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Serbian: Вучитрн / Vučitrn
Vučitrn during the day
Location of municipality of Vučitrn
|District||District of Mitrovica|
|• Mayor||Bajram Mulaku (PDK)|
|• Total||345 km2 (133 sq mi)|
|Elevation||944 m (3,097 ft)|
|Highest elevation||1,380 m (4,530 ft)|
|Lowest elevation||508 m (1,667 ft)|
|• Density||200/km2 (520/sq mi)|
|Time zone||CET (UTC+1)|
|• Summer (DST)||CEST (UTC+2)|
|Area code(s)||+383 28|
|Website||Municipality of Vushtrri|
Vučitrn (Serbian Cyrillic: Вучитрн) or Vushtrri (in Albanian) is a city located in the northern part of Kosovo.[a] The municipality, of Vučitrn is the ninth largest in Kosovo by population, with a total of 69,870. Vučitrn is surrounded with the city of Mitrovica in the north, Podujeva (Besiana) in the east, Obilić (Kastriot) in the south, Glogovac (Drenas or Gllogovc) in the south-west, and Skenderaj in the west. The municipality of Vučitrn has 67 villages.
Vučitrn has been inhabited since the time of Illyrian Empire, when the people of the Kingdom of Dardania lived in the territory of Kosovo in the 4th century BC. The Illyrian name of Vučitrn was Viciana, which means "The side of calves" (Ana e Viqave). When the Roman Empire invaded the Kingdom of Dardania in the 1st century BC, the Romans added the Latin suffix 'um' to the name of Viciana, and therefore it became Vicianum. In Serbian language, Vučitrn is the name of the plant Ononis spinosa, which is abundant in the region.
The main characteristic of the city is its cultural and historic monuments. The city's castle, stone bridge, public bath and Cesme were built centuries ago and are the biggest attractions of the city.
Vučitrn is an important economic centre, mostly known as the biggest producer of potato in Kosovo. Known as the centre of many factories and important companies of Kosovo, such as: Vipa, GalvaSteel Llamkos, Binni and Berto. It has a total area of 345 km2 (133 sq mi), and the density of population is 202/km2. This area covered by Vučitrn takes approximately 3.2% of the total territory of Kosovo.
- 1 History
- 2 Geography
- 3 Demography
- 4 Politics
- 5 Economy
- 6 Culture
- 7 Notable people
- 8 References and notes
- 9 Bibliography
The Dardani tribe ruled the region in the Iron Age, until the Roman conquest in the 1st century AD. The Roman town of Viciana lay in a wider area than Vučitrn today. The religion was polytheist and the main enterprises were farming and agriculture. The Romans developed road networks, two of whom crossed Viciana; these were the Naissus–Lissus (northeast–southwest) and a road that connected Bosnia with Skopje (northwest–southeast). Archaeological sites exist at various places, including Samadrexha, Gjyteza, Gjyteti, Pestova, and Breglumi.
After the division of Roman Empire, Illyria was under the administration of the East (Byzantine) Empire. During the Early Middle Ages, the region was ruled by Slavs. In the first half of the 14th century Vučitrn was a capital of the lands of Branković dynasty (Vuk and Đurađ Branković). Đurađ Branković, as Despot, issued charters from Vučitrn. From that period there remain ruins of the Vojinovića Tower and a great stone bridge. After the Battle of Kosovo, Ottoman officers were stationed in Vučitrn. Ragusan colonies were established during the 14th and 15th centuries.
In Ottoman documents, the town was known as Vıçıtırın, and it was established as the seat of the sanjak of Vıçıtırın. The sanjak was one of the more important European territories due to the high concentration of ore. It served as a larger military and commercial center until the fall of the Ottoman Empire.
At the end of the 18th century, Vučitrn started to lose its importance because of the Austro-Hungarian wars, migration, internal economic crisis and the development of other regional centers. From 1877 to 1913, Vučitrn was part of the Kosovo Vilayet of the Ottoman Empire. Vučitrn was important in the general rebellions of 1910-1912. Hasan Prishtina, an intellectual of the time, was a key part of the development of education and the economy in the Albanian territories. In 1912, the Serbian army liberated Vučitrn. On 10 August 1913, the Treaty of Bucharest made Vučitrn part of the Kingdom of Serbia. The 1920s were characterized by the rebels activity; Azem Bejta and Shote Galica were the main activists of the time. From 1929 to 1941, Vučitrn was part of the Morava Banovina of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia.
