Timeline of online video

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This is a timeline of online video, meaning Streaming Media delivered over the Internet.

Overview[edit]

Time period Key developments in online video
1974–1992 Development of practical video coding standards. The development of the discrete cosine transform (DCT) lossy compression method leads to the first practical video formats, H.261 and MPEG, initially used for online video conferencing.
1993–2004 Early days of the World Wide Web. Several container formats for streaming the first videos are released. Some sites, like Newgrounds, heavily rely on these container formats to display online video. Due to quality issues caused by low bandwidth and bad latency, very little streaming video existed on the World Wide Web until 2002 when VHS quality video with reliable lip sync became possible.
2005–2010 Mass-streaming services like YouTube and Netflix become massively popular for streaming online video. Broadband penetration increases, allowing significant fractions of the population to stream online video. Macromedia Flash is the most popular format for displaying online video, as it is used by YouTube and many other sites.
2011–2016 HTML5 starts to displace Flash. Livestreaming becomes increasingly popular, especially in the form of services like Twitch.tv. Many social media startups integrate the streaming of short segments of video, like Vine and Keek. These are, in turn, integrated into the most popular services like Instagram and Facebook.

Full timeline[edit]

Year Month and date Event type Details
1974 January Technology The discrete cosine transform (DCT), a form of lossy compression, was first proposed in 1972 by Nasir Ahmed, who then developed the algorithm with T. Natarajan and K. R. Rao at the University of Texas in 1973.[1] They first presented the DCT algorithm in January 1974.[2][3] It is the most important data compression technique that later enabled practical video streaming.[4]
1988 November Technology The H.261 video coding standard is revealed by the ITU-T.[5] The adoption of discrete cosine transform (DCT) video compression made it the first practical video coding format,[6] and it was used for online video conferencing.[7] All MPEG video coding standards that followed (including MPEG-1, MPEG-2 Video, H.264/MPEG-4 AVC and HEVC) have since used DCT video compression.[4]
1993 May 22 Technology Wax or the Discovery of Television Among the Bees, originally released in 1991, is the first film to be streamed on the Internet. Due to bandwidth limitations it is broadcast at 2 frames per second rather than the standard 24 frames per second. [8]
1995 September 5 Technology ESPN SportsZone streams a live radio broadcast of a baseball game between the Seattle Mariners and the New York Yankees to thousands of its subscribers worldwide using cutting-edge technology developed by a Seattle-based startup company named Real Networks – the first livestreaming event.[9]
1995 Technology Macromedia releases Shockwave Player for Netscape Navigator, which becomes the primary format of streaming media for the late 1990s and 2000s (until it is gradually supplanted by HTML5).[10]
1998 Late Technology MPEG-4, a method of defining compression of audio and visual (AV) digital data, is introduced.[11][12][13][14][15]
1999 Technology Microsoft introduces streaming feature in Windows Media Player 6.4. It introduces the ASF file format, which allows storage of multiple video and audio tracks inside a single file. It also introduces Windows Media streaming protocols that support switching streams during broadcast. This technology is most commonly referred to as Multiple Bit Rate ASF, or simply MBR.[16]
1999 June Technology Apple introduces a streaming media format in its QuickTime 4 application.[17]
2002 October Technology Adaptive bit rate over HTTP is created by the DVD Forum at the WG1 Special Streaming group.
2003 May Technology The On2 TrueMotion VP6 codec is released.[18]
2004 June Products MindGeek is founded as Too Much Media. Its name is changed to Manwin in 2010, and then MindGeek in October 2013. Its operations are primarily related to Internet pornography, but also include other online properties such as the comedy video website videobash.com and celebrity gossip site celebs.com.[19][20]
2005 January 25 Products Google Video launches.[21]
2005 March 15 Companies Dailymotion, a French video-sharing website, is founded.[22]
2005 April 23 Companies YouTube opens for video uploads, and the first YouTube video uploaded on April 23, 2005 is titled Me at the zoo.[23] Between March and July 2006, YouTube grows from 30 to 100 million views of videos per day.
