User:Facistdeleter/sandbox

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

Contents

facistdeleter[edit]

hi. please don't delete my article without discussing why you dang vandals ! :)

i try to leave new things in talk section but sometimes (due to contact ability) put new material on a main page and see if it gets deleted, if i think the material is worth it. i then move it to talk if the page maintainer hated it.

NOTICE

i really DO NOT want anyone tampering with my personal home page items and consider that wire harassment. unless of course you have a good reason: but discuss it first your opinion is not more important than mine on my page. that's my "only rule"

politically....

i'm often politically offensive and like to stay that way until such time the wage gap is not at an all time high and i am not being personally sought by facist officials, which i can prove i am currently. i'm not with any party. and what i say is to be taken as opinion and goal only.

thank you! thank you all for a great reading place!

except for you deleting vandals !!!

Talk:Computer keyboard[edit]

Spilled drink in keyboard: tips[edit]

Electronics and fluid do not mix. Remove power immediately, hoping damage has not yet occured. If fluid is sticky consider light rinsing with warm water and a little soap upside down (PC keyboards have survived a run through the dish-washer).

More importantly. Allow electronics to dry for at least 5 days before attempting to use. Enough fluid to damage powered-on electronics linger for much longer than one would guess.

Talk:HVAC[edit]

Home no air / poor air tips[edit]

Beyond typical checks (air filter, thermostat).

Impeller fans need balancing. If fan vibration can be felt (more than a new fan), air-flow may dramatically reduce due to vibration.

Fan never comes on. Freqently technicians replace the motor when only the capacitor (starting capacitor) is needed. Assuming the capacitor is separate and not built-in; it is inexpensive, fails frequently, and should always have been replaced first.

Gas heater[edit]

Operation[edit]

Home gas heating controls cycling using thermostat, sensors or feedback, and electronic decision. Gas flow is actuated with a valve. Ignition is by electric filament. Flames heat a radiator in the air duct but outside the flue, and a fan distributes the heat.

Filament tip[edit]

Today's home ignition filaments look like a helix and are fragile. If installed wrong (touching anything) or bumped they crack and are totally in-operable. The crack can be near impossible to see and may only be noticed if handled. (silicon carbon filament)

Impeller[edit]

Impeller losses[edit]

Impeller balancing is done by small weights on a blancing machine. All energy of vibration is lost (ie, can easily ammount to %50 air-flow in home ac units).

Talk:Coprime integers[edit]

a couple funs[edit]

(* all nums < n coprime to numbers < m *)

 coprimesMn[n_,m_]:=Module[{is,i,j,v},v={};
   Do[is=True;
   Do[If[Mod[i,j]==0,is=False;Break[]]
       ,{j,2,m}];
     If[is,v=v~Join~{i}];
     ,{i,m,n}];
   v]

(* at lcm(m[all])==n the pattern repeats. chinese remainder soln add by lcm. mixing waves repeat pattern at lcm. *)

 coprimesMv[n_, v_, len_] := Module[{i, j},
   {v}~Join~Table[v + n i, {i, 1, len}] ]
 coprimesMn[LCM[1,2,3,4], 4]

(* {5, 7, 11} *)

 coprimesMv[12, coprimesMn[12, 4], 3]

(* {{5, 7, 11}, {17, 19, 23}, {29, 31, 35}, {41, 43, 47}} *)

(* replica of graph on main page (i hope) *)

 coprimes[{n_, m_}, len_] := Module[{},
   v = v~Append~{m, n};
   If[len <= 0, Return[{m, n}]];
   coprimes[{2m - n, m}, len - 1];
   coprimes[{2m + n, m}, len - 1];
   coprimes[{m + 2n, n}, len - 1] ]
 v = {}; coprimes[{2, 1}, 5]; ListPlot[v];

Sawtooth wave[edit]

Intersection of and Solutions[edit]

If a set of un-aligned sawtooth waves all intersect at y==0 for at some x. If only the left side intersections are asked (sloping side), this is the same problem as Chinese remainder theorem.

For two un-aligned waves if an R and L intersect for an x, the solution is the same as inverse modulus. While RR should be easy with LCM.

For other combinations and triangular waves discussion article:

Primes[edit]

Visualization[edit]

Imagine choosing a number on the number line insuring that the wave frequency of every past number or combination of does not intersect the axis where you choose.


Pair at a Time Solution[edit]

A problem with the modular arithmitic soln is no obvious algorithm to follow (modular back substitution rules) and possibly not leading to a soln or loosing lcm if not pairwise (complexity).

A problem with "A constructive algorithm to find the solution" (terms of multiples with invmod factor) is pairwise prime restriction and needing to solve "all or none" of m[i]. The algorithm fails if gcd!=1. Mathematica solves this by dividing into lists and some tricky splicing math.

However. Treating the moduli as sawtooth waves all intersecting (easy to graph, all share one y-offset) the soln is their lefts intersect at y==0.

Using that and also including use of GCD for aligning two wave (in obtaining the inverse mod), one can find any CR soln a pair at a time (last, next) without using all the m[i] or the restrictions. Ultimately it becomes a list of terms of multiples like the constructive solution does, excepting gcd is resolved and it works any next m[i] at a time (ie, ability to stop or back up). The current LCM is kept, so only 2 numbers need to be saved to progress.

That sounds slower and is in some cases but in a few is quicker, and is far faster if not congruent (ie, one has data which is not always congruent). But both are "fast".

See link:

Visualization[edit]

Where the left (rise) of all sawtooth waves meet on y==0 is a solution, every lcm the wave patterns repeat.

For just two waves that meet at L and R sides, inversemod is the soln.


Existence and uniqueness warning: not uniq[edit]

That being said the solution is not unique. If x is a first positive solution after x==0, consider LCM of all m[i] is the max. The length of all waves patterns repeat there is a solution every (LCM). If we consider pairs of m[i] they may have many within the max that satisfy most but not all m[i].

The first soln after x, if it exists, is uniq only assuming that LCM of m[i] is reached prohibiting more soln, that is.

In a system there may be repetition (this is allowed) - that is there was no statement it would not be so - which is also not unique.

Chinese Remainder Talk[edit]

Existence and uniqueness[edit]

That being said the solution is not unique. If x is a first positive solution after x==0, consider LCM of all m[i] is the max. length of all waves patterns repeating, then there is a solution every LCM and possible many within (see link n-chinese-remainders).

Pair at a Time Solution[edit]

A problem with the modular arithmitic soln is no obvious algorithm to follow (modular back substitution rules) and possibly not leading to a soln if not pairwise, complexity.

A problem with "A constructive algorithm to find the solution" (terms of multiples with invmod factor) is pairwise prime restriction and needing to solve "all or none" of m[i]. The algorithm fails if gcd!=1. Mathematica solves this by dividing into lists and some tricky splicing math.

However. Treating the moduli as sawtooth waves all intersecting (easy to graph, all share one y-offset) the soln is their lefts intersect at y==0.

Using that and also including use of GCD for wave offsets in obtaining the inverse mod, one can find any CR soln a pair at a time (last, next) without using all the m[i] or the restrictions. Ultimately it becomes a list of terms of multiples like the constructive solution does, excepting gcd is resolved and it works any next m[i] at a time.

That sounds slower and is in some cases but in a few is quicker, and is far faster if not congruent (ie, one has data which is not always congruent). But both are "fast".

See link: n-chinese-remainders.nb for the formula.

Visualization[edit]

Where the left (rise) of all sawtooth waves meet on y==0 is a solution, every lcm the wave patterns repeat.

For just two waves that meet at L and R sides, inversemod is the soln.


Diophantine[edit]

History[edit]

Euclid (350 B.C.) solved GCD (greatest common denomenator), the algorithm's result can be simply back substited for ax-by==1. This is parlayed into resolving or helping eliminate the other eq forms in question above, and also Sun Tzu's problem (congruence) because ax-by==1 is also the congruence to 1 mod n equation.

Often when solves for ax+by==c in a manner and ends up with just more identities, one also wishes an integer soln, and inverse modulus is what is needed to be counted out for (congruence, diophantine).

