Talk:Aristotelia chilensis

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New version[edit]

I want to inform, that I would like to improve the wikipedia entry of Aristotelia chilensis. As information source I will mainly take scientific research papers. But there will also be a few other sources. — Preceding unsigned comment added by Gujant (talkcontribs) 17:10, 1 November 2012 (UTC)

You can see the improved wikipedia entry below. Could you give my any suggestions for further improving? — Preceding unsigned comment added by Gujant (talkcontribs) 5 December 2012‎


New version
Maqui
Maqui chileno.jpg
Maqui Tree with fruits
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Rosids
Order: Oxalidales
Family: Elaeocarpaceae
Genus: Aristotelia
Species: A. chilensis
Binomial name
Aristotelia chilensis
(Molina) Stuntz
Synonyms
  • Cornus chilensis Molina
  • Aristotelia macqui L'Hér.


Aristotelia chilensis (Maqui or Chilean Wineberry) is a species of the Elaeocarpaceae family native to the Valdivian temperate rainforests of Chile and adjacent regions of southern Argentina. Maqui is sparly cultivated.[1]

Description[edit]

Tree[edit]

Maqui is a small dioecious tree reaching 4-5 m in height and is evergreen. Its divided trunk has a smooth bark. The branches are abundant, thin and flexible. The leaves are simple, opposite, hanging, oval-lanceolate, with serrated edges, naked and coriaceous. The leaf venation is well visible and the leaf stalk is strong red. In the beginning of spring the tree sheds the old cohort. The old cohort is used as a carbonhydrate source to form the new leaves and flowers.[2]

Flowers and berries[edit]

Maqui flowers at the end of spring. The white flowers are unisexual and small. They yield a small edible fruit (Maqui berry). A tree at the age of seven years produces up to 10 kg berries per year.[3] The small, purple-black berries are approximately 4-6 mm in diameter and contain 4-8 angled seeds.[3] They taste reminding of blackberries, watermelon, and acai berries. The Maqui berry is also known as the Chilean wineberry, and locally in Spanish as Maqui or Maque.[4]

Wild Maqui[edit]

The main area of wild Maqui can be found in the Chilean forests. It includes the Comquinmbo and Aysen Region and is 170’000 hectares.[5] The average area yield is about 220 kg per hectare in one year. On this results a potential production of 37'400 tons of fresh berries per year. The real estimated production is about 90 tons per year because most of the Maqui area is very difficult to access.[3]

Harvesting[edit]

The berries are collected in the time from December to March each year. The collecting time depends on the geographical position. Each season 2000 families, mainly Mapuche families, work in the process of collecting the berries. This work is financially important for the Mapuche families. The workers move to the collection area with high presence of Maqui near the Andes Mountains by their own.[3]

The first harvest process is to collect the side branches of the trees and take them to one spot. In a next step they bang the branches to separate the berries and the leaf blades from the branches. The branches are taken again under the trees for decomposition. Then a mechanic process separates the berries from leaf blades. The stored fruits are finally sold. The supply for Maqui berries is very low at the local market. The price ranges from 0.65 US$ to 1.5 US$ per 100 gram.[3]

Seed distribution[edit]

The Maqui berries are a favored food for birds at the end of summer. The seed distribution by birds is important for genetic diversity. The deforestation of the Valdivian temperate rainforests of Chile prohibit the seed dispersal by birds and leads to an inbreeding depression.[6]

Cultivated Maqui[edit]

Maqui is planted in home gardens and is not grown on orchard scale. Most of the the fruits on the market come from the wild.[1]

Agronomy[edit]

Maqui is frost sensitive and fairly tolerant of maritime exposure. It prefers a well-drained soil in full sun with a protection against cold drying winds. The soil should be slightly acid and moderate fertile.[7] Maqui can be planted in USDA- zone 8 to 12. It is known that it is cultivated in Spain and in the milder and moister areas of Britain. Even in this area in Britain the plants are cut back by winter frosts. The plants react to the thinning by frost with a production of more shoots in spring.[8]

Propagation[edit]

The seeds germinate without cold stratification. In zones with the possible appearance of frost it is recommended to sow in spring in a greenhouse. The plants are planted in autumn into individual pots if they are grown enough. The pots are still in the greenhouse for the first winter. After the last expected frost in spring the plants can be planted out into their finally positions. In their first winter outdoors a frost protection is required.[9] For further propagation a vegetal reproduction is possible: Cuttings of wood with a length of 15 to 30 cm can be planted into pots. These cuttings normally root and can be planted out in the following spring.[10]