Vučitrn is located in the north-east of Kosovo. With a total area of 345 km2 (133 sq mi), its length size north to south is 34 km (21 mi) and 23 km (14 mi) from east to west. The municipality’s border line includes nearly 104.5 km (64.9 mi). Vučitrn is surrounded by Mitrovica in the north, Podujevo (Besiana) in the east, Obilić (Kastriot) in the south, Glogovac (Gllogovc) in the south-west, and Ferizaj in the west. The municipality of Vučitrn has 67 villages. This area covered by Vučitrn takes approximately 3.2% of the total territory of the Republic of Kosovo. Vučitrn has a very favourable geographical position because it lies in the northern part of "Rrafshi i Kosovës" (one of the two regional flat units of Kosovo), where ancient and medieval transport routes met, which had an important role in creating and developing the city and the region. The two most important ancient routes in Kosovo were: the north-east to south-west Naissus-Lissus road (Nis-Lezha) and the north-west to south-east road that connected Bosnia and Macedonia. It is said that these two routes passed by Vučitrn, and had an important influence in developing the region of Mitrovica. Today the Prishtina–Mitrovica highway passes through Vučitrn, and links the north region of Kosovo with the east and central part of the country.
In general, the territory of Vučitrn is hilly. The lowest point is 508 m (1,667 ft) above sea level, near the place where the river Smrekonica flows into the Sitnica river. The highest point in the territory is 1,380 m (4,530 ft) at the "Maja e Zezë" peak, in the south of Bare village. The valley territories surround the Sitnica river, which runs from north to south, reaching its maximum width before it merges with the Llapi river. The hilliest part of the municipakity is mostly in the east and west sides. The mountains in Vučitrn are in the south part of Kopaonik and the east side of Kukavica. The Qyqavica Mountains lie in the western side of the city, with a highest point of 1,091 m (3,579 ft). These mountains are a natural border between two big valleys, known as "Rrafshi i Kosovës" and "Fushëgropa e Drenicës".
The biggest river flowing into Vučitrn is the Sitnica. It is the second biggest natural basin river of Kosovo (2,912 km2 (1,124 sq mi)), after the Drini i Bardhe (4,313 km2 (1,665 sq mi)). According to many years of hydro-metrical observation, the Sitnica flows at a rate of approximately 13.94 m3/s (492 cu ft/s) , or 439.11 million m³ of water per year. The Sitnica river gathers smaller rivers such as Llapi, Lumkuqi, Tërrstena, Banja e Gjytezës and some other water flows that comes from the east side of the Čičavica mountain. The Sitnica river is in the fourth category of pollution, a category which includes the most polluted rivers in Kosovo. Besides chemical pollution, Sitnica river is also contaminated by KEDS's phenol, industrial and urban water.
The Tërrstena river also flows through the city; its spring is in the south-west of Kopaonik Mountains. Vučitrn is provided with water from the "Iber-Lepenc" hydro system. Around 84% of households residing in Vučitrn are connected to the public water provider compared to Kosovo's average of 60% of households. The remaining households have access to safe drinking water through public taps (1%), protected wells (1%), and protected springs (3%), while 4% use bottled water. Eight percent of households in Vučitrn (compared to Kosovo's average of 9%) do not have access to safe drinking water as they get it from tube wells or boreholes.
Because of its geographical position, Kosovo has both a Mediterranean-Continental climate and European-Continental climate. Vučitrn has cold winters and hot summers. The city doesn't have a climate station with full data and observations of meteorological conditions, so the main information comes from the nearest stations in Mitrovica and Prishtina. Vučitrn has approximately 2,140 hours of sun during the year.
The highest average temperatures are in the months of July and August (20˚C), while the lowest temperatures are in January (-1˚C). The annual average temperature is about 10.1˚C. The annual average rate of air humidity is 77.2%. Average annual precipitation is about 646 mm.
Vučitrn is rich in natural resources, especially minerals, wood and stone, especially in the areas below:
- Duboc – Magnesite and Porcelain
- Bivolak, Zhilivodë, Beçuk, Stroc, Gllvotin – wood coal
- Pasomë, Tërllobuq, Smrekonicë dhe Shalë – exploitation of stone
- Gumnishtë and Boshlan – lead and zinc ore
- Bajnskë – thermal and mineral water
- Gjelbishtë and Gojbulë – mineral water
- Karaçë – mineral sources
Vučitrn is one of the oldest inhabited places in Kosovo. The area was located in the north part of Dardania. After the Roman invasion, the area was well organized economically and politically. Data about this settlement was given by a large number of historians, including the famous Ottoman traveler Evliya Çelebi. In his book of travels in 1662, he writes, "Vucitern was invaded in 792 by Gazi Hodovendiqar, who destroyed the fortress. Vucitern is the centre of Sanjak of Vucitern, depended by Eyalet of Rumelia. The residents of Vucitern are a nation of Rumelia. They speak Albanian and Turkish."