Fibonacci, Fermat, and other theorems use gcd, which they knew of well, in such manners.

See also[edit]

Modular arithmetic

Material safety data sheet[edit]

SDS authoring[edit]

Many companies offer the service of collecting, or writing and revising, data sheets to ensure they are up to date and available for their subscribers or users.[1] Some jurisdictions impose an explicit duty of care that each SDS be regularly updated (usually every three to five years).

Due to such (freedom) the quality of these can varies radically and there is no guarantee on some. Some make claims of including standards information they do not meet, include forms of product advertisement, may suggest poor or very partial medical advice, or lack common reactions which other msds like to show. Choosing the right source may be imporant.

List of rampage killers[edit]

Dispute of Graphs[edit]

The graph cites number of dead v. total population. However (see Bath incident) the number of dead per incident isn't related to the number of incidents or population.

The graph completely neglects the incidents are un-related historically. The mass killings of a workers union being assaulted by a company is not related to the number of workplace killings in any way whatsoever.

The dispute is: the graph makes a case of declining events and we all know the number events are increasing. And we can suspect a liberal political, even facism, in the biased making of such false presentations. (facsim: gov will tell you what to do using weapons if you protest, you must comply, they raise taxes if you vote for it or not)

List of rampage killers[edit]

Dispute of Graphs[edit]

The graph cites number of dead v. total population. However (see Bath incident) the number of dead per incident isn't related to the number of incidents or population.

The graph completely neglects the incidents are un-related historically. The mass killings of a workers union being assaulted by a company is not related to the number of workplace killings in any way whatsoever.

The dispute is: the graph makes a case of declining events and we all know the number events are increasing. And we can suspect a liberal political, even facism, in the biased making of such false presentations. (facsim: gov will tell you what to do using weapons if you protest, you must comply, they raise taxes if you vote for it or not)

Talk:List of rampage killers[edit]

Dipute of Facts[edit]

The only statistic is dead per capita. This has two MAJOR flaws. 1) it includes Bath incident and warns it's wrong 2) it does NOT include the fact that the number of dead in an event is not at all related to the number of people in the population.

It's painfully obvious to everyone that the cases are increasing in frequency and for the wrong reasons.

It's hideous that a liberal polititian is using the Encyclopedia and lying statistics to make the case that under liberal facism the events are decreasing.

We all know it's increasing. Liar.

Dispute of Graphs 2[edit]

Historically the events are totally unrelated.

ex. a mass killing of employees by employers (called a war or skirmish in history books, usa history of the formation of unions) is completely unrelated to the rise in workplace and school shootings - for which there is no good reason to cite (any cause was un-necessary and avoidable)

The graph thus gains another decline by comparing incomparable things.

Were the graph to include skirmishes in the middle east and abroad i suspect we'd see a whole new blood-bath picture

Talk:Adolescence[edit]

Mood and Volatility[edit]

During this development phase great changes in puberty development often cause very hard to deal with emotional states, which may come and go, along with those well known growing pains (and sometimes stated as being growing pains).

Teens should be taught and aware of emotional instability and told it is temporary. That it is sometimes difficult but a normal part of development. They should have job activities, friends and media appropriate to deal with the changes. They should learn to deal with it but look forward to it dissapearing. Drug treatment should be avoided.

(the above is commonly taught in human development books i have no idea how the article missed out on such a big topic)

Poor Judgement[edit]

Teens often express to be Masters of a topic they are completely inept in. It is an age where poor decisions can lead to life impacting consequences, such as auto accidents and addiction.

Teen is an age when job apprenticeship should begin, to be taught by Masters, to see the huge flaws in their assumptions and learn to work (ie, that book smarts do not get work done correctly).

As well teens are taught Government and Equity Law, their liability and what society expects, in addition to their History studies.

(the above is commonly taught in human development books i have no idea how the article missed out on such a big topic)

Phencyclidine[edit]

Effects[edit]

A most serious effect is that on PCP a driver cannot sense the danger of speed and chronically drives way too fast: and limit ability to sense the danger of coming obstructions. And though they will see the speed and wish to slow: often they will not. This effect can last for a week after taking PCP. Extremely dangerous to drive with PCP up to a week after.

Gentoo Linux[edit]

Advantages and drawbacks[edit]

BSD style ports installing (compiled install) is much preferred to by users because this is often more successful, reliable, lessens other packages required (maybe also unwanted), it does not prevent the use of pre-compiled packages (ie, i386), it allows Modification easily, and it gets missing source automatically. Other linux distros make compiling a pre-compiled package very complicated and afar from what the source author intended to be the default compile and do not get all source needed (making sometimes unwise choices). However, many packages one may wish to use are by developers using other major distros and are not in porting format or auto-config, but are in distro-specific format. One would then have to work around all such packages to do a project that needed, say, drivers only a few linux distros specialize in (which again, have complicated processes to re-create their pre-compiled packages). The lack of large distro developer community can be an advantage over being ruled and over-ruled by such a community. While gentoo is good for personal use, customization caused by dependancy compiling may be a disadvantage if widespread public use and maintenance is necessary.

Comparison of Linux distributions[edit]

Kernel[edit]

Some (ie, Debian) support Linux, BSD, and HURD. Others distros support BSD or Linux only.

Package management and installation[edit]

Packages can be easy or difficult to compile from Source Code due to distro jamming of original source into private format. Most distros support auto-config compiling which origional source is often found using. Also, ie. Apple can use (bsd portage of or auto-config) GNU sources of well behaved (non-os) softwares.

Live media[edit]

While many boast CD or Live install of the (distributable mainframe tar image), one should always check the "hardware compatibility list" first. But also check problem reports, faqs, and users questions: these reveal if certain hardware combinations will require expert knowlege and efforts while installing the base system, such as on a particular phone, pad, or top. (it could be minutes, hours, or weeks, depending)

Talk:Alternative periodic tables[edit]

Fuller Data with fill order[edit]

A nice chart displaying fill order and other data, works nice on iphone too:

jh, periodic table, condensed, wide, has e fill order, annotated

The same but with a newer La/Ac series layout that is easier too understand and follow with the eye:

jh, periodic table, condensed, easy read L/A, has e fill order, annotated

errata: chart implies data is in Mathematica's (CRC 79th 1989) chem.m except Oxidation State (CRC 52nd 1972).

source and Postscript (pritable) version at: Periodic Table Of Elements 4 Mathematica

dpkg[edit]

External links[edit]

dpkg_mini little 2 page sh script has "install remove skel implode explode control list depends check configure" (ignores databse though)

Longitude and Latitude Brief[edit]

File:Longitude-latitude-2.gif
longitude-latitude

Which is Longitude and Latitude? See the thumnail.

Longitude and Latitude are not lines on the map but refer to coordinates (on the map above, x-y coordinates). Longitude runs East-West across 360 total (-180,180) degrees around the Earth's axis. Latitude runs North-South across 180 degrees total (-90,90) of inclination.

The map lines are named meridians (North-South) and circles of latitude (East-West). Following a meridian at 0 degrees N-S follows all positions having 0 degrees Longitude. Following a circle of latitude along the Equator E-W follows all positions have 0 degrees Latitude.

Ancient Sailing and Latitudes[edit]

Ancient navigation techniques allowed captains to measure their longitude easily: if they sailed east they could determine how many days and knots (miles) passed easily. However they didn't much need that. What they needed to know was the degree of latitude so that arriving upon a new continent their N-S bearing would be accurate. The sun and stars were no easy guide. As a result ships often had to sail N-S, up and down a coast, looking for the port of call!

Suggested Reading[edit]

See Longitude for the polar coordinate description of angles swept from the center of the earth and much more. However GPS is more useful as polar description cannot account for the varied shape of the earth. See also: Google maps (software using satellite data) allows one to mark areas and information upon their own personalized maps of the World.

Links[edit]

Piping and plumbing fitting[edit]

Cap[edit]

A cap and pipe is used by some plumbers to make an air chamber (offers air cushion to sudden changes in pressure that will cause pipes to knock) which is equivalent to pre-made ones for pennies on the dollar and has advantage of "never breaking". The tip is for residential as it may, though rarely, need drainage (the water shut off, happens whenever plumbing is done) if the air dissipates. Practically it's no worry or corrected easily. The ammount of cushion matters (a few to several inch pipe) so check into that.


