Coordinates: 60°43′N 28°46′E / 60.717°N 28.767°E / 60.717; 28.767
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Other transcription(s)
 • Finnish / SwedishViipuri / Viborg
Flag of Vyborg
Coat of arms of Vyborg
Location of Vyborg
Vyborg is located in Leningrad Oblast
Location of Vyborg
Vyborg is located in European Russia
Vyborg (European Russia)
Vyborg is located in Baltic Sea
Vyborg (Baltic Sea)
Vyborg is located in Europe
Vyborg (Europe)
Coordinates: 60°43′N 28°46′E / 60.717°N 28.767°E / 60.717; 28.767
Federal subjectLeningrad Oblast[1]
Administrative districtVyborgsky District[1]
Settlement municipal formationVyborgskoye Settlement Municipal Formation[1]
Vyborg Castle constructed1293[2]
 • BodyCouncil of Deputies[3]
 • Head[3]Gennady Orlov[4]
3 m (10 ft)
 • Total79,962
 • Estimate 
77,400 (−3.2%)
 • Rank208th in 2010
 • Capital ofVyborgsky District,[1] Vyborgskoye Settlement Municipal Formation[1]
 • Municipal districtVyborgsky Municipal District[7]
 • Urban settlementVyborgskoye Urban Settlement[7]
 • Capital ofVyborgsky Municipal District,[7] Vyborgskoye Urban Settlement[7]
Time zoneUTC+3 (MSK Edit this on Wikidata[8])
Postal code(s)[9]
188800–188802, 188804, 188805, 188807–188811, 188819, 188899
Dialing code(s)+7 81378[10]
OKTMO ID41615101001

Vyborg (/ˈvbɔːrɡ/; Russian: Выборг, IPA: [ˈvɨbərk];[11] Finnish: Viipuri, IPA: [ˈʋiːpuri];[12] Swedish: Viborg, IPA: [ˈvǐːbɔrj] ; German: Wiborg, IPA: [ˈviːbɔʁk]) is a town and the administrative center of Vyborgsky District in Leningrad Oblast, Russia. It lies on the Karelian Isthmus near the head of Vyborg Bay, 130 km (81 miles) northwest of St. Petersburg, 245 km (152 miles) east of the Finnish capital Helsinki, and 38 km (24 miles) south of Russia's border with Finland, where the Saimaa Canal enters the Gulf of Finland. The most recent census population of Vyborg is 72,530 (2021 Census).[13]

Historical population
Source: Census data[14][circular reference]

Vyborg was founded as a medieval fortress in Finland under Swedish rule during the Third Swedish Crusade. After numerous wars between the Russians and Swedes, the Treaty of Nöteborg in 1323 defined the border of eastern Finland, and would separate the two cultures.[15] Vyborg remained under Swedish rule until it was captured by the Russians during the Great Northern War. Under Russian rule, Vyborg was the seat of Vyborg Governorate until it was incorporated into the newly created Grand Duchy of Finland, an autonomous part of the Russian Empire. Finland declared independence from Russia in 1917, after which Vyborg became its second-most significant city after Helsinki,[16] and represented internationally as its most multicultural city.[17][18][19] During World War II, Vyborg's population was evacuated and the town was ceded to the Soviet Union.[15] In 2010, Vyborg was conferred the status of "City of Military Glory" by Russian president Dmitry Medvedev.[20]

The city hosts the Russian end of the 1,222 km (759 mi) Nord Stream 1 gas pipeline, laid in 2011 and operated by a consortium led by Russia's Gazprom state hydrocarbons enterprise to pump 55 billion cubic meters (1.9 trillion cubic feet) of natural gas a year under the Baltic Sea to Lubmin, Germany.[21]


Historical affiliations

Sweden 1293–1710
Tsardom of Russia 1710–1721
Russian Empire 1721–1812
Grand Duchy of Finland 1812–1917
Finland 1917–1918
Finnish Socialist Workers' Republic 1918
 Finland 1918–1940
 Soviet Union 1940–1941
 Finland 1941–1944
 Soviet Union 1944–1991
 Russia 1991–present

Early history[edit]

