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"Treponema pallidum" spirochaetes
Treponema pallidum spirochaetes
Scientific classification e
Domain: Bacteria
Phylum: Spirochaetota
Class: Spirochaetia
Order: Spirochaetales
Family: Treponemataceae
Genus: Treponema
Schaudinn 1905 emend. Abt, Göker & Klenk 2013
Type species
Treponema pallidum
(Schaudinn & Hoffmann 1905) Schaudinn 1905

See text


Treponema is a genus of spiral-shaped bacteria. The major treponeme species of human pathogens is Treponema pallidum, whose subspecies are responsible for diseases such as syphilis, bejel, and yaws. Treponema carateum is the cause of pinta.[2] Treponema paraluiscuniculi is associated with syphilis in rabbits.[3] Treponema succinifaciens has been found in the gut microbiome of traditional rural human populations.[4]


The currently accepted taxonomy is based on the List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature (LPSN)[5] and National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI).[6]

16S rRNA based LTP_12_2021[7][8][9] GTDB 07-RS207 by Genome Taxonomy Database[10][11][12]

T. caldarium

T. stenostreptum (Zuelzer 1912) Abt, Göker & Klenk 2013

T. isoptericolens Dröge et al. 2008

T. azotonutricium

T. primitia

T. zuelzerae Veldkamp 1960 ex Canale-Parola 1980

T. medium

T. phagedenis

T. denticola

T. pedis

T. putidum

T. brennaborense

T. lecithinolyticum

T. maltophilum

T. pectinovorum

T. bryantii

T. rectale

T. berlinense

T. porcinum

T. succinifaciens Cwyk and Canale-Parola 1981

T. ruminis

T. saccharophilum

T. amylovorum Wyss et al. 1997

T. parvum

T. socranskii

T. s. paredis Smibert et al. 1984

T. s. buccale Smibert et al. 1984

T. s. socranskii Smibert et al. 1984


Gracilinema caldarium (Pohlschröder, Leschine & Canale-Parola 1995) Brune et al. 2022

Breznakiella homolactica Song et al. 2022

Leadbettera azotonutricia (Graber et al. 2004) Brune et al. 2022

Treponema primitia Graber, Leadbetter & Breznak 2004


"Ca. Gallitreponema excrementavium" Gilroy et al. 2021

"Ca. Avitreponema avistercoris" Gilroy et al. 2021


T. pedis Evans et al. 2009

T. denticola (Flügge 1886) Brumpt 1925 ex Chan et al. 1993

T. putidum Wyss et al. 2004

T. mediumUmemoto et al. 1997

"T. vincentii" (Blanchard 1906) Brumpt 1922 ex Smibert 1984

T. pallidum (Schaudinn & Hoffmann 1905) Schaudinn 1905

T. phagedenis (Noguchi 1912) Brumpt 1922 ex Kuhnert et al. 2020


T. lecithinolyticum Wyss et al. 1999

T. maltophilum Wyss et al. 1996

T. brennaborense Schrank et al. 1999

"Ca. T. excrementipullorum" Gilroy et al. 2021

T. berlinense Nordhoff et al. 2005

T. pectinovorum Smibert and Burmeister 1983

T. ruminis Newbrook et al. 2017

T. saccharophilum Paster and Canale-Parola 1986

"T. zioleckii" Piknova et al. 2008

T. rectale Staton et al. 2017

T. parvum Wyss et al. 2001

T. socranskii Smibert et al. 1984

T. bryantii Stanton and Canale-Parola 1980

T. porcinum Nordhoff et al. 2005

species‑group 2

Unassigned species:

♦ Type strain lost or not available

The species Treponema hyodysenteriae and Treponema innocens have been reclassified into Serpulina hyodysenteriae and Serpulina innocens.[13]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Treponema". NCBI taxonomy. Bethesda, MD: National Center for Biotechnology Information. Retrieved 27 February 2019.
  2. ^ Antal GM, Lukehart SA, Meheus AZ (January 2002). "The endemic treponematoses". Microbes Infect. 4 (1): 83–94. doi:10.1016/S1286-4579(01)01513-1. PMID 11825779.
  3. ^ Harper KN, Liu H, Ocampo PS, et al. (August 2008). "The sequence of the acidic repeat protein (arp) gene differentiates venereal from nonvenereal Treponema pallidum subspecies, and the gene has evolved under strong positive selection in the subspecies that causes syphilis". FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol. 53 (3): 322–32. doi:10.1111/j.1574-695X.2008.00427.x. PMID 18554302.
  4. ^ Angelakis E, Bachar D, Yasir M, Musso D, Djossou F, Gaborit B, et al. (January 2019). "Treponema species enrich the gut microbiota of traditional rural populations but are absent from urban individuals". New Microbes and New Infections. 27: 14–21. doi:10.1016/j.nmni.2018.10.009. PMC 6276622. PMID 30555706.
  5. ^ J.P. Euzéby. "Treponema". List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature (LPSN). Retrieved 2016-03-20.
  6. ^ Sayers; et al. "Treponema". National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) taxonomy database. Retrieved 2016-03-20.
  7. ^ "The LTP". Retrieved 23 February 2021.
  8. ^ "LTP_all tree in newick format". Retrieved 23 February 2021.
  9. ^ "LTP_12_2021 Release Notes" (PDF). Retrieved 23 February 2021.
  10. ^ "GTDB release 07-RS207". Genome Taxonomy Database. Retrieved 20 June 2022.
  11. ^ "ar53_r207.sp_label". Genome Taxonomy Database. Retrieved 20 June 2022.
  12. ^ "Taxon History". Genome Taxonomy Database. Retrieved 20 June 2022.
  13. ^ Stanton TB, Jensen NS, Casey TA, Tordoff LA, Dewhirst FE, Paster BJ (January 1991). "Reclassification of Treponema hyodysenteriae and Treponema innocens in a new genus, Serpula gen. nov., as Serpula hyodysenteriae comb. nov. and Serpula innocens comb. nov". Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 41 (1): 50–8. doi:10.1099/00207713-41-1-50. PMID 1704792.