2006 May 14 Companies Crunchyroll, an American website and international online community focused on video streaming East Asian media including anime, manga, drama, music, electronic entertainment, and auto racing content, is founded.[24]
2006 October 1 Companies Justin.tv, a live-streaming service that is the parent company of Twitch, is founded by Justin Kan.[25]
2006 September 7 Products Amazon introduces video on demand service Amazon Video.[26]
2006 October 9 Mergers Google acquires YouTube.[27]
2006 October 31 Companies LiveLeak, a UK-based video sharing website that lets users post and share videos (often of reality footage, politics, war, and other world events), is founded.[28]
2006 December Companies Youku, one of China's top online video and streaming service platforms, is founded.[29]
2007 January 15 Products Netflix announces that it will launch streaming video.[30]
2007 February Technology HTML5 specification introduces the video element for the purpose of playing videos. This allows embedding video to no longer necessitate a third-party plugin, as it can be played natively in the browser. HTML5 would later overtake Flash as the primary mechanism for broadcasting video.[31]
2007 Early Companies PornHub, a pornographic video sharing website, is founded by the web developer Matt Keezer as a website within the company Interhub.[32]
2007 September Companies Vevo is founded. It offers music videos from two of the "big three" major record labels, Universal Music Group and Sony Music Entertainment.[33]
2007 September 5 Technology Microsoft introduces Microsoft Silverlight, an application framework for writing and running rich Internet applications, similar to Adobe Flash.[34]
2008 February 25 Products DivX announces that it will shut down Stage6,[35] stating that it is unable to continue to provide the attention and resources required for its continued operation.[36]
2008 March 10 Technology Macromedia Flash moves to the H.264 encoding codec.[37]
2008 March 12 Companies Hulu, an online streaming service for TV/movies, launches for public access in the United States.[38]
2009 January Products Google discontinues the ability to upload videos to Google Video.[39]
2009 November Technology Apple first introduces HLS (HTTP Live Streaming), an HTTP-based adaptive bitrate streaming communications protocol.[40]
2010 March Acquisitions PornHub is purchased by Fabian Thylmann as part of the Manwin conglomerate, now known as MindGeek.[41]
2010 April 22 Companies iQiyi, an online video platform based in Beijing, China launches.[42]
2010 December Companies Viki, an international video website offering TV shows, movies, and other premium content, is founded and gets Series A round funding.[43]
2011 January Technology Dynamic Adaptive Streaming over HTTP – which enables high quality streaming of media content over the Internet delivered from conventional HTTP web servers – becomes a draft international standard.[44] The MPEG-DASH standard is published as ISO/IEC 23009-1:2012 in April, 2012.
2011 April Companies Vudu announces the launch of its online streaming service.[45]
2011 May Acquisitions Manwin/MindGeek acquires the pornographic video sharing website YouPorn.[46]
2011 June 6 Companies Justin.tv spins off its gaming division as Twitch.tv, which officially launches in public beta.[47]
2011 July Companies Keek – a free online social networking service that allows its users to upload video status updates, which are called "keeks" – launches.[48]
2012 January 29 Companies Megaupload (and Megavideo) are shut down by the FBI.[49]
2012 June Companies Vine, a short-form video sharing service where users can share six-second-long looping video clips, is founded by Dom Hofmann, Rus Yusupov, and Colin Kroll.[50][51]
2012 December Companies Snapchat adds the ability to send video snaps in addition to photos.[52]
2013 June 13 Product Instagram launches video sharing.[53]
2015 January 27 Products YouTube drops Flash for HTML5 video as default.[54]
2015 March Companies Periscope, a live video streaming app for iOS and Android developed by Kayvon Beykpour and Joe Bernstein is launched (and acquired by Twitter before its launch).[55]
2015 May Companies Meerkat, a mobile app that enables users to broadcast live video streaming through their mobile device, releases its app for both iOS and Android.[56]
2016 January Companies Facebook launches livestreaming to everyone with Facebook Live.[57]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Nasir Ahmed (1991). "How I Came Up With the Discrete Cosine Transform". Digital Signal Processing. 1 (1): 4-5.