According to archeological research, the area of what is now Vyborg used to be a trading center on the Vuoksi River's western branch, which has since dried up. The region was inhabited by the Karelians, a Balto-Finnic tribe which gradually came under the domination of Novgorod and Sweden.[22][23] It has been claimed that Vyborg appeared in the 11th–12th centuries as a mixed Karelian-Russian settlement,[24] although there is no archeological proof of any East Slavic settlement of that time in the area,[25] and it is not mentioned in any of the earliest historical documents, such as the Novgorod First Chronicle or the Primary Chronicle. Wider settlement in the area of Vyborg is generally regarded to date from 13th century onwards when Hanseatic traders began traveling to Novgorod.[26]

Vyborg Castle

Vyborg Castle was founded during the Third Swedish Crusade in 1293 by marsk Torkel Knutsson[24][27] on the site of an older Karelian fort which was burned.[28] The castle, which was the first centre for the spread of Christianity in Karelia,[29] was fought over for decades between Sweden and the Republic of Novgorod. As a result of the Treaty of Nöteborg in 1323 between the Novgorod Republic and Sweden, Vyborg was finally recognized as a part of Sweden.[15] The town's trade privileges were chartered by the Pan-Scandinavian King Eric of Pomerania in 1403. It withstood a prolonged siege by Daniil Shchenya during the Russo-Swedish War of 1496–1497.

A model of Vyborg in the early 18th century

Under Swedish rule, Vyborg was closely associated with the noble family of Bååt, originally from Småland. The late-medieval commanders and fief holders of Vyborg were (almost always) descended from or married to the Bååt family. In practice, though not having this as their formal title, they functioned as Margraves, had feudal privileges, and kept all the crown's incomes from the fief to use for the defense of the realm's eastern border.

A copper engraving of Vyborg in 1709

Russian rule[edit]

Vyborg remained in Swedish hands until its capture in 1710 after the Siege of Vyborg by Tsar Peter the Great in the Great Northern War.[15][24] In the course of Peter's second administrative reform, Vyborg became the seat of the Vyborg Province of St. Petersburg Governorate.[30] The 1721 Treaty of Nystad, which concluded the war with Sweden, finalized the transfer of the town and a part of Old Finland to Russia.[15][24] The loss of Vyborg led Sweden to develop Fredrikshamn as a substitute port town.[31] Another result of the loss of Vyborg was that its diocese was moved to Borgå, transforming the town into an important learning centre.[31]

In 1744, Vyborg became the seat of the Vyborg Governorate.[30] In 1783, the governorate was transformed into the Vyborg Viceroyalty[30] and in 1801 back into Vyborg Governorate.[citation needed] In 1802, the Vyborg Governorate was renamed the Finland Governorate.[30]

One of the largest naval battles in history, the Battle of Vyborg Bay, was fought in Vyborg Bay on 4 July 1790.

After the rest of Finland was ceded to Russia in 1809, Emperor Alexander I incorporated the town and the governorate into the newly created Grand Duchy of Finland in 1811 (1812 NS).[15][32]

Illustration in Finland framstäldt i teckningar edited by Zacharias Topelius and published 1845–1852.

Over the course of the 19th century, the town developed as the centre of administration and trade for eastern Finland. The inauguration of the Saimaa Canal in 1856 benefited the local economy, as it opened the vast waterways of Eastern Finland to the sea. Vyborg was never a major industrial center and lacked large production facilities, but its location made it serve as a focal point of transports of all industries on the Karelian Isthmus, Ladoga Karelia and southeastern Finland. Trams in Vyborg started in 1912.

The Bolshevik revolutionary Vladimir Lenin lived in the town for a period between the February Revolution and October Revolution of 1917.

