From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

Natalie Griffin de Blois (April 2, 1921 in Paterson, New Jersey - July 22, 2013 in Chicago) was an American architect. She began her architectural career in 1944 and became known as a pioneer in the male-dominated world of architecture. She was a partner for many years in the firm of Skidmore, Owings and Merrill. Her notable works include Pepsi building, Lever House, and the Union Carbide Building in New York City, the Equitable Building in Chicago, and the Connecticut General Life Insurance Company Headquarters in Bloomfield, Connecticut. She later taught architecture at the University of Texas in the 1980s and 1990s.

Early years[edit]

De Blois was born in Paterson, New Jersey into a family of three generations of engineers[1] She was interested in architecture from an early age saying in 2004, "I was selected to be the one that would go into art. I told my father that I wanted to be an architect from the age of ten or twelve."[2] She attended the Western College for Women in Oxford, Ohio, and received an architecture degree from Columbia University in 1944.[3][4]

Architectural career[edit]

DeBlois began her career at a New York firm, Ketchum, Gina, and Sharpe,[3] but was fired after "rebuff[ing] the affections" of one of the firm's male architects, who asked for her to be fired.[5] She then joined the architectural firm Skidmore, Owings and Merrill (SOM).[6] While working at SOM, De Blois became known as a "pioneer" as a female architect in the "male-dominated world of architecture."[5] She designed a number of major business buildings on Park Avenue in New York City, including the Pepsi building, Lever House, and the Union Carbide Building (now known as the Chase Building).[7] She worked with Gordon Bunshaft on the Pepsi building, which was completed in 1960 and was "praised by critics for its gem-like, seemingly levitating exterior walls of gray-green glass and aluminum."[4]

She transferred to the Chicago branch of SOM in 1962, continuing to work on skyscrapers in Chicago until 1974.[6] While there, she founded the Chicago Women in Architecture.[6] Her works in Chicago include the Equitable Building.

De Blois joined Neuhaus & Taylor (now known as 3-D International) in Houston in 1974.[6] In 1980, she began teaching at the University of Texas School of Architecture, and was a faculty member until 1993.[6]

Notable projects[edit]


  • Fulbright fellowship to study at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts
  • Edward J. Romieniec Award, recognizing an outstanding architectural educator, by the Texas Society of Architects
  • Named honoree of the Natalie de Blois scholarship, UT Austin
  • Fellow of the AIA (1974)

Further research[edit]


  1. ^ Blum, Betty J (September 2004). "Natalie de Blois and the Connecticut General LIfe Insurance Building" (PDF). Docomomo Journal. Retrieved 9 October 2013. 
  2. ^ Mertens, Detlef (17 June 2004). "Natalie de Blois Interviewed by Detlef Mertins". Skidmore, Owings & Merrill. Retrieved 9 October 2013. 
  3. ^ a b "Natalie Griffin de Blois", Beverly Willis Architecture Foundation (last visited July 31, 2013).
  4. ^ a b Blair Kamin (August 1, 2013). "Natalie de Blois dies at 92; pioneering female architect". Los Angeles Times. 
  5. ^ a b c Obituary, Chicago Tribune, July 30, 2013.
  6. ^ a b c d e f "Union Carbide Building", Beverly Willis Architecture Foundation (last visited July 31, 2013).
  7. ^ David W. Dunlap, "An Architect Whose Work Stood Out, Even If She Didn't", New York Times, Aug. 1, 2013.


Developer(s) Eclipse Foundation
Stable release
9.0.4 / 26 June 2013; 3 years ago (2013-06-26)[1]
Written in Java
Operating system Cross-platform (JVM)
Type Web server Servlet
License Apache License 2.0, Eclipse Public License 1.0

Jetty is a pure Java-based HTTP (Web) server and Java Servlet container. While Web Servers are usually associated with serving documents to humans, Jetty is now often used for machine to machine communications, usually within larger software frameworks. Jetty is developed as a free and open source project as part of the Eclipse Foundation. The web server is used in products such as ActiveMQ,[2] Alfresco,[3] Apache Geronimo,[4] Apache Maven, Google App Engine,[5] Eclipse,[6] FUSE,[7] Twitter's Streaming API[8] and Zimbra.[9] Jetty is also the server in open source projects such as Lift, Eucalyptus, Red5 and Hadoop.[10] Jetty supports the latest Java Servlet API (with JSP support) as well as protocols SPDY and WebSocket.