  2. ^ Ahmed, Nasir; Natarajan, T.; Rao, K. R. (January 1974), "Discrete Cosine Transform", IEEE Transactions on Computers, C-23 (1): 90–93, doi:10.1109/T-C.1974.223784
  3. ^ "T.81 – DIGITAL COMPRESSION AND CODING OF CONTINUOUS-TONE STILL IMAGES – REQUIREMENTS AND GUIDELINES" (PDF). CCITT. September 1992. Retrieved 12 July 2019.
  4. ^ a b Ce, Zhu (2010). Streaming Media Architectures, Techniques, and Applications: Recent Advances: Recent Advances. IGI Global. p. 26. ISBN 9781616928339.
  5. ^ "(Nokia position paper) Web Architecture and Codec Considerations for Audio-Visual Services" (PDF). H.261, which (in its first version) was ratified in November 1988.
  6. ^ Ghanbari, Mohammed (2003). Standard Codecs: Image Compression to Advanced Video Coding. Institution of Engineering and Technology. pp. 1–2. ISBN 9780852967102.
  7. ^ Huang, Hsiang-Cheh; Fang, Wai-Chi (2007). Intelligent Multimedia Data Hiding: New Directions. Springer. p. 41. ISBN 9783540711698.
  8. ^ Markoff, John (1993-05-24). "Cult Film Is a First On Internet". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2017-06-08.
  9. ^ "A history of media streaming and the future of connected TV". The Guardian. Retrieved July 28, 2016.
  10. ^ "Adobe Shockwave Player Download Free for Windows". Softnavy.com. Retrieved August 1, 2016.
  11. ^ ISO/IEC (2004-11-15), ISO/IEC 14496-1:2004 – Third edition 2004-11-15 – Information technology — Coding of audio-visual objects — Part 1: Systems (PDF), archived from the original (PDF) on 2017-08-31, retrieved 2010-04-11
  12. ^ WG11 (MPEG) (March 2002). "Overview of the MPEG-4 Standard". Retrieved 2010-04-11.
  13. ^ WG11 (1997-11-21), Text for CD 14496-1 Systems (MS Word .doc), retrieved 2010-04-11
  14. ^ "MPEG-4 Systems Elementary Stream Management (ESM)". July 2001. Retrieved 2010-04-11.
  15. ^ "MPEG Systems (1-2-4-7) FAQ, Version 17.0". July 2001. Retrieved 2010-04-11.
  16. ^ "A Brief History of Multi-Bitrate Streaming". Alexzambelli.com. Retrieved July 31, 2016.
  17. ^ "Timeline of QuickTime Updates at the Apple Museum". Retrieved January 8, 2007.
  18. ^ CNET News (2003-05-13) On2 blows trumpet for new codec, Retrieved on 2009-08-17
  19. ^ MindGeek. "MindGeek". LinkedIn. Retrieved 23 December 2014. Founded 2004
  20. ^ "Manwin Canada: A Leader in Web Design, IT, Web Development & SEO!". ca.manwin.com. Archived from the original on 7 November 2011. Retrieved 23 December 2014. Established in June 2004, Manwin is an international organization, with corporate offices in Europe.
  21. ^ Google Video Search Live
  22. ^ Carvajal, Doreen. "Taking on the Godzilla of video-sharing sites. " The New York Times. Friday 21 March 2008. Retrieved 4 May 2011.
  23. ^ Alleyne, Richard (July 31, 2008). "YouTube: Overnight success has sparked a backlash". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved January 17, 2009.
  24. ^ "Crunchyroll CEO: Making Online Anime Pay". ICv2. 2008-12-15. Retrieved 2008-12-15.
  25. ^ "Justin.TV". Retrieved June 23, 2016.
  26. ^ "Amazon.com Investor Relations: Press Release". corporate-ir.net.
  27. ^ "Google closes $A2b YouTube deal". The Age. Melbourne. Reuters. November 14, 2006. Retrieved March 3, 2007.
