Time travel in fiction

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Time travel is a common theme in fiction and has been depicted in a variety of media from literature to television and advertisements.[1][page needed]

Time travel themes[edit]

Time travel can either be the central theme of the plot or merely a plot device to set the story in motion.[citation needed] Hard science fiction examines the causes and effects of time travel paradoxes while soft science fiction, fantasy, and science fantasy focuses on fantastic wonders and adventures.[citation needed]

Sean Redmond regards the time travel motif as providing a "necessary distancing effect" which can allow fiction to address contemporary issues in metaphorical ways, and valuable for providing a view of history where every person is significant.[2][page needed]

Early stories featuring time travel[edit]

The Time Machine by H. G. Wells (1895) was instrumental in moving the concept of time travel to the forefront of the public imagination. Non-technological forms of time travel have appeared in a number of earlier stories,[citation needed] and some earlier works have featured elements suggestive of time travel, but remain somewhat ambiguous.[citation needed]

  • In ancient Hindu mythology, the Mahabharata, written around 700 B.C. mentions the story of the King Revaita, who travels to a different world to meet the creator Brahma. The King is shocked to learn that many ages have passed when he returns to Earth.[3]
  • Another very old example of this type of story can be found in the Talmud, with the story of Honi HaM'agel, written in 300 A.D., who went to sleep for 70 years and woke up to a world where his grandchildren were grandparents and where all his friends and family were dead.[citation needed]
  • Urashima Tarō, an early Japanese tale, involves travelling forward in time to a distant future,[4] and was first described in the Nihongi (720).[5][page needed] The tale was about a young fisherman, named Urashima Taro, who visits an undersea palace and stays there for three days. After returning home to his village, he finds himself three hundred years in the future, where he is long forgotten, his house is in ruins, and his family is long since dead.[4]
  • In Walter Map's 12th century De nugis curialium ("Courtiers' Trifles"), Map tells of the Briton King Herla, who is transported with his hunting party over two centuries into the future by the enchantment of a mysterious harlequin.
  • Memoirs of the Twentieth Century (1733), by Samuel Madden, is mainly a series of letters from English ambassadors in various countries to the British "Lord High Treasurer", along with a few replies from the British foreign office, all purportedly written in 1997 and 1998 and describing the conditions of that era. However, the framing story is that these letters were actual documents given to the narrator by his guardian angel one night in 1728. For this reason, Paul Alkon suggests in his book Origins of Futuristic Fiction that "the first time-traveler in English literature is a guardian angel who returns with state documents from 1998 to the year 1728", although the book does not explicitly show how the angel obtained the documents. Alkon later qualifies this by writing, "[i]t would be stretching our generosity to praise Madden for being the first to show a traveler arriving from the future", but he also says that Madden "deserves recognition as the first to toy with the rich idea of time travel in the form of an artifact sent backwards from the future to be discovered in the present."
  • In the play Anno 7603, written by the Dano-Norwegian poet Johan Herman Wessel in 1781, the two main characters are moved into the future (AD 7603) by a good fairy.
  • In the science fiction anthology Far Boundaries (1951), the editor August Derleth identifies the short story Missing One's Coach: An Anachronism, written for the Dublin University Magazine by an anonymous author in 1838, as a very early time travel story. In it, the narrator is waiting under a tree to be picked up by a coach which will take him out of Newcastle when he suddenly finds himself transported back over a thousand years. There he encounters the Venerable Bede in a monastery, and gives him somewhat ironic explanations of the developments of the coming centuries. It is never entirely clear whether these events actually occurred, or were merely a dream.
  • In 1843, the Charles Dickens novella A Christmas Carol depicts Ebenezer Scrooge being transported back and forth in time to points in his own lifetime by a series of Ghosts to visit Christmases Past, Present and Future. However, the things he sees are merely "shadows"; he and the Ghosts do not interact with them.
  • The book Paris avant les hommes ("Paris before Men"), by the French botanist and geologist Pierre Boitard (published posthumously in 1861), has the main character transported to various prehistoric settings by the magic of a "lame demon", and who is then able to actively interact with prehistoric life.
  • The short story The Clock that Went Backward, written by editor Edward Page Mitchell, appeared in the New York Sun in 1881, another early example of time travel in fiction.
  • Looking Backward (1888), by Edward Bellamy, and News from Nowhere (1890), by William Morris, each feature a protagonist who wakes up in a socialist utopian future.
  • A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court (1889), by Mark Twain.
  • Tourmalin's Time Cheques (1891), written by Thomas Anstey Guthrie under the pseudonym F. Anstey, was the first story to explore the paradoxes that time travel might cause.[citation needed]
  • Golf in the Year 2000 (1892), by J. McCullough, tells the story of an Englishman who fell asleep in 1892 and awakened in the year 2000. The focus of the book is how the game of golf would have changed by then, but many social and technological themes are also discussed along the way, including devices similar to television and women's equality.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Nahin, Paul J. (1999). Time Machines: Time Travel in Physics, Metaphysics, and Science Fiction (2. ed., [corr., rev. and exp.] ed.). New York, NY [u.a.]: Springer [u.a.] ISBN 9780387985718. 
  2. ^ Redmond, Sean (2014). Liquid Metal: the Science Fiction Film Reader. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 0231501846. 
  3. ^ "Revati". Mythfolklore.net. 2007-10-16. Retrieved 2013-08-30. 
  4. ^ a b "JET 15(1) - February 2006 - Yorke, Rowe - Malchronia: Cryonics and Bionics as Primitive Weapons in the War on Time". Jetpress.org. 2005-01-03. Retrieved 2014-07-25. 
  5. ^ Rosenberg, Donna (1997). Folklore, Myths, and Legends: A World Perspective. Lincolnwood (Illinois): NTC Publishing Group. p. 421. ISBN 0-8442-5780-X. 

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