Finnish period[edit]

Following the Russian Revolution of 1917 and the fall of the Russian Empire, Finland declared itself independent. During the Finnish Civil War, Vyborg was in the hands of the Finnish Red Guards until it was captured by the White Guard in the Battle of Vyborg, on 29 April 1918. In April to May 1918, 360 to 420 civilians were murdered by White Guards during the Vyborg massacre. The city served as the starting point of the civil war, which later spread to the rest of Finland.[18][19]

Rathaus Tower in Vyborg (c. 1500)

Vyborg served as the seat of Viipuri Province. In the 1930 census, the administrative area of the city of Vyborg had 52,253 inhabitants. There were a total of 19,986 inhabitants in the rural areas of Vyborg and in Uura, which was located outside the borders of Vyborg but was included in the census, and so the total population of the census area was 72,239.[33] Of the total inhabitants in the census area, 67,609 spoke Finnish, 2,103 Swedish, 1,807 Russian and 439 German.[34] In 1939, the population was slightly less than 75,000 and was Finland's second-largest (Population Register) or fourth-largest (Church and Civil Register) city, depending on the census data.[35] Vyborg had sizable minorities of Swedes, Germans, Russians, Romani, Tatars and Jews. During that time, Alvar Aalto built the Vyborg Library, an icon of functionalist architecture.

Winter and Continuation Wars[edit]

During the Winter War between the Soviet Union and Finland in 1939–1940, over 70,000 people were evacuated from Vyborg to other parts of Finland. The Winter War was concluded by the Moscow Peace Treaty, which stipulated the transfer of Vyborg to Soviet control, and the whole Karelian Isthmus, and those places were emptied of their residents, to Soviet control. It was incorporated into the Karelo-Finnish Soviet Socialist Republic on 31 March 1940. As the town was still held by the Finns, the remaining Finnish population, some 10,000 people, had to be evacuated in haste before the handover. Thus, practically the whole population of Finnish Vyborg was resettled elsewhere in Finland. The town became the administrative center of Vyborgsky District.

The evacuees from Finnish Karelia came to be a vociferous political force, and their wish to return to their homes was an important motive when Finland sought support from Nazi Germany against the Soviet Union. As a result, Finland fought with Nazi Germany as a co-belligerent during the Second World War.

Finnish soldiers marching in Vyborg on 31 August 1941

On 29 August 1941, Vyborg was captured by Finnish troops. At first, the Finnish Army did not allow civilians into the town. Of the 6,287 buildings, 3,807 had been destroyed. The first civilians started to arrive in late September, and by the end of the year, Vyborg had a population of about 9,700. In December 1941, the Finnish government formally annexed the town, along with the other areas that had been lost in the Moscow Peace Treaty.[15] However, the annexation was not recognized by any foreign state, even Finland's ally, Germany[citation needed]. By 1942, the population had risen to 16,000. About 70% of the evacuees from Finnish Karelia returned after the reconquest to rebuild their looted homes but were again evacuated after the Red Army's Vyborg–Petrozavodsk Offensive, timed to coincide with the Battle of Normandy. By the time of the Soviet offensive, the town had a population of nearly 28,000. The town was captured by the Red Army on 20 June 1944, but the Finnish forces, using war material provided by Germany, managed to halt the Soviet offensive at the Battle of Tali-Ihantala, the largest battle fought by any of the Nordic countries, in Viipuri Rural Municipality, which surrounded the town, during which the town was seriously damaged.

In the subsequent Moscow Armistice on 19 September 1944, Finland returned to the borders set by the Moscow Peace Treaty and ceded more land than the treaty originally demanded. In the Paris Peace Treaties (1947), Finland relinquished all claims to Vyborg.[15]

Soviet era[edit]

After the Second World War, Leningrad Oblast wanted to incorporate the area of Vyborg, but it took until November 1944 for the area to be finally transferred from the Karelo-Finnish SSR.[32] During the Soviet era, the town was settled by people from all over the Soviet Union. The naval air bases of Pribylovo and Veshchevo were built nearby.

In 1940s and the 1950s, new factories were built: shipbuilding (1948), instrumentational (1953). In 1960, a local history museum was opened.

Administrative and municipal status[edit]

Vyborg's former Finnish coat of arms

Within the framework of administrative divisions, Vyborg serves as the administrative center of Vyborgsky District.[1] As an administrative division, it is incorporated within Vyborgsky District as Vyborgskoye Settlement Municipal Formation.[1] As a municipal division, Vyborgskoye Settlement Municipal Formation is incorporated within Vyborg Municipal District as Vyborgskoye Urban Settlement.[7]


The town lies on the Karelian Isthmus near the head of Vyborg Bay, 130 km (81 miles) northwest of St. Petersburg, 245 km (152 miles) east of the Finnish capital Helsinki, and 38 km (24 miles) south of Russia's border with Finland, where the Saimaa Canal enters the Gulf of Finland.