  28. ^ Damn, a year already? liveleak.com, October 31, 2007
  29. ^ Kristen Nicole2007-11-21 06:47:07 UTC (2007-11-21). "Youku Hits the Jackpot with $25M". Mashable.com. Retrieved 2014-06-28.
  30. ^ "Netflix to Deliver Movies to the PC". The New York Times. January 16, 2007. Retrieved May 21, 2016.
  31. ^ "The history of online video: the state of the art and how we got there". Retrieved July 28, 2016.
  32. ^ "The Geek-Kings of Smut". New York. Retrieved 22 December 2014.
  33. ^ "Queen Rania calls on music world to support 1GOAL education campaign". December 10, 2009. Archived from the original on December 4, 2012. Retrieved September 3, 2015.
  34. ^ "Silverlight architecture". Retrieved 2007-06-05.
  35. ^ "DivX Announces Plans to Shut Down Stage6.com". DivX.com. February 25, 2008. Archived from the original on February 27, 2008.
  36. ^ "Stage6 Shut Down"., stage6.com
  37. ^ "Exploring Flash Player support for high-definition H.264 video and AAC audio". Adobe.com. Retrieved July 31, 2016.
  38. ^ "Welcome to Hulu « The Hulu Blog". Blog.hulu.com. Retrieved May 30, 2016.
  39. ^ Turning Down Uploads at Google Video, by Michael Cohen, Product Manager, January 14, 2009, Official Google Video Blog, accessed April 23, 2009
  40. ^ Pantos, Roger; May, William. "HTTP Live Streaming". tools.ietf.org. Retrieved 2019-09-24.
  41. ^ Buse, Uwe (20 December 2012). "Harnessing the Internet: The German Porn King's Revolutionary Model". der Spiegel.
  42. ^ "Baidu | Press Releases". ir.baidu.com. Retrieved 2015-12-29.
  43. ^ "Viki". Crunchbase. Retrieved July 31, 2016.
  44. ^ ISO/IEC DIS 23009-1.2 Dynamic adaptive streaming over HTTP (DASH)
  45. ^ "Vudu Launches Streaming Service". Retrieved May 30, 2016.
  46. ^ "Manwin Acquires YouPorn.com". AVN. 10 May 2011. Archived from the original on 2 April 2014. Retrieved 20 December 2014.
  47. ^ Wilhelm, Alex (June 6, 2011). "Twitch TV: Justin.tv's killer new esports project". The Next Web.
  48. ^ Dobby, Christine. "Toronto's Keek raises $18M for social video networking platform". Retrieved January 17, 2012.
  49. ^ "Megaupload (and Megavideo) shut down by the Feds". Ew.com. Retrieved July 31, 2016.
  50. ^ Sippey, Michael (January 24, 2013). "Vine: A new way to share video". Twitter Blog. Twitter. Retrieved July 25, 2013.
  51. ^ Crook, Jordan (January 24, 2013). "Twitter's 6-Second Video Sharing App, Vine, Goes Live In The App Store". TechCrunch. Retrieved January 26, 2013.
  52. ^ J.J. Colao, "Snapchat Adds Video, Now Seeing 50 Million Photos A Day", Forbes, Dec 14, 2012. Retrieved May 16, 2016.
  53. ^ "Instagram Launches 15-Second Video Sharing Feature, With 13 Filters And Editing". Techcrunch.com. Retrieved April 15, 2016.
  54. ^ "YouTube drops Flash for HTML5 video as default". Theverge.com. Retrieved July 31, 2016.
  55. ^ Shontell, Alyson (26 March 2015). "What it's like to sell your startup for ~$120 million before it's even been launched: Meet Twitter's new prized possession, Periscope". Business Insider. Retrieved 26 March 2015.
  56. ^ "Meerkat raises $12 million - Business Insider". Businessinsider.com. Retrieved July 31, 2016.
  57. ^ "Facebook Livestreaming Opens Up to Everyone With an iPhone". Wired.com. Retrieved July 31, 2016.