The municipality of Vučitrn has 67 villages. The total number of residents of the municipality is 69,870. Approximately 30,000 people live in urban areas, while 40,000 live in rural areas. The density of population is 202 people/km2. According to the Kosovo Agency of Statistics, the number of children born in Vučitrn after 2005, is 6504 babies.[when?] Vučitrn has a young population, a high level of birthrate, and local, regional and external migration.
|Total number of population||Albanian||Serbian||Turkish||Bosnian||Roma||Ashkali||Egyptian||Gorani||Others|
In Vučitrn there are 11,866 households. 4890 of them are located in urban zones, and 6976 in rural areas. The average number of persons per household is 5.9 people. According to the statistics, in Vučitrn there are 13,740 buildings. The number of occupied houses is 11,650.
The first Albanian school in Vučitrn was opened in the fall of 1915. The "Besa Kombetare" Club, led by Hasan Prishtina and Bajram Curri, sent Abdullah Hadri from Gjakova to open the first Albanian school in Vučitrn. In the beginning, the school only taught boys, with more than 260 registered. Thanks to the work of Hasan Prishtina, the school opened its doors for girls education as well. There were 25 girls in the first mixed intake. Emin Efendi Hoti was the first teacher at the school.
The High School of Economics was opened in June 1961 to fulfil the need for financial and accounting professionals. The gymnasium in Vučitrn opened in 1963/1964. In 1983, the city's first kindergarten was established. This institution included children from 1 to 6 years. Its first principal was Feride Hyseni. Today, the kindergarten has 166 children.
Preschool education is organized in preschool classes (children aged 5–6) within the primary schools, to get the children ready for school. The number of children in preschool education in Vučitrn is 489. There are 47 primary schools (classes from 1 to 5) and secondary schools (classes from 6 to 9) in the municipality of Vučitrn. There are 12,209 students in 548 classes in these schools, with 661 teachers and a total of 852 educational staff. There are 3 high schools in Vučitrn, with 4,223 students and 201 teachers. The total number of students in Vučitrn is 17,087.
In October 2014, the Faculty of Public Safety – part of the Kosovo Academy for Public Safety – was scheduled to start its work, accepting 65 students from all over Kosovo in its first year. The adult residents (aged 18 or older) of Vučitrn have a slightly higher education attainment than Kosovo's average. 5,671 people have no completed education, 9,447 have completed primary education, 18,369 have completed lower secondary education, 20,049 have completed high school, 1,134 have completed vocational education, 2,405 have a university degree, 242 have a postgraduate degree, and 29 people have a doctorate. Adult women residing in the municipality have a lower education attainment than men, with 5% (compared to 1% of men) having no formal education. In terms of the highest education level attained, 32% of women compared to 15% of men have completed primary education, 47% compared to 67% of men have completed secondary education, and 5% compared to 9% of men have a university degree.
The largest hospital in Vučitrn is the Sheikh Zayed Hospital, which was reconstructed on the initiative of the United Arab Emirates, who financially helped the improvement of the building and the purchase of new equipment and appliances. The reconstruction started in 2001. This hospital treats patients from Vučitrn and the region.
The hospital provides services in sectors including emergency care, stomatology, vaccination, diagnostics, and pharmacy. In the municipality of Vučitrn there are also eight other family health centers in the villages and eight health clinics.
The mayor of the Vučitrn municipality is Bajram Mulaku, who is part of the Democratic Party of Kosovo (PDK). He was elected in the 2013 local elections for a third consecutive term. The municipality assembly consists of 35 members from eight political parties, and its chairman is Shpëtim Zhegrova. The executive of the municipality consists of 12 departments.