Similar to many other areas along the Baltic Sea, Vyborg has a humid continental climate[36] (Dfb) with large temperature differences between summer and winter. The climate is characterised by a fairly cloudy beginning of winter, but an increasing share of sunshine from February. Winter temperatures are being somewhat moderated by maritime effects compared to Russian cities further inland even on more southerly latitudes, but still cold enough compared to areas that are nearer the Gulf Stream. The beginning of spring is generally sunny and rather low in precipitation. Summer is moderately warm. Autumn is generally cloudy and rainy. On average, daytime insolation on a horizontal surface is 2.79 kW/m². The most dominant are the south-west and south winds.

Climate data for Vyborg (1991–2020, extremes 1884–present)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 6.9
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) −3.4
Daily mean °C (°F) −6.0
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) −8.8
Record low °C (°F) −36.8
Average precipitation mm (inches) 52
Average extreme snow depth cm (inches) 22
Average rainy days 6 5 7 10 14 16 15 16 18 18 13 8 146
Average snowy days 22 20 16 7 1 0.1 0 0 0.1 4 14 20 104
Average relative humidity (%) 87 85 82 74 68 71 73 77 82 86 88 89 80
Source: Pogoda.ru.net[37]

Economy and culture[edit]

Transfiguration Cathedral

Vyborg continues to be an important industrial producer of paper. Tourism is increasingly important, and the Russian film festival Window to Europe takes place in the town each year.

An HVDC back-to-back facility for the exchange of electricity between the Russian and Finnish power grids was completed near Vyborg in 1982. It consists of three bipolar HVDC back-to-back schemes with an operating voltage of 85 kV and a maximum transmission rate of 355 MW, so that the entire maximum transmission rate amounts to 1,420 MW.[citation needed]

The Nord Stream 1 offshore pipeline runs from Vyborg compressor station at Portovaya Bay along the bottom of the Baltic Sea to Lubmin in Germany. It started operating in September 2011, enabling Russia to export gas directly to Western Europe. The feeding pipeline in Russia (Gryazovets–Vyborg gas pipeline) is operated by Gazprom and is a part of the integrated gas transport network of Russia connecting existing grid in Gryazovets with the coastal compressor station at Vyborg.[38]

Finnish singing culture[edit]

Before the war, Vyborg was a major Finnish town of culture. Even today, a few choirs cherish Vyborg singing traditions. These are, for example, the Wiipurilaisen osakunnan kuoro of the University of Helsinki and the Viipurin Lauluveikot male choir,[39][40] with the latter founded in Vyborg in 1897.[41]

Local government[edit]

City Council of Deputies building [ru]

Vyborg is a municipal entity within the Vyborgsky District of the Leningrad Oblast. Its official name is the municipal formation "City of Vyborg" of the Vyborg district of the Leningrad region; the abbreviated name is the municipal entity "City of Vyborg".

Local self-government is carried out on the basis of the charter, which was adopted by the decision of the Council of Deputies of Vyborg dated 16 June 2010 No. 63.[42]

The representative body of local self-government is the Council of Deputies, consisting of 20 deputies elected in municipal elections in single-member constituencies[43] for a period of five years. Per the results of the elections on 11 October 2009, all 20 seats were occupied by members of the United Russia party. The Council of Deputies is headed by the head of the municipality, who is elected by deputies from among its members, also for a period of five years. On 20 October 2009, Gennady Alekseyevich Orlov was elected as head of the municipality.[44] Since September 2014, the position of head of the Vyborg District Municipal District of the Leningrad Oblast has been occupied by Alexander Petrovich Lysov. Also in September 2014, Gennady Alekseyevich Orlov assumed the position of head of the administration of the municipal formation "Vyborg District" of the Leningrad Oblast.[45]