Uses[edit]

Maqui berries are used for food and pharmaceutic mainly because of its interesting content of anthocyanin. The berries are raw, dried or processed into jam, juice, an astringent or as an ingredient in processed foods or beverages.[11] In the traditional Chilean medicine the extract of Aristotelia chilensis has been used to trait diarrhea[12], inflammation and fever.[13]

Anthocyanin[edit]

Several studies identified the anthocyanin composition of the Maqui berries and named eight different glucoside pigments of delphinidin and cyanidin. The principal anthocyanin is delphinidin 3-sambubioside-5-glucoside with a content of 34% of total anthocyanins. [14] The total anthocyanin content of Maqui berries is relative high with an average of 137.6 mg per 100 gram of fresh fruit and 211.9 mg per 100 gram of dry fruit.[14](see Anthocyanins#Occurrence for tabulated content data) One study found out, that anthocyanins are also present in maqui leaves.[15]

Anthocyanins are naturally produced by plants for self-protection against sun, irradiation, diseases and biological enemies. This self-protection is beneficial for Maqui to survive in the rough climate of central and southern Chile.[14]

Benefits[edit]

The anthocyanin rich extract of Maqui berries has health-promoting properties which are researched by several studies. In a research with mice the extract had a protective effect against ischaemia by reperfusion heart damage.[16] In vitro studies propose the inhibition of adipogenese and inflammation[17] and the avoiding of LDL oxidation.[18] The antioxidant activity of anthocyanin can maybe prohibit the oxidative damage of cells such as skin cells.[19] Other studies evidence an anti-diabetic effect.[20]

History[edit]

According to myths, the edible fruit was eaten by the Mapuche Indians. Claude Gay documented in 1844 in his "Physical Atlas of History and Politics of Chile" that natives used maqui to prepare chicha. The chicha may have contributed to an extraordinary strength and stamina for the warriors. The Mapuche Indians have used berry leaves, stems, fruit and wine medicinally for thousand of years.[4]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Zoom. "Chilean wineberry". Retrieved 05.11.2012.  Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  2. ^ Prado, C.& Damascos, M. (2001). Gas exchange and leaf specific mass of different foliar cohorts of the wintergreen shrub Aristotelia chilensis (Mol.) stuntz (Eleocarpaceae) fifteen days before the flowering and the fall of the old cohort. Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology, 44(3), 277-282.
  3. ^ a b c d e Majid, Johari Abdul. "Maqui: Agriculture process". Retrieved 05.11.2012.  Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  4. ^ a b Espinosa. "Maqui berry". Retrieved 05.11.2012.  Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  5. ^ Nahuelhual, L., Carmona, A., Lara, A., Echeverría, C., & González, M. E. (2012). Land-cover change to forest plantations: Proximate causes and implications for the landscape in south-central Chile. Landscape and Urban Planning, 107(1), 12-20. Elsevier B.V.
  6. ^ Valdivia, C. & Simonetti, J. (2006). Decreased frugivory and seed germination rate do not reduce seedling recruitment rates of Aristotelia chilensis in a fragmented forest. Biodiversity and Conservation, 16(6), 1593-1602.
  7. ^ Huxley, A. (1992). The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening.
  8. ^ Grey-Wilson, C., & Matthews, V. (1983). Gardening on Walls. London.
  9. ^ Bean W. 1981. Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement.
  10. ^ Chittenden, F. (1951) RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. Oxford University Press.
  11. ^ "Chilean plants cultivated in Spain" (PDF). José Manuel Sánchez de Lorenzo-Cáceres. Retrieved 2010-07-16. 
  12. ^ Hoffman, A. (1991). Flora silvestre de Chile zona araucana. Santiago: Fundacion Claudio Gay.
  13. ^ Cespedes, C., Alarcon, J., Avila, J., & Nieto, J. (2010). Anti-inflammatory Activity of Aristotelia chilensis Mol. (Stuntz) (Elaeocarpaceae). Boletín Latinoamericano y del Caribe de Plantas Medicinales y Aromáticas, 9(27), 127–135.
  14. ^ a b c Escribano-Bailón MT, Alcalde-Eon C, Muñoz O, Rivas-Gonzalo JC, Santos-Buelga C (2006). "Anthocyanins in berries of Maqui (Aristotelia chilensis (Mol.) Stuntz)". Phytochem Anal. 17 (1: Jan-Feb): 8–14. PMID 16454470. 
  15. ^ Suwalsky M, Vargas P, Avello M, Villena F, Sotomayor CP (2008). "Human erythrocytes are affected in vitro by flavonoids of Aristotelia chilensis (Maqui) leaves". Int J Pharm. 363 (1-2): 85–90. PMID 18687390.  Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help);
  16. ^ Cespedes, C., El-Hafidi, M., Pavon, N., & Alarcon, J. (2008). Antioxidant and cardioprotective activities of pheniloic extracts from fruits of Chilean blackberry Aristotelia chilenesis (Elaeocarpaceae), Maqui. Food Chemistry, 108, 820–829.
  17. ^ Schreckinger, M., Wang, J., Yousef, G., Lila, M., & de Mejia, E. (2010a). Antioxidant capacity and in vitro inhibition of adipogenesis and inflammation by phenolic extracts of Vaccinium floribundum and Aristotelia chilensis. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 58, 8966–8976.
  18. ^ Miranda-Rottmann, S., Aspillaga, A. A., Perez, D. D., Vasquez, L., Martinez, A. L., & Leighton, F. (2002). Juice and phenolic fractions of the berry Aristotelia chilensis inhibit LDL oxidation in vitro and protect human endothelial cells against oxidative stress. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 50(26), 7542–7547.
  19. ^ Crozier, A., Jaganath, I. B., & Clifford, M. N. (2009). Dietary phenolics: Chemistry, bioavailability and effects on health. Natural Product Reports, 26(8), 1001–1043.
  20. ^ Rojo, L. E., Ribnicky, D., Logendra, S., Poulev, A., Rojas-Silva, P., Kuhn, P., Dorn, R., et al. (2012). In vitro and in vivo anti-diabetic effects of anthocyanins from Maqui Berry (Aristotelia chilensis). Food Chemistry, 131(2), 387-396. Elsevier

