C-SPAN
|Party political offices|
Maurice A. Dawkins
|Republican Party nominee for United States Senate from Virginia (class 1)
George Felix Allen