According to the 2014–2016 Medium-term Budgetary Framework, the municipality of Vučitrn has planned a significant increase of its budget in the next three years. Compared to 2013, when the municipality budget was about €12.6 million, in 2014 the budget was set at approximately €13.4 million. The central government grant was €11.7 million, while local revenue was €1.6 million.
|PDK||12 seats (34,64%)|
|LDK||7 seats (19,47%)|
|AAK||6 seats (18,27%)|
|Vetëvendosje||3 seats (10,19%)|
|Justice Party||2 seats (4,76%)|
|New Kosovo Alliance||2 seats (4,54%)|
|Serb List||1 seats (1,93%)|
|Movement for Unification||1 seats (1,87%)|
|Turkish Democratic Party of Kosovo||1 seats (1,77%)|
Thirty-five percent of Vučitrn respondents reported that they had visited the municipal office during the previous 12 months to request a document (such as a birth certificate or a building permit) or a service. A slightly higher proportion than Kosovo's average (84% compared to 82%) reported that their request was fulfilled, whereas 6% reported that they were only sometimes provided with the requested document or service. Higher percentages of Vučitrn residents compared to Kosovo's averages said that the Public Administration was efficient or very efficient in issuing all of the following documents: passports (87%), ID cards (90%), vehicle registration documents (79%), driver's licenses (84%), building permits (73%), business licenses (70%), marriage, birth, and death certificates (87%), and Social Assistance cards (69%).[when?]
KMS[clarification needed] 2012 data showed that the share of Vučitrn residents who were satisfied with the work of their Mayor, Municipal Assembly, and Municipal Administration was lower than Kosovo's average: 67% of Vučitrn residents compared to 69% of Albanians on average were satisfied with the work of their Mayor; 49% compared to 63% of Albanians with the work of their Municipal Assembly; and 45% compared to 64% of Albanians with the work of the Municipal Administration. A relatively high share (65%) of Vučitrn residents believed that their local authorities had the capacity to solve the problems in their municipality. The share of those who believed that only the central government can solve these problems was equal to Kosovo's average of 15%.
The satisfaction level of Vučitrn's residents with local authorities was slightly higher than Kosovo's average. While their satisfaction level was significantly lower for most of the public goods and services, the residents of Vučitrn were more satisfied with public procurement and tenders, protection of cultural heritage, nature and species conservation, management of public spaces (availability and usability of parks and squares, street lighting, and environmental protection), public parking (safety, availability, signage, and location) and sidewalks (availability, usability, and condition) compared to Kosovo's averages.
The residents of Vučitrn were mostly satisfied with access to and quality of education in preschools, primary schools, and secondary schools, emergency services (firefighting and medical emergency services), and Kosovo Police. The lowest satisfaction level was recorded for electricity supply, the supply of medicines and medical supplies in hospitals and family medical centers, and cultural, youth, and sports activities.
Vučitrn is a city with sustainable economic development, thanks to good-quality arable land that offers favorable conditions for cultivating many agricultural crops. Vučitrn is the leader in the growing of potatoes in Kosovo.
In Vučitrn there are 2641 registered businesses. Based on official data from the Ministry of Trade and Industry, 45.36% of businesses are engaged in commerce, 19% in transportation and telecommunication, 9% in offering services like hotels and restaurants.
|Economy activities||No. of businesses||Percentage|
|1||Agriculture, hunting, forestry and fishing||58||2.20%|
|4||Production of electricity, gas, water, steam, hot water and construction||117||4.43%|
|5||Wholesale and retail market, technical services||1198||45.36%|
|6||Hotels and restaurants||234||8.86%|
|7||Transport, warehouse and telecommunication||498||18.86%|
|9||Education, healthcare and welfare||116||4.39%|
|10||Other social activities||141||5.34%|
Retail activity is concentrated mainly in the city center, on the roads "Deshmoret e Kombit" and "Skenderbeu", while major markets are scattered on the outskirts of town, on the Vučitrn–Pristina highway. Hotels, bars, and fast food restaurants are mainly concentrated in the center of the city, principally in the "Sheshi i lirise" and "Adem Jashari" streets.
With the drafting of the Municipal Development Plan (2009–2014+), both sides of the highway are designated as places where businesses can be developed at a distance of 100 metres (330 ft). There are also plans to construct an industrial area in a place called Lumadh, in an area of 14.9 hectares (37 acres) where €1.6 million will be invested along with donors to complete infrastructure for the area, which will help to improve conditions for business activities, especially manufacturing.
The Vučitrn municipal assembly, during its session on March 27, 2008 decided to create an Industrial Zone of common interest in the zones of Banjskë, Tarazhë, Bukosh and Gracë.