Soldering[edit]

To make a solder connection, a chemical flux is applied to the inner sleeve of a sleeve type joint, and the pipe is inserted. The joint is then heated using a propane torch or MAPP gas torch, solder is applied to the heated joint, and the melted solder is drawn into the joint by capillary action as the flux vaporizes. Sweating is an alternate term sometimes used to describe soldering of pipe joints.

Sweating means cleaning then precoating each side of the connection with silver before soldering the two together. This is done to better assure capilary action takes place fully. Some fittings are pre-sweated with silver. It's "not optional" - make sure to do it.

MAPP bottles are "new-er" available in stores and hotter than propane and MUCH easier to use than propane for those learning (though more expensive). Because pipes have latent water (should be drained, but may) and water steals heat, beginners can find it very difficult to heat the pipe with propane in time to get the melt going before the joint becomes ruined by oxygen and thus dirt (the flux wears off if not done quickly). MAPP also tends to be "cleaner" thus is less likely to dirty the deal during use. Note: have a master inspect your work, don't go it alone (there are many safety issues, such as not trapping steam at high pressure).

Piping and plumbing fitting[edit]

Cap[edit]

A cap and pipe is used by some plumbers to make an air chamber (offers air cushion to sudden changes in pressure that will cause pipes to knock) which is equivalent to pre-made ones for pennies on the dollar and has advantage of "never breaking". The tip is for residential as it may, though rarely, need drainage (the water shut off, happens whenever plumbing is done) if the air dissipates. Practically it's no worry or corrected easily. The ammount of cushion matters (a few to several inch pipe) so check into that.


Soldering[edit]

To make a solder connection, a chemical flux is applied to the inner sleeve of a sleeve type joint, and the pipe is inserted. The joint is then heated using a propane torch or MAPP gas torch, solder is applied to the heated joint, and the melted solder is drawn into the joint by capillary action as the flux vaporizes. Sweating is an alternate term sometimes used to describe soldering of pipe joints.

Sweating means cleaning then precoating each side of the connection with silver before soldering the two together. This is done to better assure capilary action takes place fully. Some fittings are pre-sweated with silver. It's "not optional" - make sure to do it.

MAPP bottles are "new-er" available in stores and hotter than propane and MUCH easier to use than propane for those learning (though more expensive). Because pipes have latent water (should be drained, but may) and water steals heat, beginners can find it very difficult to heat the pipe with propane in time to get the melt going before the joint becomes ruined by oxygen and thus dirt (the flux wears off if not done quickly). MAPP also tends to be "cleaner" thus is less likely to dirty the deal during use. Note: have a master inspect your work, don't go it alone (there are many safety issues, such as not trapping steam at high pressure).

Mapp[edit]

practical values[edit]

mApp was invented to stabilize or replace Acetylene. It has slightly less temperature and heat so in very few situations it can't be used. Acetylene is stabilized due to the number of fatalities or cost of acetylene tank drops (explosions resulted). MAPP is still shock reactive: treat it with all precautions.

MAPP has a BTU/lb of 2100 while acetylene is 2500 and but has a smaller flame profile while doing it and operates at a different regulator pressure. 5300 F is when using an O2 tank and pressures properly.

3600 F is a the temp using a cheaper torch such as an efficient "benzomatic" ts4000 from a hardware store. To get a medium to that temperature requires allot of continued BTU/h and even isolation. Thus a higher flame temp is needed, practically speaking, to do ferrous metal melting (a small torch may be impractical). A MAPP Torch can "just barely" do copper welding or brass brazing (using proper brazing rod) conveniently (which propane can't and which is much better than soldering). A ts4000 makes plumbing soldering easier than yet cheaper propane torches (ie, it overcomes latent water in pipes easier). See: Brazing Arc Welding Oxy-fuel welding Forge welding

practical values[edit]

"Do your own professional welding", by Charles R. Self, ISBN 0-8306-0068-X

One doesn't need a book reference or a degree to take a torch to copper pipe or brass hangar to see the results. One should try it or be quiet.

practical values[edit]

mApp was invented to stabilize or replace Acetylene. It has slightly less temperature and heat so in very few situations it can't be used. Acetylene is stabilized due to the number of fatalities or cost of acetylene tank drops (explosions resulted). MAPP is still shock reactive: treat it with all precautions.

MAPP has a BTU/lb of 2100 while acetylene is 2500 and but has a smaller flame profile while doing it and operates at a different regulator pressure. 5300 F is with O2 and proper gas flows.

3600 F is a the temp using a cheaper torch such as an efficient "benzomatic" ts4000 from a hardware store. To get a medium to that temperature requires allot of continued BTU/h and even isolation. Thus a higher flame temp is needed, practically speaking, to do ferrous metal melting (a small torch may be impractical). A MAPP Torch can "just barely" do copper welding or brass brazing (using proper brazing rod) conveniently (which propane can't and which is much better than soldering). A ts4000 makes plumbing soldering easier than yet cheaper propane torches (ie, it overcomes latent water in pipes easier). [2]

See also[edit]

Brazing Arc Welding Oxy-fuel welding Forge welding

References[edit]

  • Self, Charles R. (1982), Do Your Own Professional Welding, Blue Ridge Summit, PA: Tab Books Inc, ISBN 0-8306-0068-X 

AOL[edit]

Brief History and Praise[edit]

Background: modems connected two computers, not attatched to the internet, using telephone lines (now DSL). Bulletin Board Server BBS was a craze of home computers connecting to a bigger BBS sites having a large scsi disk drive, free software, user chat; often run by government or colleges.

AOL made a chain market of this: buying BBS stations (small buildings with modems connected to PCs) to serve AOL customers. AOL later upgrade to internet connection with Netscape web browser (before Microsoft IE Browser existed). There was some competition by telephone company run ISDN, but limited. (telephone companies have always used small buildings similarly)

But when Cable Internet came out: it was far faster and using government super-funded Cable Modem. All of those BBS stations filled Hayes modems and PCs? Technological paper weights (no easy upgrade path). Subscriptions fell.

But AOL saw this and invested in cable tv companies and had it's own cable access brand as well. The "diving chart" above is wrong: it does not show people subscribed to cable services that AOL owns large shares in.

AOL marketed (in wash dc area) by sending out free floppy disks that installed AOL software. People used these instead of buy floppies, and it was great advertisement. Thanks Steve!

AOL was a boon to PC sales it let many "PC dummies" and experts experience connection with modems, who otherwise would not have had time or not have figured out how. AOL always had nice shared content (software, media, chat, mail, news groups) and was pleasant to see and use.

The only AOL "criticism" was: during one period they limited where one could internet browse but only while connected to AOL. The policy was temporary.

Bezier example[edit]

Quick but Full Numeric Example with Graph[edit]

Permutations: ways to take n things r at a time. 3! is 3*2*1

P[n_, r_] := n!/(n - r)!;

Combinations: (removed repeats in P, ie AB==BA)

C[n_, r_] := P[n, r]/r!;

bernstein[n_] := Table[C[n, i]*t^i*(1 - t)^(n - i), {i, 0, n}];

. is dot product (also scalar, inner)

bezier[pts_] := bernstein[Length[pts] - 1].pts;

quadradic

bernstein[2] {(1 - t)2, 2*(1 - t)*t, t2}

cubic

bernstein[3]

{(1 - t)3, 3*(1 - t)2*t, 3*(1 - t)*t2, t3}

a cubic bezier spline needs 4 (x,y) points

bernstein[3].{{1, 1}, {2, 2}, {3, 3}, {4, 4}}

{(1 - t)3 + 6*(1 - t)2*t + 9*(1 - t)*t2 + 4*t3, (1 - t)3 + 6*(1 - t)2*t + 9*(1 - t)*t2 + 4*t3}

substitute a distance along curve to get each point along curve

% /. t -> 2 {7, 7}

bezier[{{1, 1}, {2, 2}, {3, 3}, {4, 4}}] /. t -> 2

{7, 7}

using (x,y,z) as input, a 3D spline (space curve) results

bezier[{{0, 0.2, 0.2}, {-5, 4.7, .2}, {7, 0.2, .2}, {10, 2, 5}}]

{-15*(1 - t)2*t + 21*(1 - t)*t2 + 10*t3, 0.2*(1 - t)3 + 14.1*(1 - t)2*t + 0.6*(1 - t)*t2 + 2*t3,0.2*(1 - t)3 + 0.6*(1 - t)2*t + 0.6*(1 - t)*t2 + 5*t3}

The plot of f(t) shows the effect of "control points" is that the curve f(t) appears to be a straight line which control points have pulled toward them. (cp red, the inputs to bezier)

bezier-spline-3d.gif

The materials above are incomplete compared to font glyphs. No effort was made to specify size meters, the number of curves to splice together to make (a letter), nor a way to use a dictionary of them. Font glyphs are overly involved to get right for all languages. Another issue is that computer hardware or software offering vector graphics preset which beziers can be used and how.