The executive and administrative body of local self-government is the administration. It is formed and headed by the head of the administration, who is appointed under a contract concluded based on the results of a competition for a period of five years.[46] From 2 August 2011, the head of the administration was Alexander Aleksandrovich Buyanov.[47] On 24 September 2014, the post of head of the Municipal Municipality "City of Vyborg" was taken by Alexander Petrovich Lysov. His candidacy was supported unanimously.[48]


View from Olaf's tower

Vyborg's most prominent landmark is its Swedish-built castle, founded in the 13th century and extensively reconstructed in 1891–1894. The Round Tower and the Rathaus Tower date from the mid-16th century and are parts of the medieval Vyborg town wall. Many of the buildings in the historic old town of Vyborg are still in poor condition today.[49][50]

The Viipuri Library by Finnish architect Alvar Aalto and the Hermitage-Vyborg Center are a reference point in the history of modern architecture. There are also Russian fortifications of Annenkrone, completed by 1740, as well as the monuments to Peter the Great (1910) and Torkel Knutsson. Tourists can also visit the house where the founder of the Soviet state Vladimir Lenin prepared the Bolshevik revolution during his stay in Vyborg from 24 September to 7 October 1917. The main street in Vyborg is called Prospekt Lenina (Russian: проспект Ленина; literally "Lenin Avenue"), formerly also known as Torkkelinkatu,[51] and along it, there is popular Lenin Park [ru].

Sprawling along the heights adjacent to the Gulf of Finland is Monrepos Park, one of the most spacious English landscape gardens in Eastern Europe. The garden was laid out on behest of its owner, Baron Ludwig Heinrich von Nicolay, at the turn of the 19th century. Most of its structures were designed by the architect Giuseppe Antonio Martinelli. Previously, the estate belonged to the future king Frederick I (Maria Fyodorovna's brother), who called it Charlottendahl in honor of his second wife.

Notable people[edit]

Born before 1917[edit]

for people born in Viipuri Province between 1812 and 1917, when it was part of the Grand Duchy of Finland.

Born 1917–1945[edit]

Larry Thorne, 1960s
Riitta Uosukainen, 2013
Martti Ahtisaari, 2012
Viatcheslav Ekimov, 2006

Born after 1945[edit]

Twin towns and sister cities[edit]

Vyborg is twinned with:[citation needed]

See also[edit]