- Taraxhë – pasture land, surface area of 04.84.18 ha;[clarification needed]
- Bukosh – pasture land, surface area of 17.98.87 ha.[clarification needed]
- Gracë – arable land, at the site called "Utrinë", total surface area of 24.48.70 ha.[clarification needed]
- Banjskë – surface area of 76, 86.60 ha and the rest total area is 10, 65.88 ha.[clarification needed]
The Vučitrn municipal assembly is also in the process[when?] of taking a decision to create a business zone in the village of Lumadh. While the land quality is poor, the surface area is estimated at 14.86 ha (36.7 acres), and is owned by the municipality. The designated site for the business park is Lumadh-Vučitrn. The project was developed and submitted to the Ministry of Trade and Industry.
The municipality of Vučitrn lies between two regional centers, Pristina and Mitrovica. This enables access to these two big markets. According to the municipality's official data, the number of employed people in specific sectors is:
|Healthcare and welfare||222|
|Employees in businesses||1973|
|Self-employed in private businesses||708|
This data only includes administration employees, while other public institutions, households, hospital, schools, police, prison, etc., are not included. The total number of employed people in Vučitrn is approximately 16,000.
Major employers in Vučitrn include:
- "Vipa Çips" – Potato products;
- "Berto" – Furniture manufacturing;
- "Emona Market" – Shopping center;
- "Bini" – Door and windows manufacturing etc.;
- "Etc" – Shopping center;
- "Agro Vini" – Potato producer/exporter and machinery sales;
- "Standard" – Production of glue and paints etc.;
- "Albed" – Furniture manufacturing;
- "Molitoria" – Flour mill;
- "Llamakos" - Metal sheets manufacturing;
- "Kotex" – Underwear manufacturing;
- "Ariani" – Construction;
- "Zariqi/Dijari" – Construction company;
- "Preteni" – Doors and windows manufacturing.
One of the main economic activities in Vučitrn is agriculture. The most cultivated crops are potato, wheat, corn, vegetables and forage crops. In recent years orchards with apples, plums, and pears are expanding more and more. Vučitrn is the biggest producer of potatoes in Kosovo. Tradition, high-quality seeds imported from the Netherlands, advanced technology and water system from the Iber-Lepenc company are the main factors that Vučitrn's farmers keep achieving high potato yields, nearly reaching the average European level. In 2013, 1,300 hectares (3,200 acres) of plants were cultivated with potatoes, with an average of 30 tonnes per hectare (12 long ton/acre; 13 short ton/acre). This means over 39,000 tonnes (38,000 long tons; 43,000 short tons) of potatoes were produced in 2013. The best farmers of the city produced up to 60 tonnes per hectare (24 long ton/acre; 27 short ton/acre) and in some cases even more. The biggest potato cultivation companies are Pestova, Agro Vini and Unikorsum.
Pestova as a private company was established in 1991 and was re-registered in 1999. Since January 2008, the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) has been a co-shareholder in Pestova. Pestova's business activities are: the import, production and sale of seed potato; the same of agricultural machinery; the production and sale of fresh potatoes; potato processing into chips and other products such as fries and other snacks. The European Commission has supported Pestova since 2001. USAID and the Kingdom of the Netherlands have given their support as well since 2003 and 2008 respectively. Farmers of this area are also well known for livestock production including cattle, sheep, poultry and others. The municipality of Vučitrn possesses nearly 600 hectares (1,500 acres) of arable land, meadows and pastures, as public property.
There are 16,954 hectares (41,890 acres) of arable land and 13,664 hectares (33,760 acres) of forests in the territory of Vučitrn . Agribusiness in the city is developed generally by the private sector.
Vučitrn continues to be financed mostly by government funding, which will be approximately 87% of the total budget of the municipality in the next three years.[when?] The government grant dedicated to municipality of Vučitrn was increased by 21% from 2013 to 2014. It is predicted that this grant will be raised by 3.5% each year, in the coming years. The education grant for 2014 is decreased by 2.66% comparing to the past year, while the health grant for 2014 is planned to be over €1,500,000.
The municipality's local revenues decreased from 2011 to 2012. The annual decrease rate was 7.18%. According to the development plan, during 2014-2016 it is expected that own source revenues will increase by approximately 3.66%.
Vučitrn finished its so-called emergency phase investment program, starting a new program of investment for development. Past investments during the post-war period have enhanced the quality of life for citizens and built infrastructure necessary for creating a favorable business environment. In the last four years[when?] 186,547 meters of roads were asphalted; 77 roads, covering a distance of 21,733 meters, were paved; a sewage network of 40,389 meters and a water network of 86,414 meters were also constructed. Further, 22 bridges were built; 75 school buildings were built or renovated; 29 medical clinics and many other investment projects were implemented. Over the past few years 600 capital investment projects, worth more than €50 million, were implemented.