Talk:Bezier curve[edit]

Easy and Full Graphing Example[edit]

Permutations: ways to take n things r at a time. 3! is 3*2*1

P[n_, r_] := n!/(n - r)!;

Combinations: (removed repeats in P, ie AB==BA)

C[n_, r_] := P[n, r]/r!;

bernstein[n_] := Table[C[n, i]*t^i*(1 - t)^(n - i), {i, 0, n}];

. is dot product (also scalar, inner)

bezier[pts_] := bernstein[Length[pts] - 1].pts;

quadradic

bernstein[2]

{(1 - t)^2, 2*(1 - t)*t, t^2}

cubic

bernstein[3]

{(1 - t)^3, 3*(1 - t)^2*t, 3*(1 - t)*t^2, t^3}

a cubic bezier spline needs 4 (x,y) points

bernstein[3].{{1, 1}, {2, 2}, {3, 3}, {4, 4}}

{(1 - t)^3 + 6*(1 - t)^2*t + 9*(1 - t)*t^2 + 4*t^3, (1 - t)^3 + 6*(1 - t)^2*t + 9*(1 - t)*t^2 + 4*t^3}

substitute a distance along curve to get each point along curve

% /. t -> 2

{7, 7}

bezier[{{1, 1}, {2, 2}, {3, 3}, {4, 4}}] /. t -> 2

{7, 7}

using (x,y,z) as input, a 3D spline (space curve) results

bezier[{{0, 0.2, 0.2}, {-5, 4.7, .2}, {7, 0.2, .2}, {10, 2, 5}}]

{-15*(1 - t)^2*t + 21*(1 - t)*t^2 + 10*t^3, 0.2*(1 - t)^3 + 14.1*(1 - t)^2*t + 0.6*(1 - t)*t^2 + 2*t^3,0.2*(1 - t)^3 + 0.6*(1 - t)^2*t + 0.6*(1 - t)*t^2 + 5*t^3}

The plot of f(t) shows the effect of "control points" is that the curve f(t) appears to be a straight line which control points have pulled toward them. (cp red, the inputs to bezier)

bezier-spline-3d.gif

The materials above are incomplete compared to font glyphs. No effort was made to specify size meters, the number of curves to splice together to make (a letter), nor a way to use a dictionary of them. Font glyphs are overly involved to get right for all languages. Another issue is that computer hardware or software offering vector graphics preset which beziers can be used and how.

Corvus computer[edit]

note: one of many edits all deleted. no mater how i limited details.

Ahead of it's Time[edit]

One innovating concept was how Pascal was used on the Constellation Operating System. The software (see above) was in interpetive Pascal language in clear text and one could edited the software run-time. It was a fully sourced system too, the printed manual contained the Pascal code for all applications that could be typed in.

The word processor supported text and graphics intermixed, which was ahead of it's time for PCs in that price range, but behind that of a Xerox workstation.

While not show on the links above, CC had the option of a high quality beautiful crisp white text and graphics monitor of full page size (grey-tone graphics only). The monitor also had a feature today's monitors don't support which is the ability to understand ascii text sent directly to it (modern monitors require a video card to do text). It was not a full fleged unix text terminal, not like tektronix or vt101. The text still looks nice even set aside todays monitors, due to the long persistence phosphor used.

Debugging[edit]

Newer Debugging Processes[edit]

Debugging functions (grouped lines of code) is problematic because the side-effect of any line can cause multiple other side effects. At exit it will be unknowable which line is offending.

Newer debugging process can step through functions and displays or edit static variables while doing so: but not edit the functions themselves. Watch for a condition is often a feature (used when such a watch would be intrusive in code even optionally, or just freely to find bug).

Higher level code like Mathematical software operates on the bases of freely writing lines and using them in any order. However this is broken when one creates a function: the dubug process again will be unknowable at exit of the function.

CreateModule helps alleviate this by automatically creating functions out of a group of lines, so that while debugging one can both truly edit lines and execute in any order "during runtime" yet not have to separately write (or cut and paste) a group of lines into a function and fun header.

Newer Debugging Processes[edit]

Debugging functions (grouped lines of code) is problematic because the side-effect of any line can cause multiple other side effects. At exit it will be unknowable which line is offending.

Newer debugging process can step through functions and displays or edit static variables while doing so: but not edit the functions themselves. Watch for a condition is often a feature (used when such a watch would be intrusive in code even optionally, or just freely to find bug).

Higher level code like Mathematical software operates on the bases of freely writing lines and using them in any order. However this is broken when one creates a function: the dubug process again will be unknowable at exit of the function.

CreateModule helps alleviate this by automatically creating functions out of a group of lines, so that while debugging one can both truly edit lines and execute in any order "during runtime" yet not have to separately write (or cut and paste) a group of lines into a function and fun header.


Newer Debugging Processes[edit]

Debugging functions (grouped lines of code) is problematic because the side-effect of any line can cause multiple other side effects. At exit it will be unknowable which line is offending.

Newer debugging process can step through functions and displays or edit static variables while doing so: but not edit the functions themselves. Watch for a condition is often a feature (used when such a watch would be intrusive in code even optionally, or just freely to find bug).

Higher level code like Mathematical software operates on the bases of freely writing lines and using them in any order. However this is broken when one creates a function: the dubug process again will be unknowable at exit of the function.

CreateModule helps alleviate this by automatically creating functions out of a group of lines, so that while debugging one can both truly edit lines and execute in any order "during runtime" yet not have to separately write (or cut and paste) a group of lines into a function and fun header.


External links[edit]

  • CreateModule creates functions from a set of lines (while code runs), aiding free editing and exploring of function lines in any order while debugging or running.

Ancient Laws of Greece[edit]

The Greeks were renound thinkers however most or all earlier Greek documents are lost, including legal teachings and early democracy. The Greeks had regular schools, technology like Antikathera, and a lost The City of Atlantis in volcanic eruption. One can be assured it is a loss that ancient Greece is known by inference of later Greek material and Archeology.

It is said by historians that Romans appreciated Greek technology, schools, and laws. The Twelve Tables (754 BC) written by the Romans were likely heavily copied by Romans from Ancient Greek laws. Reading Plato one can readily see a just attitude, that democracy was important and mythology was not talked of as seriously by citizens (far less than mythology courses have suggested). Public debates (early trials) and Law back then were a high technology, a media, and loved pass-time by citizens. It was worked out very well, some of their brightest worked through the logic of successful and fair public debating.

Earliest law is said to be formative of town traditions and commercial law, and weight of produce (the town scale, scale of law). The Twelve Tables clearly show twon sentiment. Such laws were not common among towns or nations, except commercial law. The 21 Maxims of equity, a list of Greek and Roman truism logic arguments, were about the first laws meant to be allowed to be spoken or used in any Court.

Today most all these old laws, and also about the first 50 years of Roman law are still in legal books, legislation, and constitutions. ie the United States Constitution and Black's legal book. However. Many of the fair laws do not have their full impact they are often weakened by being burried as applied to particular topics rather than in general. But they are almost all still in law somewhere today.