  1. ^ a b c d e f g h Oblast Law #32-oz
  2. ^ Aspects of multilingualism in European language history. Amsterdam: J. Benjamins Pub. 9 March 2024. p. 89. ISBN 9789027219220.
  3. ^ a b Charter of Vyborgskoye Urban Settlement, Article 1
  4. ^ Official website of Vyborgskoye Urban Settlement. Head of the Municipal Formation, Gennady Vasilyevich Orlov (in Russian)
  5. ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1 [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года [2010 All-Russia Population Census] (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service.
  6. ^ "26. Численность постоянного населения Российской Федерации по муниципальным образованиям на 1 января 2018 года". Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved 23 January 2019.
  7. ^ a b c d e Law #17-oz
  8. ^ "Об исчислении времени". Официальный интернет-портал правовой информации (in Russian). 3 June 2011. Retrieved 19 January 2019.
  9. ^ Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. (Russian Post). Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Postal Objects Search) (in Russian)
  10. ^ Ленинградская область (in Russian). ruspostindex.ru. Retrieved 20 March 2014.
  11. ^ "Vyborg: Meaning and Definition of | Infoplease".
  12. ^ Wuorinen, John H. (1948), ed., Finland and World War II, 1939-1944, New York: Roland Press, p. 172.
  13. ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service. Всероссийская перепись населения 2020 года. Том 1 [2020 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1] (XLS) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service.
  14. ^ "Vyborg#Demographics (Russian Wikipedia)" (in Russian).
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h Life & Society: Tracing Finland's Eastern Border – This Is Finland
  16. ^ Chloe Wells: "Vyborg is ours": remembering a 'lost town' in Finland. Paper presented at the European Association for Urban History 13th International Conference, Helsinki, Finland August 24–27, 2016.
  17. ^ Owen Hatherley: "Vyborg looks like Helsinki might after a long, drawn-out war"Dezeen
  18. ^ a b Göran Lindgren: Viipuri sodan jaloissa, p. 6. Helsingin Reservin Sanomat, no. 2/2013, March 12, 2013. (in Finnish)
  19. ^ a b Pimeä historia: Verinen Viipuri – historioitsija Teemu Keskisarja jäljittää kohtalonhetkiäYLE (in Finnish)
  20. ^ HS: Venäjän presidentti nimitti Viipurin "Sotilaskunnian kaupungiksi" (in Finnish)
  21. ^ Operations - Nord Stream AG, Nord Stream AG official website, Undated. Accessed: 2 October 2022.
  22. ^ Jussi Katajala (2010). "Suomen kaupungit keskiajalla" (in Finnish). Retrieved 12 February 2016.
  23. ^ Uino, Pirjo (1997). Ancient Karelia. Helsinki: Suomen muinaismuistoyhdistyksen aikakausikirja 104. p. 115.
  24. ^ a b c d Энциклопедия Города России. Moscow: Большая Российская Энциклопедия. 2003. p. 95. ISBN 5-7107-7399-9.
  25. ^ Uino, Pirjo (1997). Ancient Karelia. Helsinki: Suomen muinaismuistoyhdistyksen aikakausikirja 104. pp. 343–346.
  26. ^ Uino, Pirjo (1997). Ancient Karelia. Helsinki: Suomen muinaismuistoyhdistyksen aikakausikirja 104. p. 118.
  27. ^ Vyborg Castle, Vyborg, Russia - Spotting History
  28. ^ Taavitsainen, Jussi-Pekka (1990). Ancient Hillforts of Finland. Suomen muinaismuistoyhdistyksen aikakausikirja 94. p. 240.
  29. ^ Chisholm 1911.
  30. ^ a b c d С. А. Тархов (2001). "Изменение административно-территориального деления России за последние 300 лет". Электронная версия журнала "География".
  31. ^ a b Lindberg, Johan (26 May 2016). "Finlands historia: 1700-talet". Uppslagsverket Finland (in Swedish). Retrieved 30 November 2017.
  32. ^ a b История Выборгского района, история Выборгской земли (in Russian). Муниципальное образование Выборгский район Ленинградской Области. Retrieved 20 March 2014.
  33. ^ Viipurin väestölaskenta 1930, sivut 2–3, sarake 13
  34. ^ Viipurin väestölaskenta 1930, sivut 24–25, sarake 40
  35. ^ Statistics Finland (1941). Suomenmaan Tilastollinen Vuosikirja 1940 [Finnish Statistics Yearbook 1940] (PDF) (in Finnish). pp. 14–15.
  36. ^ "Vyborg, Russia Climate Summary". Weatherbase. Retrieved 23 January 2015.
  37. ^ "Погода и Климат – Климат Выборг" (in Russian). Weather and Climate (Погода и климат). Retrieved 8 November 2021.
  38. ^ "Answers to questions asked by representatives of non-governmental organizations on the EIA procedure for the Nord Stream Project" (PDF). Nord Stream AG. 20 October 2007. Retrieved 15 February 2008.
  39. ^ Kuoron esittely – Viipurin Lauluveikot (in Finnish)
  40. ^ Ulkoministeriö. Suomen suurlähetystön tiedote Viipurin lauluveikkojen konserttimatkasta Kiinaan toukokuussa 2013. Archived January 4, 2014, at the Wayback Machine (in Finnish)
  41. ^ Kuoron historia – Viipurin Lauluveikot (in Finnish)
  42. ^ "О принятии устава муниципального образования "Город Выборг" Выборгского района Ленинградской области" [On the adoption of the charter of the municipal formation "City of Vyborg" of the Vyborg district of the Leningrad region]. Vyborg administration website. Archived from the original (doc) on 23 September 2015.
  43. ^ Пункт 1 статьи 22 Устава МО «Город Выборг»
  44. ^ "Избран глава МО "Город Выборг"" [The head of the municipal municipality "City of Vyborg" was elected]. Портал «Город Выборг» [Portal "City of Vyborg"]. 20 October 2009. Archived from the original on 27 January 2011.
  45. ^ "Совет депутатов МО "Выборгский район" единогласно проголосовал за назначение Геннадия Орлова на должность главы районной администрации" [The Council of Deputies of the Vyborg District municipality unanimously voted for the appointment of Gennady Orlov to the post of head of the district administration]. www.vbglenobl.ru. Archived from the original on 27 January 2021. Retrieved 22 October 2015.
  46. ^ Пункт 1 статьи 49 "Устава МО "Город Выборг"" [Charter of the Municipal Municipality "City of Vyborg"]. Archived from the original on 27 January 2011.
  47. ^ "Официальный сайт МО "Город Выборг"" [Official website of the Municipal Municipality "City of Vyborg"]. Archived from the original on 23 July 2012.
  48. ^ "Парламентарии избрали главой МО "Город Выборг" Александра Лысова" [Parliamentarians elected Alexander Lysov as head of the Municipal Municipality "City of Vyborg"]. www.vbglenobl.ru. Archived from the original on 27 January 2021. Retrieved 22 October 2015.
  49. ^ Raunio, Marjut; Schönberg, Kalle (6 May 2013). "Viipurissa puretaan vanhan keskustan arvorakennuksia" [The value buildings of the old center are being demolished in Vyborg]. YLE (in Finnish). Retrieved 23 March 2021.
  50. ^ Kozin, Daniel (27 October 2019). "Vyborg Restoration: How Russia's Most Scandinavian Town Is Coming Back to Life". The Moscow Times. Retrieved 25 October 2021.
  51. ^ Viktor Dmitriew: Viipurin Suomalaisen Kirjallisuusseuran toimitteita 10, 1992. (in Finnish)