The municipality has planned significant amounts of money to spend in capital investments in the next years. These investments will take place in building inter-municipal roads, water supply and sanitation infrastructure. Vučitrn has 303.45 km (188.56 mi) of roads, of which nearly 90% are asphalted. Of the 11.866 households, 8846 of them have access to sanitation infrastructure. In the period from 2014 to 2016, building of four new schools was planned, along with the reconstruction of old schools.
Data from 2012 showed that the percentage of households of Vučitrn that could not afford basic goods and services was lower than Kosovo's average. Whereas 20% of all Kosovan residents could not afford a meal with meat once per week, the same was true of 15% of Vučitrn residents; 30% compared to Kosovo's average of 42% could not afford to pay for public utilities; 24% compared to Kosovo's average of 34% were unable to cover the expenses of treating flu or any other minor illness; 37% compared to Kosovo's average of 49% could not afford to buy new clothes and footwear whenever necessary; 67% compared to Kosovo’s average of 71% could not afford to go to a restaurant once a month; and 74% compared to Kosovo's average of 76% could not afford to pay for a week's holiday away from home once a year. A similar percentage to Kosovo's average (36% of households) could not afford to invite family or friends for a meal at least once a month.
Similar to the rest of the municipalities in Kosovo, unemployment was considered to be the biggest problem in Vučitrn by 47% of its residents.[when?] Poor water supply is ranked the biggest problem by 17% and poor electricity supply by 13%. The proportion of employed adults (aged 18–64) in Vučitrn (29%) was equal to Kosovo’s average. While the percentage of unemployed was 22%, the share of those who are outside the labor market (49%) as they were either unemployed and not looking for work (4%), were studying, disabled, or housewives, or had retired was slightly higher than Kosovo’s average of 45%. The majority of adult women residing in Vučitrn (77%) were outside the labor market; the equivalent figure for men was 29%; 11% of women were in employment, compared to 42% of men.
Vučitrn is an economic, educational, cultural and sports center. The municipality invested heavily in improving the quality of life of its citizens; there are many municipality-organized activities and entertainment in the city and the surrounding areas.
Vučitrn has several historica monuments. Vojinović Tower was built in the center of the old city, which remains in the city center. The Old Fortress in Vučitrn was built in the Justinian I period (527-565). It served as an inn during the medieval period as well as the Ottoman Empire. It has a surface area of 1,100 m2 (12,000 sq ft), and the pyrgus has a surface area of 100 m2 (1,100 sq ft). Its walls are 10–12 m (30–40 ft) high and 3–4 m (10–13 ft) thick. It was the seat of Đurađ Branković in the time while he was district lord of Kosovo.
The Vojinović Bridge was built between the late antiquity and early medieval periods. The building of the bridge is traditionally attributed to the Vojinović brothers, to whom is also attributed the nearby Vučitrn Fortress, while its style places it at the end of the 14th or early 15th century. The bridge is located in the north-western part of the old city. It is 135 meters long and six meters wide and has nine arches. However, legends suggest it once had 12 arches, three of which were later covered. The stone bridge was built over the Sitnica River, but the river has since changed its course by several hundred meters to the west.
The Hammam (public bath) was built in the 15th century by Gazi Ali Beu. It is one of the oldest hammams in the Balkans, and was used until the Second World War. It served as a public bath for both men and women, who used the hammam on different days. These monuments are under state protection.
The Ottoman invasion in the 14th century converted the Albanian population into Muslims. Besides its cultural monuments, Vučitrn has many mosques left as a heritage from the Ottoman times. Nowadays, according to Kosovo Agency of Statistics, the biggest religions in Vučitrn are Islam, Orthodoxy and Catholicism. According to 2011 Census, the numbers of each religion were
- Islamic 69,359 people
- Orthodox 386 people
- Catholic 15 people
- Others 100 people
The most ancient mosques are:
- Xhamia e Gazi Ali Beg – built in 1410 near the public bath (Hammam), this mosque is one of the oldest ones in Kosovo. Destroyed during the war, this mosque was rebuilt.
- Xhamia Karamanli – this was built in 1675 from Ogullar family and was reconstructed after the war with the help of donors because it was destroyed by the Serbian Army.