Today what is forgotten? Opening of case is no longer by speaking directly to judge, often the government is the complainer (the law had been only the injured could complain), proof of guilt before jailing is very weak, service of process is now government run (USA), speed of trial might be delayed years, and allowance of both sides having full but appropriate debate is very weak (one might be imprisoned for wishing to speak the Rules of Equity in Court), and the ability to re-open debate if a Judge with jurisdiction allows is weakened. The Greeks didn't allow use of public accusation for defamation (there had been a penalty), nor use of law in bias by government. Modern governments have badly impacted freedoms but more by practice and less so in written law. Propery law is a major difference: the Greeks at one time didn't allow a man to sell the only land the family had to dwell on, the man would be enslaved (see below) instead.

What was in Greek law not in today's law until recently? Laws strictly protecting abuse of womanhood having strict penalties, and abortion law (recently these are brought back).

What is prohibited today but allowed by ancient Greeks as fair? Slavery to pay debt (note this was forced labor and the people had a home, it was moreso a labor for debt law).

What laws are not descendant from ancient Greeks? Romans in the first 50 years of their written law added many admirable building codes (ie, roads) and fair finance laws. It was the Romans that first offered international law college. The Romans had one memorable law to cite: idiots could not stop a man from working, that any arguments or legal complaints must come after the work day had ended, unless waiting was simply not possible.

Failings of Greek law. This can be inferred by knowlege Democracy which is at the dusk of unwritten Greek law. There was conflict of interest between the rich and poor controlling legal decision, which were at times blamed for country wide poverty. Persecusias (persecution) was a dictator during a depression some say was cause by the poor winning in Court too much. This is despite the law clearly forbade bias. During the history of all law it can be seen the balance of fair legal decisions between the rich and poor parallel, but only theoretically effect, a country's standard of living.

It's quite unfortunate today's legal colleges do not require study of legal history, law from it's roots, and often focus on the parts of law skirted for penalty and control of population. A review of early law, assuming one has experienced today's courts, is quite eye opening.

Quote: "The Rich Need Poor Courts." --jdh

Modern Greek Law v. Ancient Greek Law[edit]

Incomparable to Ancient Greece. After Atlantis was consume by volcanic chaos Italy finally got an upper hand on Greece, many fled. Some to Turkey, some stayed. Much later Muslims (and others) pushded Italians out of power. I'm sorry please see other articles as to who and how much of Greece are descendants of the Ancient Greeks. I gather the last 50 years Parliamentary system associated or led by King are led by those who took Greece, but I am unsure.

Socrates and Aristotle v. Homer[edit]

Homer was known for writing fiction (poems) for reading, some of which contained horrific law (the King of one's own Home having authority to kill his own family). Fiction is not law - sometimes a harsh look at the lack of it.

Socrates was known as a Philosopher and college educator in ancient Greece. In the book by Plato he taught students not to tie their own toungs with improper speech, and asked they think critically.

As to Homer. Some often look find horrors to cite in Greek mythology and fiction (to make their own behavior appear better I'd say). There is good evidence the pyramids were not built by slaves but by paid artizans, and at any rate no bones were found in the foundations nor strewn about; Hollywood depictions of Egyptian pyramids - pure fantasy as far as proof exists.

See also[edit]

Tube[edit]

Grid Basics[edit]

Quickly. Two basics are useful when reading about grids and uses. Power switching (power relay) and power waves.

The Vacuum Tube Control Grids offers excellent response to shutting off large amounts of current between anode and cathode using far less power on the grid (a relay) and can do so with great precision, producing exact yet powerful "pulses" (ex, can drive speakers).

Wave addition and subtraction is simple yet appears very complex how discussed. It's simple. When the peak of two waves meet the wave "double" in strength (simply add). When the peak and trough of two waves meet the waves simply disappears (simply subtract). Radios use control grids to 1) add waves for amplification (radio reception, speaker volume). 2) subtract waves to filter out other radio stations or noise. The rest of the math in these articles are "summations or fucntions" of math that are often irrelevant to the discussion where they appear in.

A simple introduction to Impedance problems mentioned below. When designing any circuit the values of voltage, resistance, and current are important at every location so each piece can do it's part. For example. When connecting a speaker to an amplifier it has resistance (ohms). If this is different than the amplifier as planned for: the amplifier has a resistor in it not planned for which shifts the voltage, current, and resistance throughout the amplifier (if improperly planned for). This is called "impedance matching", or rather, compensating for deviances in the circuit the circuit cannot handle.

Impedance[edit]

Z and R[edit]

The resistance R at time t for an AC circuit with Inductors and Capacitors is not a general equation and grows complicated quicly. We know V(t)=I(t)R(t). Below Vm=ImZ (Z impedance) is described where m is maximum and Z is a sin/cos estimate of high accuracy (maximum, not at any particular time) comparable to Rm.

Below note that Electrical Engineers use of Compelex numbers, named j instead of i, is a trick convenience for vector addition with V=IR (see phase diagram) and is not due to missing variables such as a case when sqrt(-x) is encountered.

Impedance matching[edit]

(note this use of imaginary numbers is merely a trick of using "i" for vector addition convenience and not due to missing variables such as a case when sqrt(-x) is encountered)

A good example of the need to calculate and match Impedance in circuits is attatching speakers to an amplifier. A typical amplifier circuit is not designed for just any resistance or load to be attatched: too far either way may damage the circuit or drive the speakers poorly. Thus, the speakers have an impedance rating. It is a simple situation which becomes more complicated when the signal demands (ie, multi-phase power) and circuit design are more reliant upon matching. Yet every sub-circuit is matched within circuit, the difference being these are "static" and not changing.

Talk:Individual retirement account

IRA CRITICISM[edit]

Circa 2008 American workers all were lamenting their IRAs had been practically cut in half: half of all their life savings simply disappeared.

Politicians did nothing to stop the rape of IRAs or recover the immense drop.

The article says nothing of sudden "very questionable" loss and the in-ability even for the masses to appeal to police or stop such theft.

The article says you "can protect it by moving it" but the methods all involve entrusting a similar money pool. And most involve being hit hard tax-time by middleman for the privelage of "protecting your money".

Looking for data reveals that institutes are not showing anything significant having happened in the period. However online articles of the even of government agencies explaining to people why "$11 TRILLION" just went missing from (IRAs) can still be found. The why doesn't data history charts show such a MASSIVE financial event? The cause?

For instance. If the loss fingerpoints "banks made mistakes in housing loans". This is simply a poor excuse for such an immense drop: as banks are always in such a condition. Still one has to ask: we don't care: where is the dang money even if that is so?

Such a massive loss of $11 trillion needs more explanation, jail time, and recovery.

In the Obama Administration era IRAs may have seen more stability HOWEVER !

We see $15 trillion + has simply disappeared this time from the U.S. Mint sector, again with only assurance it was accounted for.

And that $15 T reported, ladies and gentleman, doesn't include municipal bond debt, which is more billions for the era (currently: $15 T total over national debt).

Integrated circuit[edit]

Hobby: connecting IC[edit]

Anyone can make a simple IC circuit to make their own "device" at home for hobby. Typically projects include connecting a LED digit display to a simple IC that shows IC output.

An IC often has several pins for basically inputs, outputs, power, and sometimes clock. A diagram for a simple IC is often found at purchase.

Simple IC do not run on a clock like computer chips. They can be connected to simple switches like "dip switches". A connected LED can verify result.

More complicated ICs do need a clock (ie, 1 Mhz). A quartz crystal provides timed pulses when connected. A quartz crystal signal is connected to an IC pin.

There are many hobby electronics pages on the web.�1

Judicial immunity[edit]

Criticism[edit]

This article forgets a major purpose of immunity is to allow the Judge a freedom to decide the case without outside influences. Without immunity the government could control how he rules.

But Judges aren't completely immune and never have been. Rather, when a Judge's "good behavior" (which Judges are not immune to) is in question a panel will hear the claim for Merit.

Impunity always leads to greater crimes.

