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There is an "outer" and "inner" terai.

"Outer terai" refers to the alluvial, generally forested and often marshy terrain that is transitional between the 1,000 meter Siwalak Range -- the first and lowest range of Himalayan foothills -- and the Gangeatic plain proper. In Nepal, it is conventionally taken to include any extent of Gangeatic Plains proper extending from this transition zone south to the Indian border.

"Inner Terai" refers to various elongated valleys lying between the Siwalak Range and the 2-3,000 meter Mahabharat Range further north. In India these valleys are also called "Duns", e.g. "Dehra Dun". In some places these two mountain ranges lie next to one another, but in other places they are separated by valleys approximately five to ten kilometers wide and tens of kilometers long.

Major examples in Nepal are Chitwan southwest of Kathmandu and the parallel Dang and Deukhuri valleys in western Nepal. Inner terai valleys were agriculturally productive, but infested with malaria. An indigenous group the Tharu had a degree of inherited resistance and populated these areas until the government began using DDT to control the mosquitos and other ethnic groups were able to live there.

Map request[edit]

WP:INDIA Banner/Uttarakhand workgroup Addition[edit]

Note: {{WP India}} Project Banner with Uttarakhand workgroup parameters was added to this article talk page because the article falls under Category:Uttarakhand or its subcategories. Should you feel this addition is inappropriate , please undo my changes and update/remove the relavent categories to the article -- TinuCherian (Wanna Talk?) - 13:59, 23 June 2008 (UTC)

The article definitely needs more material on the Terai in India. I haven't written much, only because I know Nepal better. LADave (talk) 07:07, 20 April 2011 (UTC)

Not Marshy or Swampy[edit]

Well, most of terai have no swampy or marshy lands. Right from Assam to Punjab we don't really find any swampy or marshy areas. Surely, they are flooded during heavy monsoons, but they aren't the only ones to remain so. Many old references do find terai to be wet and swampy, but it's hard to ascertain that from present scenario in terai. — Preceding unsigned comment added by Scyfie (talkcontribs) 14:16, 25 October 2015 (UTC)

1. Assam and Punjab are not in the Terai. 2. There are quite a few wetlands and Ramsar sites in the Terai that are indeed marshy -- see Bishazari Tal, Dudhwa National Park with swamp forests, Shuklaphanta Wildlife Reserve with marshes around the lakes, Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve with marshes, and swamps also in Valmiki National Park. And these are only the protected areas; more marshy and swampy areas are outside these as well. -- BhagyaMani (talk) 15:17, 25 October 2015 (UTC)

Well, there are many lakes or ponds in terai, it doesn't however frees us to call the whole of terai as ponded. There may be few Marshy areas, but using this word as a chief feature of Terai is by no means justified. Regarding Assam, yes natives call it terai as well as dooars. Plains of Brahmaputra as mentioned in the article includes Assam too. And Chandigarh's annual climate is included not without knowing that Punjab too has parts of terai. — Preceding unsigned comment added by Scyfie (talkcontribs) 09:30, 26 October 2015 (UTC)

Terai ethnic groups[edit]

@BhagyaMani: Hi, not sure what you mean by "resettle", the source makes it clear that the Maithil people are indigenous to Eastern Terai and Northern Bihar. They wish for Mithila, Nepal to rejoin Mithila, India. Damien2016 (talk) 18:43, 16 February 2017 (UTC)

Thanks. But currently there is no 'Mithila' province or other such administrative entity in Nepal with that name. ?? BhagyaMani (talk) 19:19, 16 February 2017 (UTC)
I believe it's in reference to the historically Maithili speaking part of Nepal. Damien2016 (talk) 19:47, 16 February 2017 (UTC)

History section[edit]

@Damien2016: Hi, for this section, I'd like to suggest using sources from books or journal articles published by historians, not by newspaper journalists. -- BhagyaMani (talk) 10:35, 17 February 2017 (UTC)

I've provided several book sources in conjunction with news sources which have relevant historical facts. Thanks Damien2016 (talk) 10:37, 17 February 2017 (UTC)

Repeated removal of sourced content[edit]

@BhagyaMani: Please refrain from using sourced content repeatedly. Damien2016 (talk) 20:50, 17 February 2017 (UTC)

revenues and taxes in Nepal Terai during 18th + 19th centuries[edit]

@Airkeeper: True is that the rulers of Nepal passed several laws for generating income from holdings in the Terai, as documented by Regmi in the 1970s. But the system of Ijara -- i.e. the homestead taxes collected by Ijaradars -- was used in the central hills, but apparently not in the Terai. See Karky (1982) who refers to Regmi's (1978) "Thatched huts and stucco palaces" in this regard. The income generating system used in the Terai was birta, i.e. the granting of land to individuals : see Dahal (1983) who also refers to Regmi (1976; Landownership in Nepal). So therefore I suggest to just remove reference to the "Ijaradars, Subbas and Subedars" in the article. -- BhagyaMani (talk) 11:25, 22 April 2017 (UTC) BhagyaMani Actually the sentence was not focussed on Ijara only. It had outruled any theories that negates that Nepal had no control on Eastern Terai before 1857 Indian Mutiny. These govt. paperwork was mentioned to prove rule of Kingdom of Nepal over Eastern Terai districts. I will amend the sentence as you claim but it is not removable as an important historical document. Airkeeper (talk) 11:59, 22 April 2017 (UTC)

@Airkeeper: I did certainly not mean to suggest complete removal of the sentence, but only the ref to means of income generation via collectors. The Shahs and later Ranas allotted land to contractors who had to pay a nominal tax, i.e. the 'birta' system. Interesting also that still today, there are several VDCs in the Terai with the name '.. Birta', e.g. Gamhariya Birta, Krishnapur Birta. -- BhagyaMani (talk) 12:33, 22 April 2017 (UTC)

BhagyaMani Yes, Birta is implemented in Terai. I know that I didn't disregard it. I had no focus over Birta. So, I didn't cite it. You can cite that. You have pretty good knowledge on Terai issue. I'm curious as which part do you belong to? Airkeeper (talk) 12:46, 22 April 2017 (UTC)