- Xhamia e Ҫarshise – built in 1878, in the centre of the city and destroyed by the Serbian Army. After the war, with the assistance of the United Arab Emirates, this mosque was reconstructed. Now it is called Sheikh Zayed Mosque.
As well as the mosques, in Vučitrn there is another object from the Islamic tradition called Tyrbe. It is located in the city’s park and it is believed that was built nearly 200 years ago. Its shape is octagonal, and in the inside there are 6 tombs of the people who had military functions.
Near the park of the city is the Serbian Orthodox Church of St. Elijah. The church was built in 1834 in the eastern part of the city of Vučitrn where there had previously been an old Serbian medieval church.
The traditional recreations of folk music, dances and a significant number of traditional instruments have been conserved. Years ago, in the villages of Vučitrn, different kinds of music were developed, especially ballads and legendary epic songs. Years later, love songs, wedding songs and others started to grow. Traditional instruments that have been preserved and played until now include the lahuta, the gajdja, the fyelli, the kavalli and the defi. The most popular ones are the ҫiftelia and the sharkia.
During 1915–1918, with the impact of Hasan Prishtina, the "First musical band" and the "First association of culture and art", which also had a section of act, music and reciters, were established. After the World War II, the first association of culture and art was called "Rashid Deda" and later was renamed "Hasan Prishtina". This association was awarded second place in the international event "Kacaniku 2000". The Hasan Prishtina House of Culture was built in 1970. It had a great importance in the promotion of cultural life in Vučitrn. The House of Culture started its work in traditional orchestra, dancing and entertainment orchestra.
The Archive of History was established on 3 March 1968 and it still continues its work as an independent institution.
There is a wide range of annual activities either organized or supported by the municipality.
- Gatherings of Albanian Poetesses (24–28 May) – attended by all female poets throughout the Albanian territories. This event started in 1973. In its first years of activity, it was held in the honor of International Women Day (8 March). Female students of high schools were the only ones to participate. In 1985 the total number of participants was 53. After the war of Kosovo, this event starts gathering female poets from all over the Albanian territories and diaspora. The most successful female poets during years were: Miradie Ramiqi, Fehime Selimi, Xheraldina Buqinca, Hadije Jakupi, Rrezarta Duraku, Afroviti Gusho and Meri Lalaj. This event takes place during 24–28 of May in the House of Culture, a tradition continuing still, and it is supported by the municipality of Vučitrn.
- Potato Day (1–10 October) is a traditional event held each year in the municipality of Vučitrn, where people from different places participate. Intellectuals, businessmen, government, facilitators from governments of different countries-ambassadors, media and other relevant people take part in this event.
- Regional Fair of Local Products – Local producers participate and have the opportunity to meet each other, cooperate and enhance their markets.
- Honey Day Fair – Organized in cooperation with the Beekeepers’ Association "ËMA".
- The Independence March – young people of Vučitrn march through the city, the purpose of which is to remember the sacrifices of Kosovan people through the years, and to celebrate the Independence Day.
- The Schools' Fair – organized by the municipality, NGOs, and schools, this fair promotes the skills and achievements of the students of all schools of Vučitrn.
The most organized and successful sports in Vučitrn are football, handball, basketball, volleyball, ping-pong, chess and judo. The municipality has given to Kosovo's sports many quality athletes and teams, which have represented Kosovo in international competitions.
Vučitrn's residents are notably strong sports fans, especially the organized group of fans called "Forca". Forca is known in the entire country as one of the most dedicated and committed ultras groups. This group of supporters was established in 1993 and since then they have continuously supported the local sports teams in Vučitrn. This continuous support led to their motto "S'ka mu nal" (Never quit). There are nearly 500 active members of the group, led by Qenan Mulaku. They attend every football, handball and basketball matches.
K.F. Vushtrria was founded in 1922. At that time the Football Federation did not exist so the team had to play friendly matches with other teams. After the end of Second World War, the team became a member of the Football Federation, where it began to play in Kosovar League. The team won the league title for the first time in the 2013/14 season.
The most successful players to come out of this club are Ahmed Januzi who currently plays for Vorskla Poltava in the Ukrainian Premier League, and Armend Dallku who plays as a central defender for the same club.
K.H. Vushtrria was established in 1953/1954 by Fahri Buqinca. The biggest success of this club was competing in the Federative Second Division of former Yugoslavia, with Tefik Mikushnica as their coach. The best players of this club were Jeton Tërstena, Agron Shabani, Jakup Gerxhaliu and Fazli Jetullahu. In 1960, the women's handball team was also established.