Lex non a rege est violanda - The law must not be violated even by the King. Is an old phrase.

Lastly, in the History of Law (Greek), Judges who cheated cases for money were PUT TO DEATH. It's very untrue that Judges have enjoyed immunity throughout history.

There are other articles about judicial immunity on Wikipedia and I suggest the reader seek them.

With blanket immunity, the law becomes a cloak of fraud. And the use of law to do wrong doing is, nearly, the worst of crimes. As such can bring blight to an area quickly and death by fraud.

Life liberty and the persuit of happiness[edit]

Alternative hypotheses[edit]

Besides John Locke, the Code Civis (human rights, napoleanic code) human rights go back 2000 years, the same used today. Speech, Motion, Perseverance, Trials. The right to persue happiness and life implies an authoritarian would act to stop one from working and earning to live; to keep them captive or unable to compete. Clearly the DOI lists many complaints involving the King doing exactly that. More examples of old latin laws they knew well as lawyers, can be seen in Black's, and previous legal books.

Notice of Hearing[edit]

A "Notice of Hearing" is a prepared legal document that invokes all parties to hear a motion and may be emitted by any party. Most notably the notice contains a time and date for the court clerk to amend schedule for and what motion will be attempted. Permission to schedule is not required since making motions are protected right.

This kind of motion comes after the commencement of action and summons and until final judgment. One example is a motion to rule a defendant is not responding to summons (to rule against the defendant automatically). Another example is a defendant's motion to object to the summons.

Motions require both sides to be present. A "Notice of Hearing" must be delivered to all parties concerning: the court clerk, the plaintiff, and the defendant. The date requested must allow all parties due time to prepare. Whether proof of delivery is required is a particular.

Local rules determine many particulars of what must be on the notice. Some particulars are the time needed for defendant to react to receiving the notice (ie, two weeks), estimated time taken in court, and what legal disclaimers and warnings are necessary.

Often a locality has simple pre-prepared forms available with the clerk and on the internet. Several will be needed.

In the U.S. "the Friday docket" is iconic. A writer of a "Notice of Hearing" needs only to know which hours of Friday their kinds of motions are heard (by the presiding judge of the case) and schedule a Friday couple weeks out from delivery to all parties.

note: the author of this page is not a legal authority and requests help revising this article

problem theory[edit]

Problem theory is the science of specifying a problem. It is a subject and there are books upon the subject (see citations).

A problem must state initial state and conditions (as example only: an equation, initial values, rules) and final state and conditions. A question on the other hand may only allude to a final state. Identifying initial and final state is the first task.

If a problem does not do that, or contains questionable material: the solver receiving the malformed questioned must stop, find who wrote the question, and insure what these are. Many times when mathematitians receive questions in the real world the question (or problem) is wrong and in asking to uncovering a correct question: a satisfying solution is found during the process of asking.

The second task is to specify the difference between the inital and final states. Moving from the initial to final state may mean many things.

One typical book problem type: the initial state is an equation, and the final state is a different equation. This means solving is defined by transforming one equation to another without making either untrue (by the zero property of algebra*) and without loosing solutions. (often books say which transformation is desired)

Another typical book problem type: the initial state is an equation and some states given, the final state is numeric, solving means using the zero property of algebra to find as a solution numbers that satisfy both the initial and final states and conditions. It is essential the that initial equations are in standard form and have the zero property*. It is essential that the initial values be substituted immediately because algebraic variables in standard form are by definition immediate substituted replacements of variables.

Often forgotten in the first task: is solution counting. For example, if the initial state is an equation and has 4 possible solutions and the final state is an equation: it must have the same 4 possible solutions.

I skip entirely a discussion of rules that interact with intermediate solving steps and whether they effect the final state (which must be satisfied despite any such).

I very much suggest at least an introduction to these Problem Theory books. Many math texts give ad-hoc advice on "solving word problems" (problems in some books are confusing because they are poorly written, problem theory shows one how to show this). After studying Problem Theory from a book on the subject there will be absolutely no mystery involved; only clear tasks to move the problem to a next step toward completion.

Last but not least the cost, reason, and payment for solving a problem is important. See Operations Research


  • the zero property is essentially algebra and important to test. Consider "y=x" and observe 0 is not seen, with simple assumptions. One correct equation is "y-x=0". If y-x is not always zero for all y and x, "y=x" is not an equation and algebra methods cannot be used to determine or solve anything. (think: what if x and y are not equatable?)

(citation source of the overview above: Master of Science Mr. Anwari at NVCC Loudoun)

(Please help this article with book citations and more book material. Books that have an introduction to Problem Theory are difficult to find.)

See Also[edit]

References[edit]

Newell, A. (1990). Unified Theories of Cognition. Harvard University Press. Cambridge, Massachusetts.

Schizophrenia[edit]

Schizophrenia and Complex Post Traumatic Stress Disorder[edit]

Schizophrenia, which often shocks the patient with a sense other are against them, if they panic, may be pressing into CPTSD (worse than PTSD). The CPTSD disorder itself is %60 deadly without treatment. PTSD symptoms and cure are absolutely separate from schizophrenia. See that article.

CPTSD's causing cycling horrific memories till death may be a primordial mechanism that "protects the group" by freezing the person so the person does not spread the horrific event.

Steven Jones and Peter Hayward (2004) "Coping with Schizophrenia, A guide for patients, families and caregivers", p. 32

Mary Beth Williams, Soili Poijula (2002) "The PTSD Workbook, Simple, effective Techniques for Overcoming Traumatic Stress Disorder"

Significant figures[edit]

In computing[edit]

Mathematics software goes further. ex. in Mathematica one can specify a number with: [base^^][Real.m]([``]|[`])[*^n] where `` is acc, ` is prec, n means *10^n, and Real is not in rational form. Calcualtions take sig, acc and prec into account. Infact all non-rational numbers do, though new users are typically un-aware because they are displayed plainly. Competing software like Matlab have alternate ways of achieving the same.

How to sqeeze such numbers in a table is another topic because what to show (so the reader is not lied to) uses all the rules for sig fig, acc, prec mentioned above. Usually: the job is never done, excepting in formal science publications like CRC's handbook of chem & phy, and one should be aware it hasn't been.

fNBookForm2 displays scientific numbers in Mathematica tables in texbook style and does all mention rules (sig, acc, prec) and width, and has 4 rounding modes (off, normal: ignore fractional sig, round in fs, round off fs). It reads shorthand. It can display power letters as well.

Calculation[edit]

When multiplying several quantities, the number of sig. fig. in the final answer is the number of sig. fig. in factor having the least sig. fig. (the least accurate) Ex: given two measurements 16.3 cm (+-.1) and 4.5 cm (+-.1) the range is: 16.2*4.4 to 16.4*4.6 (71 to 75) cm2 and the average is 73; only two decimal places can be claimed in the result (the area calculated).

When adding numbers the number of decimal places in the result is the smallest of the number decimal places in any term. Ex: 123 + 5.35 == 128 and 1.001 + 0.0031 == 1.004

reference: Phy for Sci and Eng w/modern phy, 3rd ed., Serway

External links[edit]

fNBookForm2 displays tables with mixed sig, acc, prec textbook style

Ruler[edit]

Sticking to the Ruler's Marks[edit]

When using a ruler use the smallest mark as the first estimated digit. For example if a ruler's smallest mark is cm, and 4.5 cm is read, it is 4.5 (+-.1) or range 4.4 to 4.6 cm.

The overal length of a ruler may not be accurate within the degree of the smallest mark and the marks may be imperfectly spaced within each unit. With both of these errors in mind, reading between the marks (to 4.55) does not increase one's confidence in the overall reading and may make it worse.

Soap[edit]

Action of soap[edit]

Soap structures can be complex (ie, like a snowflake) and many have a negative ion at the center. Because most dirt is positively charged it tends to be lifted or removed by the soap and trapped by the structure. Other soap articles go further in detail as to soap properties and make-up.

Health Risk[edit]

The lippids of soap are opposite of the lippids of Cell (biology) membrane and chemically appear similar. Cells keep water in (and living parts within). Soap keeps water out (why soap bubbles can form).