Developed as an independent open source project, in 2009 Jetty moved to Eclipse.[11][12] Jetty provides Web services in an embedded Java application and it is already a component of the Eclipse IDE. It supports AJP, JASPI, JMX, JNDI, OSGi, WebSocket and other Java technologies.[5]


Originally developed in the Sydney suburb of Balmain by software engineer Greg Wilkins, Jetty was originally a HTTP server component of Mort Bay Server; Mort Bay being an area of Balmain.[13]

Jetty was originally called IssueTracker (its original application) and then MBServler (Mort Bay SERVLet servER). Neither of these were much liked, so Jetty was finally picked.[13]

Jetty was started in 1995 and was hosted by MortBay, creating version 1.x and 2.x, until 2000. From 2000 to 2005, Jetty was hosted by where version 3.x, 4.x, and 5.x were produced. In 2005, the entire Jetty project moved to[14] As of 2009, the core components of Jetty have been moved to, and continues to provide integrations, extensions, and packaging of Jetty versions 7.x and 8.x (not 9.x)[15][16]

Use in Hadoop[edit]

Apache Hadoop is an example of how Jetty is used in a framework. Hadoop uses Jetty as a web server for different uses in several modules:

  • The NameNode and the JobTracker use Jetty to serve their admin pages.[17]
  • The TraskTracker uses Jetty to receive the map, reduce and shuffle operations from the JobTracker.[17]

In Hadoop 0.23, Jetty has been replaced by Netty in the Tasktracker for shuffle operations.[18]

Version Home Java Version Protocols Servlet Version JSP Version Status
9.1.x Eclipse 1.7 HTTP/1.1 RFC2616, WebSocket JSR356, SPDY 3.1 2.2 Development
9.0.x Eclipse 1.7 HTTP/1.1 RFC2616, WebSocket, SPDY 3.0 (tracking 3.1 drafts) 2.2 Stable[19]
8.x Eclipse, Codehaus 1.6 HTTP/1.1 RFC2616, WebSocket, SPDY 3.0 2.1 Stable
7.x Eclipse, Codehaus 1.5, J2ME HTTP/1.1 RFC2616, WebSocket, SPDY 2.5 2.1 Stable
6.x Codehaus 1.4–1.5 HTTP/1.1 RFC2616 2.5 2.0 Deprecated[20]
5.x Sourceforge 1.2–1.5 HTTP/1.1 RFC2616 2.4 2.0 Deprecated
4.x Sourceforge 1.2, J2ME HTTP/1.1 RFC2616 2.3 1.2 Ancient
3.x Sourceforge 1.2 HTTP/1.1 RFC2068 2.2 1.1 Fossilized
2.x Mortbay 1.1 HTTP/1.0 RFC1945 2.1 1.0 Legendary
1.x Mortbay 1.0 HTTP/1.0 RFC1945 Mythical


See also[edit]


  1. ^ "[jetty-announce] Announcing: Jetty 9.0.4.v20130625 last=Erdfelt". Jetty mailing list. 26 June 2013. Retrieved 28 June 2013.  |first1= missing |last1= in Authors list (help)
  2. ^ "ActiveMQ with Ajax and Jetty". Jetty Wike (Codehaus). Retrieved 2011-04-12. 
  3. ^ JM.Pascal (April 2010). "Maven + Alfresco : Jetty, Boostrap and Profil". Going to an OpenSource ECM World.... Retrieved 2011-04-12. 
  4. ^ "Configuring Virtual Hosts in Geronimo-Jetty". Apache Geronimo Documentation. Retrieved 2011-04-12. 
  5. ^ a b Wickesser, Craig (5 August 2009). "Google Chose Jetty for App Engine". InfoQ. C4Media Inc. Retrieved 12 Apr 2011. 
  6. ^ "jetty://". Eclipse. Retrieved 12 Apr 2011. 
  7. ^ "class JettyHttpComponent". FuseSource. Red Hat. Retrieved 12 Apr 2011. [dead link]
  8. ^ "Twitter Streaming API and Apache Wink". Retrieved 19 May 2011. 
  9. ^ Zhuang, JJ (18 December 2007). "Zimbra Blog: Why we switched to Jetty". Zimbra. VMware. Retrieved 12 Apr 2011. 
  10. ^ "Powered by Jetty". Retrieved 24 Sept 2012.  Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  11. ^ Lieber, Adam (December 2008). "Jetty: The Twelve Year Journey to Market Maturity". Linux Gazette. Retrieved 28 June 2013. 
  12. ^ "About Jetty". Codehaus. Retrieved 30 November 2011. 
  13. ^ a b
  14. ^
  15. ^ a b About Jetty, Located on Codehaus.
  16. ^ a b About Jetty, Located on Eclipse.
  17. ^ a b Stack and Laffoon, Mark (July 23,). "HBase, mail # user - servlet container (embedded jetty)". Retrieved 11 October 2013.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  18. ^ Murthy, Arun (August 25, 2011). "Apache Hadoop 0.23". Hortonworks. Retrieved 11 October 2013. 
  19. ^
  20. ^

External links[edit]

Category:Free software programmed in Java Category:Free web server software