In 1974 in the village of Samadrexha was formed another male handball team called K.H. Samadrexha.
Both female and male handball teams from Vučitrn participate in European competitions; both also compete in the Super League of Kosovo.
This sport first began in 1955 when Fahri Buqinca brought the first basketball rims and nets. The basketball team Llamkos was established in 1955 by Fetah Rashica, but was only registered as a club in the Kosovo Basketball Federation in 1981. As well as the senior team, there also were junior teams and a basketball school within the club. In 1987 the club reached the final of the Kosovo Super Cup. The most successful basketball player that this club had was Ferit Zekolli who played for different basketball clubs in Kosovo, Croatia and Serbia. Today the basketball male team is in the Second Division of Basketball (Liga e Pare).
- Volleyball was first introduced in 1946, while the first male club was formed in 1952, participating years later successfully in Yugoslavian competitions. Qani Kaleci, Ahmet Cecelia, Raif Dallku, Xhelal Pantina and Haki Mavriqi were the most famous players of the club.
- The Ping Pong club Hasan Prishtina is one of the oldest clubs in the municipality of Vučitrn, which was founded in 1950 by Fahri Buqinca and Sakine Maxhuni. In 1961, Sakine Maxhuni as a representative of Vučitrn took first place and became the Kosovo ping pong champion. She was the first person to win a championship title at the national level in any sport in Vučitrn. Xhemajl Cecelia contributed as an active player from 1960 and later became the coach of this club. In women competitions, Xhevahire Asllani was twice a competitor in Kosovo's ping pong championship.
- Chess was one of the most popular sports in Vučitrn. Ramadan Ajvazi, Muje Ferati, Hysen Hyseni, Blerim Zabërgja and Ragip Mikushnica were the first known chess masters in Vučitrn, also representing Kosovo in international chess competitions.
- "Ferki Aliu" Stadium is a football venue located in the southern part of the city. It is currently used for football matches and is the home ground of K.F. Kosova Vushtrri of the Kosovo Football Super League. Its capacity is approximately 5000 seats. Its infrastructure will be improved after announced investments by Ministry of Culture, Youth and Sport of Kosovo.
- "Stadiumi i Gumës", built in concrete, was used long before a sports hall was built. Positioned near the park of the city, this stadium was first used for handball matches and later for futsal competitions.
- Mara Branković (1401-1487), Serbian princess
- Kantakuzina Katarina Branković (1418/19 - 1492)
- Gligorije Elezović (1879-1960), Serbian historian
- Salih Bey Vuçitërni (1880-1949), Albanian politician and religious administrator
- Snežana Mišković, (born 1958), Serbian rock artist who represented Yugoslavia in the Eurovision Song Contest 1982 as part of Aska
- Jorgovanka Tabaković (born 1960), Governor of the National Bank of Serbia
- Hasan Prishtina (1873–1933), Albanian politician, Prime Minister and nationalist
- Azem Galica (1889–1924) and Shote Galica (1895–1927), Albanian rebels
- Rahim Ademi, Croatian army general
- Ahmet Shala (b. 1961), Kosovan former minister and current ambassador
- Isa Sadriu (1963), footballer and coach
- Armend Dallku, footballer
- Ahmed Januzi, footballer
- Samir Ujkani, footballer
- Shefki Kuqi, footballer
- Njazi Kuqi, footballer
- Mirjeta Shala, Miss Universe Kosovo 2013
References and notes
- Kosovo is the subject of a territorial dispute between the Republic of Kosovo and the Republic of Serbia. The Republic of Kosovo unilaterally declared independence on 17 February 2008, but Serbia continues to claim it as part of its own sovereign territory. The two governments began to normalise relations in 2013, as part of the Brussels Agreement. Kosovo has received formal recognition as an independent state from 111 out of 193 United Nations member states.
- This data comes from the Tax Administration of Kosovo – Regional Office in Mitrovica.
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- "Toponimija općine Klana" (PDF). KATEDRA ČAKAVSKOG SABORA Društvo za povjesnicu Klana. 2008. p. 17, footnote 37. Retrieved 2014-10-08.
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- Noel Malcolm, KOSOVO A short story, 1998, London
- Fejaz Drancolli, Monumental Heritage in Kosova, 2011, Prishtine
- Evlyia Celebi, Shqiperia 350 vjet me pare