  • Совет депутатов муниципального образования "Выборгское городское поселение". Решение №63 от 1 июня 2010 г. «Устав муниципального образования "Город Выборг" Выборгского района Ленинградской области». (Council of Deputies of the Municipal Formation of "Vyborgskoye Urban Settlement". Decision #63 of June 1, 2010 Charter of the Municipal Formation of the "Town of Vyborg" of Vyborgsky District of Leningrad Oblast. ).
  • Законодательное собрание Ленинградской области. Областной закон №32-оз от 15 июня 2010 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Ленинградской области и порядке его изменения», в ред. Областного закона №23-оз от 8 мая 2014 г. «Об объединении муниципальных образований "Приморское городское поселение" Выборгского района Ленинградской области и "Глебычевское сельское поселение" Выборгского района Ленинградской области и о внесении изменений в отдельные Областные законы». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Вести", №112, 23 июня 2010 г. (Legislative Assembly of Leningrad Oblast. Oblast Law #32-oz of June 15, 2010 On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Leningrad Oblast and on the Procedures for Its Change, as amended by the Oblast Law #23-oz of May 8, 2014 On Merging the Municipal Formations of "Primorskoye Urban Settlement" in Vyborgsky District of Leningrad Oblast and "Glebychevskoye Rural Settlement" in Vyborgsky District of Leningrad Oblast and on Amending Various Oblast Laws. Effective as of the day of the official publication.).
  • Законодательное собрание Ленинградской области. Областной закон №17-оз от 10 марта 2004 г. «Об установлении границ и наделении соответствующим статусом муниципальных образований Всеволожский район и Выборгский район и муниципальных образований в их составе», в ред. Областного закона №23-оз от 8 мая 2014 г. «Об объединении муниципальных образований "Приморское городское поселение" Выборгского района Ленинградской области и "Глебычевское сельское поселение" Выборгского района Ленинградской области и о внесении изменений в отдельные Областные законы». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Вести", №27, 11 марта 2004 г. (Legislative Assembly of Leningrad Oblast. Oblast Law #17-oz of March 10, 2004 On Establishing the Borders of and Granting an Appropriate Status to the Municipal Formations of Vsevolozhsky District and Vyborgsky District and to the Municipal Formations Comprising It, as amended by the Oblast Law #23-oz of May 8, 2014 On Merging the Municipal Formations of "Primorskoye Urban Settlement" in Vyborgsky District of Leningrad Oblast and "Glebychevskoye Rural Settlement" in Vyborgsky District of Leningrad Oblast and on Amending Various Oblast Laws. Effective as of the day of the official publication.).

External links[edit]

Media related to Vyborg at Wikimedia Commons Vyborg travel guide from Wikivoyage