Injesting soap or having soap in the body will not only make one feel sick but can cause real damages (beyond temporary metabolism of cells and nutrients and metabolistic balance). See the msds for soaps.

Talk:Beowulf[edit]

what KIND of tale is it ?

My statement? It's a children's story: a swedish heroism tale for young boys / children to learn swedish values in an exciting manner.

Well I have some swedish blood. I found the story extremely predictable - so much so I finished the book quickly I always knew what would be said. That's what I said in Lit. I.

News:Current events[edit]

crime statistics in question[edit]

Fairfax, Virginia. July 15, 2013. Crime incidents reported in various news sources have been increasing in the last 30 years by frequency, ammounts, and crimea (blood). (history: 30 years ago police asked the public to not leave keys in ignition citing safety of minors that might get in the car. Today auto theft reports are frequent.)

For incidents reports see: http://spotcrime.com/va/fairfax+county http://www.wtop.com/?nid=119

However "official" statistics sources do not reflect a totally changed town, showing various data that wanders around the same numbers over 30 years. The simple 5x5 report table is 6 years behind in release schedule.

For official, legal data see: http://www.fairfaxcounty.gov/police/crime/statistics/2008/ http://www.city-data.com/city/Fairfax-Virginia.html

citation: years ago the Sunday edition of The Washington Post listed area police incidents; few and minor, often the worst some missing cassettes or a purse. Today the incidents list is too long for The Post to show on a Sunday.

I have to guess a good number of denizens across the world can report something similar. Blue collar crime is worse and white collar crime is less reported.

source: a Fairfax denizen

  • truth in crime statistics 2013 Do 2013 city crime reports show us the safety of being in and interacting with our communities? A short report with citations. Our safety level over 30 years v. city data.

Vector Graphics[edit]

History[edit]

Euclid is a famous Greek mathematitian that recorded onset of Geometry. Much later even artists employed these concepts for realism.

Vector graphics became an applied science surely as soon as computer printing started (very early). (Note Napolean's army used Fax copy printing far earlier, the idea of electronic vector drawing was hardly new.)

As things developed, vector graphic scopes (see Radar and Oscilliscope) and then digital scopes could display vectors and later colors and the race develop scopes and languages to do so was on.

Early computer Computer Generated 2D and 3D vector graphics began with 3D vectors collapsed to 2D and used color space to depict depth Hue. Very many governments and companies developed vector graphics languages which could be displayed or printed.

Both out of and amongst these came a language called PostScript which most people generally associate with fonts. However PostScript is capable of doing graphics, 2D and collapsed 3D vector graphics, can do calculations, and is builtin to printers and (to varied extent) video cards. PostScript printers can also be "logged in" to remotely as a tty device (also IP device). Most vector graphics programs use PostScript as an output format or are designed carefully to be able to use it.

Note that while curves and lines may be calculated digitally that DAC chips may be used as input or output for conversion of them into electronic Waves (video cards do this) and that some Analog chips can do these calculations using analog based technologies.

Other major vector graphics evolution directions are Mapping, X11, Raytracing, OpenGL, CAD, CAM, and vector printing controlled Robotic arms.

Vector graphics mapping has become critical in nautical, aeronautical, electrical engineering, and other disciplines.

For more about vector graphics history see Computer_graphics

See Also[edit]

Yagi[edit]

Purpose[edit]

Purpose. Antenna designs filter or amplify the signal (this one amplifies) because (classically) the receiver needs a stronger signal. Resonance refers to two waves meeting. See Wave. If waves are in phase the amplitude (strength) doubles, if out of phase the wave dissapears. Antennas, if carefully constructed, can delay the input wave and re-combine the traveling wave with another antenna of the same wave, thus performing addition. The trick is not specific to antennas, radio electronics use the same delay and add strategy within the circuitry.

Violence Against Women Act[edit]

VAWA is a U.S. Government rip off (money grab). (excepts from an ongoing case appealing to the U.S. Supreme Court, much abbreviated to please people who keep deleting criticism)

Constitutional advocates have voiced concerns of VAWA because VAWA eliminates the right of speech and motion of men (concerning non-violent non-threatening men). VAWA violates due process: the male is stripped of most of the Bill of Rights in Court and thus cannot defend against false claims even when there is no evidence or injury. And of course equal protection is certainly not done.

%99 of men indicated are found guilty (BOJ statistics, 2009). But women aren't 99% of women aren't as pure: ivory soap is. What? Some women fill out VAWA forms for revenge, mental illness, or misandry: believe me. Once that form is filled out the guy is imprisoned automatically and 99% time found guilty. (unless your rich)

VAWA harms women. "With VAWA I got raped twice" she said (HLN News). How? The grant money goes to government workers (see Grants in section above). The girls end up paying for rape kits and medical exams: and the beds are often unavailable. Also some women die by filing VAWA charges against previously peaceful men who become enraged with police envolvement. VAWA literature targets bi-polar (ill) women to file claims: to increase throughput. And VAWA can do legal injures a woman: she's threatened not to stop the suit and is liable for all damages resulting from a failed suit. I add the concern that a woman, no matter how angry at a man, should see Justice does right: it's just one of those things you need even if you don't know it.

VAWA is anti-family because it severs the two people immediately and fully. VAWA is anti-religion and anti-social because it disrespects moral duty (to mediate). VAWA is uncivil because it is always criminal and prohibits civil solution; as if we are all in a Police State.

Womans rights are in law throughout history even stronger that the U.S. allows today: the U.S. lies to women. The fact is Judges in the U.S. didn't care and should have been sued for neglect and injuries to women: but the judges the claimed there was no law (pre-1994), which was a lie. try reading "Lies the Government Told You: Myth, Power, and Deception in American History Review." (Judge Napolitano)

VAWA should sees safety first and immediate (not a month wait), see welfare immediately for the poorest, justice should fairly hear both litigants. Justice should know whether a woman is just complaining or is in real danger: they often don't. They should know if the man is the one actually being abused: they prohibit asking. Judge should know if therapy is a better call. That's what anyone would hope. Common sense.

Domestic issues takes time, money, and care: sometimes real professionals. And that's exactly what VAWA is cheats every aspect of. VAWA is just another power play government taking you money even when VAWA cases aren't being filed.

A new VAWA law is needed to secure the Inalienable rights of both women and men equally in law. Law doesn't just protect you from others it protects you from a mob rule government seeking enrichment and bossiness. The Bill of Rights is an excellent example of the kind of Law needed. VAWA disparages the Bill of Rights. When the Bill of Rights is put aside things always devolve into money into gov. worker pockets and poor citizens in a police state.

VAWA is bad to the bone. It plays upon women's feminism to steal the Bill of Rights. HOW MUCH of criminal injury is domestic? Most. They have stolen the Bill of Rights in MOST all criminal injury cases: for money and to boss us around.

Head sort[edit]

Head sort, like Sort (Unix) (mergesort) can sort fields in tabled data (more than just an integer list). The software also includes immediately usable testbed of many other sorting algorithms.

Head sort is Stable, High speed, near immediate output, formidable multi-field. A one page view version is below. It finishes sets early so and any pipe waiting for output can begin. It's very fast if there are multiple fields to sort.

headsort is a kind of un-algorithm because it simply triangulates what is not sorted, which carries a core access penalty (see theory). However implemented (see code) it shows shows some surprising benefits. It is a sort in which allows data becomes available for streaming most rapidly (without overall time penalty of finishing) and is formidable doing multi-field sorting. If either or both properties are needed it can be faster then Sort (Unix), 1/n in best cases for both streaming AND finishing.

Underneath it is a radix bin sort, like Merge sort, except which chooses it's bins "Perfectly" (by data). It has 3 loop phases (find and hop into bins, hop out, continue after hop out). (directly by data without estimation). [1]

In general headsort can sort in 1/2 the time sort(1) [Merge sort] does in situations involving either pipes or mult column selection; less with much of both. Infact it's speed tradeoffs are about opposite that of sort(1): it lags behind mergesort for the most plain use, and gains in complex uses.

