are a major group of life
forms and include familiar organisms
such as trees
, and green algae
. About 350,000 species
of plants, defined as seed plants
and fern allies
, are estimated to exist currently. As of 2004, some 287,655 species had been identified, of which 258,650 are flowering
and 15,000 bryophytes
. Green plants
, sometimes called metaphytes
, obtain most of their energy from sunlight
via a process called photosynthesis
Aristotle divided all living things between plants (which generally do not move), and animals (which often are mobile to catch their food). In Linnaeus' system, these became the Kingdoms Vegetabilia (later Metaphyta or Plantae) and Animalia (also called Metazoa). Since then, it has become clear that the Plantae as originally defined included several unrelated groups, and the fungi and several groups of algae were removed to new kingdoms. However, these are still often considered plants in many contexts, both technical and popular. Indeed, an attempt to perfectly match "plant" with a single taxon is problematic, because for most people the term plant is only vaguely related to the phylogenic concepts on which modern taxonomy and systematics are based.
A juniper berry
is the female seed cone
produced by the various species of junipers
. It is not a true berry
but a cone with unusually fleshy and merged scales, which give it a berry-like appearance. The cones from a handful of species, especially Juniperus communis
, are used as a spice
, particularly in European cuisine
, and also give gin
its distinguishing flavour. According to one FAO
document, juniper berries are the only spice derived from conifers
, though tar
and inner bark (used as a sweetener by Apache
cuisines) from pine trees is sometimes considered a spice as well. All juniper species grow berries, but some are considered too bitter to eat. In addition to J. communis
, other edible species include Juniperus drupacea
, Juniperus oxycedrus
, Juniperus phoenicea
, Juniperus deppeana
, and Juniperus californica
. Some species, for example Juniperus sabina
, are toxic and consumption is inadvisable.
Juniperus communis berries vary from four to twelve millimetres in diameter; other species are mostly similar in size, though some are larger, notably J. drupacea (20–28 mm). Unlike the separated and woody scales of a typical pine cone, those in a juniper berry remain fleshy and merge into a unified covering surrounding the seeds. The berries are green when young, and mature to a purple-black colour over about 18 months in most species, including J. communis (shorter, 8–10 months in a few species, and about 24 months in J. drupacea). The mature, dark berries are usually but not exclusively used in cuisine, while gin is flavoured with fully grown but immature green berries.
Opium poppy, Papaver somniferum, is the species of plant from which opium and poppy seeds are extracted. Opium is the source of many opiates, including morphine, thebaine, codeine, papaverine, and noscapine. The Latin botanical name means, loosely, the "sleep-bringing poppy", referring to the sedative properties of some of these opiates.
- Describe all families, genera and species of the kingdom Plantae.
- For species, describe botanical properties, distribution, multiplication, usage (medicine, food, etc.), botanical history, cultivation information.
- Develop and implement a robust method of naming plant article for the ease of navigation and searching for Wikipedia users.
- Maintain Category:Plants and its subcategories.
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