"native to the Valdivian temperate rainforests of Chile and adjacent regions of southern Argentina" Implies it is mainly a Chilean fruit. Bias.[edit]

This sentence boils down to: native to Chile, and "adjacent" regions of Argentina. Why not: native to Argentina, and "adjacent" regions of Chile?

This implies a subtle bias: that the fruit is endogenous mainly to Chile. Why? Is it more abundant in Chile? Cite please. The fact that it's named "Aristotelia chilensis" does not mean it is a Chilean fruit. This could have marketing implications that could affect negatively one of the two countries involved.

I propose that the sentence be edited to "native to the Valdivian temperate rainforests of Chile and to the South-West Andes region of Argentina" OR "native to the South-West Andes region of Argentina and to the Valdivian temperate rainforests of Chile".

Which of the two should be decided upon the relative abundance of Maqui fruit in those two regions. — Preceding unsigned comment added by SunAbraxas (talkcontribs) 15:45, 15 April 2016 (UTC)

A programme on Channel Four claimed it only grows in Chile. This would contradict what this article says, but I do know that one cannot always rely upon what is said on television. Vorbee (talk) 19:46, 18 September 2017 (UTC)

It's unlikely that the plant is native to only one country, but rather is probably "regional" in origin to southwestern South America. Our problem is to provide a reliable secondary source for its origin; WP:SECONDARY. Other than this used in the article, I've looked but am unable to find a more specific, trustworthy source for the geographic origin. --Zefr (talk) 21:57, 18 September 2017 (UTC)

Very Preliminary Human Study[edit]

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25208615

60mg of this particular extract may be better than 30mg for increasing tear production.

I would like to know: does one get same benefits by eating other berries (or berry extracts)?

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Delphinidin

ee1518 (talk) 12:45, 18 April 2016 (UTC)

That's such a weak study (7 and 6 subjects in 2 groups with dubious measures) in a minor journal (with a low impact factor) by industrial scientists who may be involved in manufacturing the product. Ignore this noise. There is also no confirmed evidence that delphinidin or any plant-derived extract has a human health benefit; see WP:MEDRS for guidance on required sourcing of supposed health claims. --Zefr (talk) 13:37, 18 April 2016 (UTC)