Summertime (George Gershwin song)

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Released1935 (1935)
Composer(s)George Gershwin
Lyricist(s)DuBose Heyward
Ira Gershwin

"Summertime" is an aria composed in 1934 by George Gershwin for the 1935 opera Porgy and Bess. The lyrics are by DuBose Heyward, the author of the novel Porgy on which the opera was based, and Ira Gershwin.[1]

The song soon became a popular and much-recorded jazz standard, described as "without doubt ... one of the finest songs the composer ever wrote ... Gershwin's highly evocative writing brilliantly mixes elements of jazz and the song styles of blacks in the southeast United States from the early twentieth century".[2] Composer and lyricist Stephen Sondheim characterized Heyward's lyrics for "Summertime" and "My Man's Gone Now" as "the best lyrics in the musical theater".[3]

Porgy and Bess[edit]

Gershwin began composing the song in December 1933, attempting to create his own spiritual in the style of the African American folk music of the period.[4][5] Gershwin had completed setting DuBose Heyward's poem to music by February 1934, and spent the next 20 months completing and orchestrating the score of the opera.[6]

The song is sung several times throughout Porgy and Bess. Its lyrics are the first words heard in act 1 of the opera, following the communal "wa-do-wa". It is sung by Clara as a lullaby. The song theme is reprised soon after as counterpoint to the craps game scene, in act 2 in a reprise by Clara, and in act 3 by Bess, singing to Clara's now-orphaned baby after both its parents died in the storm.

The song was recorded for the first time by Abbie Mitchell on July 19, 1935, with George Gershwin playing the piano and conducting the orchestra (on: George Gershwin Conducts Excerpts from Porgy & Bess, Mark 56 667).

The 1959 movie version of the musical featured Loulie Jean Norman singing the song. That rendition finished at #52 in AFI's 100 Years...100 Songs survey of top tunes in American cinema.



Heyward's inspiration for the lyrics was the southern folk spiritual-lullaby "All My Trials", of which he had Clara sing a snippet in his play Porgy.[7][8] The lyrics have been highly praised by Stephen Sondheim. Writing of the opening line, he says

That "and" is worth a great deal of attention. I would write "Summertime when" but that "and" sets up a tone, a whole poetic tone, not to mention a whole kind of diction that is going to be used in the play; an informal, uneducated diction and a stream of consciousness, as in many of the songs like "My Man's Gone Now". It's the exact right word, and that word is worth its weight in gold. "Summertime when the livin' is easy" is a boring line compared to "Summertime and". The choices of "ands" [and] "buts" become almost traumatic as you are writing a lyric – or should, anyway – because each one weighs so much.[9]


Musicologist K. J. McElrath wrote of the song:

Gershwin was remarkably successful in his intent to have this sound like a folk song. This is reinforced by his extensive use of the pentatonic scale (C–D–E–G–A) in the context of the A minor tonality and a slow-moving harmonic progression that suggests a "blues". Because of these factors, this tune has been a favorite of jazz performers for decades and can be done in a variety of tempos and styles.[6]

While in his own description, Gershwin did not use any previously composed spirituals in his opera, Summertime is often considered an adaptation of the African American spiritual "Sometimes I Feel Like a Motherless Child", which ended the play version of Porgy.[8][10][11]

Other versions[edit]

Statistics for the number of recordings of "Summertime" vary by source; while older data is restricted to commercial releases, newer sources may include versions self-published online. The Jazz Discography in 2005 listed 1,161 official releases, ranking the song fourth among jazz standards.[12] Joe Nocera in 2012 said there were "over 25,000" recordings.[13] Guinness World Records lists the website's 2017 figure of 67,591 as the world record total.[14]

Other versions to make the pop charts include those by:

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Summertime" at ASCAP Archived 2006-02-11 at the Wayback Machine
  2. ^ Robert Cummings. "Summertime" at AllMusic
  3. ^ "A Century of Creativity: DuBose and Dorothy Heyward". 1926-08-02. Archived from the original on 2013-11-04. Retrieved 2013-12-29.
  4. ^ Pollack, Howard (2006). George Gershwin: His Life and Work. University of California Press. p. 589. ISBN 9780520248649. Retrieved 2013-12-29. Gershwin summertime spiritual style.
  5. ^ Hyland, William (2003). George Gershwin: A New Biography. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 171. ISBN 9780275981112. Retrieved 2013-12-29.
  6. ^ a b c ""Summertime" at". Retrieved 2013-12-29.
  7. ^ Edward Jablonski, Lawrence Delbert Stewart, The Gershwin Years: George and Ira, Da Capo Press, 1996, ISBN 0-306-80739-4, p. 202
  8. ^ a b Jeffrey Paul Melnick, A Right to Sing the Blues, Harvard University Press 1999, ISBN 0-674-76976-7, pp. 129–133
  9. ^ Joanne Lesley Gordon, Art Isn't Easy: The Achievement of Stephen Sondheim, Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale, Illinois, 1990, p. 13
  10. ^ Samuel A. Floyd Jr., ed. (1990). Black Music in the Harlem Renaissance: A Collection of Essays. New York: Westport. ISBN 0-313-26546-1., p. 22
  11. ^ Rosenberg, Deena (1991). Fascinating Rhythm: The Collaboration of George and Ira Gershwin. Penguin Books USA. ISBN 0-525-93356-5., p. 281
  12. ^ Phillips, Damon J. (2013). Shaping Jazz: Cities, Labels, and the Global Emergence of an Art Form. Princeton University Press. p. 22, Table 1.2. ISBN 978-1-4008-4648-1. Retrieved 23 June 2020.
  13. ^ Joe Nocera (January 21, 2012). "Variations on an Explosive Theme". The New York Times.
  14. ^ "Most recorded song". Guinness World Records. Retrieved 23 June 2020.
  15. ^ Whitburn, Joel (2003). Top Pop Singles 1955–2002 (1st ed.). Menomonee Falls, Wisconsin: Record Research Inc. p. 914. ISBN 0-89820-155-1.
  16. ^ Betts 2004, p. 497.
  17. ^ Whitburn, Joel (1996). Top R&B/Hip-Hop Singles: 1942–1995. Record Research. p. 421.
  18. ^ Betts 2004, p. 747.
  19. ^ Paul Friedlander, Rock and Roll: A Social History, Westview Press, Boulder, Colorado, 1996. p. 207.
  20. ^ Maury Dean, Rock and Roll: Gold Rush, Algora, New York, 2003, p. 248.
  21. ^ Betts 2004, p. 302.
  22. ^ "Wins and nominations", Chaka Khan, Grammy Awards
  23. ^ "The Complete List of Grammy Nominations", 8 December 2005, The New York Times
  24. ^ " 'Doin' Time': The Coast to Coast Transformation of 'Summertime' " by Sophia Janevix,, April 15, 2020


  • Betts, Graham (2004). Complete UK Hit Singles 1952–2004 (1st ed.). London: Collins. ISBN 0-00-717931-6.

External links[edit]