How does it work? Simple triangulation. Triangulating sort looks in the last sorted column to build range of similar items needing further sorting in the next column. It sorts the next field and begins at the top of these and repeats. When a field exits it proceeds down. The Multi-Field advantage is simple: it never compares fields not already in the same bin and never compares possible subfields if a bin had exited. Also, because it works top down whenever it exits a bin: it can be printed it is done. It is somehwat easy to debug since where it is supposed to be is very knowable (unlike recursive partitioning).

Illustration: look down in first col, then right

aecccc field2
aebb field2
af field2
ab field2
r field2

bins: {aaaa,d}->{beef}->{b}->{ee}->{f}->{bc}->{r}. bfr were visited on the way down but skipped since they are singletons. field2 never needed to be even read.

ab field2
aebb field2
aecccc field2
af field2
r field2

The algorithm below was tested sorting text with many files and a megabyte to speed sort against sort(1) and passed without any differences in results. (a full implementation requires more detail)

Three Phase Radix Bin Algoritm

/////////////////////////               // This version handles variable strings from getline()
// Perfect Partition Sort               // ready to compile and use w/o adjustment
/// or Triangulating Sort               //
/////// one pg version                  // In the last sorted column there are ranges of equality
///////// stable thin fast multi-field  // that's triagulated in perfect order as the partitions.
                                        // (and sort recursion removal by intermediate array)
#define xlat_cmp(x,y) b[x][y]
#define arr(x,y) xlat_cmp(b[x][y])

void perfect_sort ( char ** b, unsigned int partop, unsigned int parbottom )
{  char first_char ; unsigned int col ; unsigned int top ;
   unsigned int row_arr [MAXN], bottom, botsav, bint, ul2 ; // uses little memory
   memset( row_arr, 0, MAXN * sizeof (unsigned int));       // recursion removed
   top = partop ; bottom=parbottom ; bint=0; col = -1 ;
   bint=0 ; row_arr [0] = 0 ;
                                              // b is a list of strings getline() got from file
while (top < parbottom)
{  ++col ; botsav = bottom ;                  // FORWARD phase, hop in bins quick as we find them
   row_arr [++bint] = bottom ;                //    leave a trail for later
   dist_count_SORT( b, top, bottom, col );    // sort bin then inspection (any stable 1-D sort)
   ul2=top ; for ( ; (top<botsav) ; top++)    // SKIP OVER NULLS, row is finished
      if(arrf(top, col)) break ;              //    (for fixed width skip this altogether)
   // SORT_dependant_fields(ul2, top)         // Quickly we got a final range to work with (fork)
   // fprint(stdout, ul2, top) ;              // just to show it's ready for viewing or pipes
   for ( ; (top<botsav) ; top++)              //    (sdf is optional) but see note on fixed below
      if (arr(top+1,col) == arr(top,col))
          break ;                             // SKIP UNEQUAL elements, no bin to find
   bottom = top ;
   first_char = arr(bottom, col) ;            // SCAN EQUAL elements - a 'bin' - and hop in
   for ( ; (bottom<botsav) ; bottom++)
      if (arr(bottom+1, col) != first_char)   // but for fixed width do S_d_f here: cont.
          break ;  // fw_s_d_f ;              // rest of bin (loop != && == 'till done)
   if ( top < bottom ) continue ;             // continue, we have a bin to sort
   while (top < parbottom)
   {  top = bottom + 1 ;                      // BACKOUT phase; done bin, calc. index recursion
      while(row_arr[bint]==row_arr[bint-1])--bint ;
      --bint ; col = bint - 1 ;               // true - believe it or not !
      botsav = row_arr[bint] ;                     // row_arr removes recursion
   for ( ; (top<botsav) ; top++)              // CONTINUE phase - now continue bins
      if (arr(top+1,col) == arr(top,col))
          break ;                             // (forward only knows to begin them)
   bottom = top ;
   first_char = arr(bottom, col) ;
   for ( ; (bottom<botsav) ; bottom++)
      if (arr(bottom+1, col) != first_char) break ;
   if ( top < bottom ) break ;             // break to outer, found a bin to sort
} } }                                         // no merge sort necessary

/*
invariance:
1) top never decreases
2) bottom always increases at the exchange phase (how mult. loops can co-exist)
*/

The worst case for this sort is a very wide (many columns) and long table of all equal elements (all sorts are bad at this but this sort is even worse at that). In such a case it's better to sort lines top to bottom, fields left to right, using strcmp: which is what mergesort can only do and is also best at. The reason is to get core access to compare mergesort can use strcmp() in 2D core, while Triangulation must access data[line][field][char] repeatedly to compare right, which is also why heuristic algorithms avoid it as an "un-algorithm" (the extra core time). However the full headsort(1) finds a way to collapse some of the core access by cancelation to reduce it's worse case.

Head sort does not use linked lists but could (this is true of all algorithms, arrays and linked lists are convertible).

Why is it an un-algorithm? Many books show methods show how NOT to precede in a simple triangulating fashion - with somewhat an assumption it could not be practicable and would be avoided. Probably only for the simplest sorting tasks should it be, the rest it is fine at or best at. However mergesort is simpler overall to implement, which counts.

Three Popular Theories[edit]

Parallel computing. The finish early property could be used to Parallel solve quickly, as merge can, by offloading the task of bins. The only practical use would be if all machines had the same file and only a particular sorting output of it was being sought, when calling other machines to talk then only lines and fields need be shared. Merge files could be catenated as they arrives since, unlike mergesort, Trangulation always works it's way in order and down: no merging of all files returned is needed and no wait for return of all files is needed (only the bin number is if that is needed).

It's true heuristic sorts can begin with guess, divest, use many processes and merge algorithmically efficiently but it's not true that heuristic sorts can pass un-finished sets to be sorted again 1/2 sorted if sorting multiple key fields and get ahead because it could still only be < 1/2 done in doing so. Some of the O notation "science algorithm counting" notation is terribly inept for such situations.

A side note is how fast Google or Alta-Vista sorts records when one searches: it doesn't. They have a pre-stored set of all record numbers containing a word (tons of data), use Intersection[] for multiple words: and never really sort at all.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Robert Sedgewick, Algorithms in C, Algorithms in C., p. 92-192

External links[edit]

  • headsort(1) headsort, also contains other many algorithms in usable form.


Category:Sorting algorithms Category:Stable sorts]

Talk:United States debt ceiling[edit]

Critique of Revisionism (usa only)[edit]

In the 1980's the usa political debates concerned if government was allowed to (1) borrow money for state emergencies and fund the balance in next year (2) keep a slush fund during a fiscal year from which gov. could pay in and out of at will (which had not been allowed).

The presentation above makes it appear as if there was always a debt ceiling and as if the use of slush funds are un-questionable. (these end up being thousands of barely traceable bank accounts per district)

Such a presentation is a false one, and is historic revisionism. (usa only, of course)

Talk:United_States_federal_government_shutdown_of_2013[edit]

Doubtful Facist Parliamentary Habbits[edit]

From a USA denizen and citizen. They do this every year to take vacation now. They are paid annual wages: and it's habbit by now their wages include the "event".

Also: contractors are paid well and expect this. And feds are famous for having awarded themselve pay multiples higher than peers.

On the local radio in Wash D.C. they've aired opinion the Constitution is old and worthless (today) and USA should be Parliamentary, like India for ex. As well the talk is either dumbing down or: THREATENING us we cannot successfully object. There are very many people past fed up with these "feds".

My boss would fire me if I even asked for as much vacation as they take, paid or not, in the D.C. sweat for money skilled labor jobs. And they know it all day that's why they hide in gov.

They fool no one, these unionized high pay gov con-artists.

Governors have started protesting and suing in stronger ways.

Nail polish[edit]

Safety[edit]

(Most) nail polish remover is Acetone (see bottle label), which is particularly harmful in the body and causes permanent nervous system damage (nervousness) if inhaled chronically. See Material Safety Data Sheet or product warnings on acetone products. A good summary is: it is for outdoor use, fuller labeling says. (it's a bad practice to be in a shut bathroom for long periods with nail polish remover)